• antibodies
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Granulocytes are well characterized white blood cells unique for their segmented nuclei and the numerous granules in the cells' cytoplasm. (medgadget.com)
  • adult
  • Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. (wunc.org)
  • So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people - not just cells from infants - to create therapies for adult diseases. (wunc.org)
  • It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all. (wunc.org)
  • How do they differ from adult stem cells? (budget101.com)
  • The focus now is on 'reprogramming' adult cells so they become stem cells again, which has had limited success. (govexec.com)
  • Many have attributed cloning's limited success to a theory that clones must be derived from adult stem cells, which reside in a specific area of each tissue and remain quiescent until they are activated by the presence of disease or tissue injury. (medgadget.com)
  • Yet, if this were true, Drs. Yang and Cheng point out, the results of their studies would have found the adult stem cells to be more efficient than the other, more differentiated cells. (medgadget.com)
  • somatic cell
  • Great news from investigators at the University of Connecticut and the University of Pittsburgh, who were able to produce clones from granulocytes (a type of blood cell that does not itself divide) and to show that differentiated cells are more efficient than stem cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. (medgadget.com)
  • Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMC is a radical technical modification of Somatic cell nuclear transfer of the original mammalian nuclear transfer technology established by Willadsen and applied for somatic cells by Wilmut and Campbell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology promises a new possibility for automation of the somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • I am presently looking at cytokine mediated differential gene expression in T cells. (bio.net)
  • CML is a cancer initiated by a mutant gene called BCR-ABL in blood forming stem cells that leads to an expansion of white blood cells and their precursors. (labspaces.net)
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (the-scientist.com)
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas, the cells of clones dealt with here are specialized cells of a multicellular organism (usually vertebrates), and reside at quite distant places. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients - just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors. (wunc.org)
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (the-scientist.com)
  • reproductive
  • Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • these are the "holy grail" that would be useful for therapeutic or reproductive cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gábor Vajta publications indexed by Google Scholar "Website of Reproductive Biomedicine Online (journal)" "Website of Cryobiology (journal)" "Website of Reproduction, Nutrition, Development (journal)" "Website of Theriogenology (journal)" "Website of Animal Reproduction Science (journal)" "Website of Cellular Reprogramming (journal)" "Cell Nuclear Transfer" patent no. (wikipedia.org)
  • Holy Grail
  • Many scientists in the field were heralding the announcement as discovery of the Holy Grail because now they could make personalized stem cells for treating an array of diseases. (wyomingpublicmedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • Much more likely is that these animals were derived from fully differentiated tissue cells," Dr. Yang argues. (medgadget.com)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Dr. Virginia Evans and a group of tissue-culture workers she became the first to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • In four presentations, Dr. Douglas A. Melton and Dr. Nadia Rosenthal discuss how stem cells may hold the key for curing diseases and unlocking the secrets of regeneration. (budget101.com)
  • Because stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type, they have been heralded for their promise for treating a variety of diseases and conditions. (medgadget.com)
  • mammalian
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and the humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • recipients
  • Clonal differences were observed with both young and old HSCs and were maintained when clones from particular bones were transplanted into secondary recipients. (rupress.org)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • I think this is an extremely important-and solid-paper," says stem cell researcher Robert Lanza, vice president of research and scientific development at Applied Cell Technology, a regenerative medicine company headquartered in Alameda, Calif., who did not take part in the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • glucocorticoids
  • Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Preliminary studies on the control of differentiation in Class 1 clones suggest that a minimum cell density is required before differentiation takes place. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)
  • Despite tremendous advances in BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies, the majority of patients relapse if therapy is discontinued, in part as a result of dormant cancer stem cell resistance. (labspaces.net)
  • T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. (the-scientist.com)
  • successfully
  • The result follows on the heels of an announcement last month by another California stem cell company, International Stem Cell Corporation (ISC) in Oceanside, that it had successfully achieved human parthenogenesis for the first time. (scientificamerican.com)
  • tend
  • When a chromosome from a sperm cell joins with that of an egg, these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or "snips") tend not to match each other. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But in contrast, pairs of matching chromosomes in parthenogenetic cells tend to match one another in the middle and differ near the ends because of a genetic mixing process called recombination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • humans
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • divide
  • Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, "so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want," Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveals
  • Analysis of the lipids from differentiating and nondifferentiating clones reveals the presence of sebaceous-type lipids in differentiating clones only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients' recovery following treatment. (the-scientist.com)
  • artificial
  • Chemists have engineered a plastic artificial cell containing organelles capable of producing the various steps in a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell Institute
  • Lanza's colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success. (wunc.org)
  • Later, during a chance discussion with European colleagues, stem cell researcher George Daley of Children's Hospital Boston and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute learned that they had received samples of the cell line before the work was retracted. (scientificamerican.com)
  • human egg
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (wunc.org)
  • organisms
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • But he says this does mean we could be getting closer to being able to go beyond cloned cell lines to cloning an entire human being. (wunc.org)
  • In their paper, Daley and colleagues report that the SNPs in the Korean cell line do indeed match toward the center of the chromosomes, similar to five parthenogenetic mouse cell lines that the team created for comparison. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The results are real, the cell lines are real, everything is real," he said . (wyomingpublicmedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • This work suggests a novel mechanism for overcoming cancer stem cell resistance to therapy that may prevent relapse and progression. (labspaces.net)
  • Method
  • During the past 25 years he has developed several patents relating to embryology, most notably the method of Handmade Cloning (HMC), the Submarine Incubation System (SIS), the Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification and the Well of the Well (WOW) system. (wikipedia.org)
  • To implement the pattern, declare an abstract base class that specifies a pure virtual clone() method. (wikipedia.org)
  • The client, instead of writing code that invokes the "new" operator on a hard-coded class name, calls the clone() method on the prototype, calls a factory method with a parameter designating the particular concrete derived class desired, or invokes the clone() method through some mechanism provided by another design pattern. (wikipedia.org)