• IPCC
  • The IPCC, in its 2007 Fourth Assessment Report, estimated that in order to stabilize CO2 emissions in the atmosphere at 450 parts per million (ppm) in 2050 (a goal that many climate change experts have advocated), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to be reduced by 85% compared to levels observed in our own GHG emissions reduction progress against that benchmark. (intel.com)
  • The IPCC synthesis report from 2001 (AR3) states "Inertia" means a delay, slowness, or resistance in the response of climate, biological, or human systems to factors that alter their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IPCC concluded, that the inertia and uncertainty of the climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems implies that margins for safety should be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further the IPCC concluded in their 2001 report that the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, or sea level is affected by: The inertia of the climate system, which will cause climate change to continue for a period after mitigation actions are implemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • In the Köppen climate classification, the alpine climate is part of "Group E", along with the polar climate, where no month has a mean temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an interaction between radiation and convection. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of ecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid" (BSh), and a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid" (BSk). (wikipedia.org)
  • Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element (e.g. temperature) over a 30-year period. (wikipedia.org)
  • including those climate feedback effects would give a 1-1.5°C estimated temperature increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from the homogenization of instrumental western climate records indicate that detected inhomogeneities in mean temperature series occur at a frequency of roughly 15 to 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proxies can be combined to produce temperature reconstructions longer than the instrumental temperature record and can inform discussions of global warming and climate history. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Organizational climate, on the other hand, is often defined as the recurring patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization, while an organization culture tends to be deep and stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate patterns can last tens of thousands of years, like the glacial and interglacial periods within ice ages, or repeat each year, like monsoons. (wikipedia.org)
  • coastal
  • Between rising sea levels and increasingly powerful storms, coastal cities are particularly threatened by the effects of climate change. (nwf.org)
  • Preserving and protecting coastal wetlands can help communities be better prepared for climate impacts by retaining flood waters, providing a buffer from storm surge, and limiting erosion, while providing much needed habitat for wildlife. (nwf.org)
  • These climates may occur in southern Asia, the southeastern United States, parts of eastern Australia, and in eastern coastal South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2015 report published by the White House found that climate change puts coastal areas at risk, that a changing Arctic poses risks to other parts of the country, risk for infrastructure, and increases demands on military resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • organizational
  • Organizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process of quantifying the "culture" of an organization, and it precedes the notion of organizational culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers have pursued the shared perception model of organizational climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of emotional climate was first used in educational psychology to define the effects of classroom climates on learning, and extensively used in organizational psychology to capture differences in organizational environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • oceans
  • If a perturbation - such as an increase in greenhouse gases or solar activity - is applied to the climate system the response will not be immediate, principally because of the large heat capacity (i.e., thermal inertia) of the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • tropical savanna
  • [ clarification needed ] In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons , but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate . (wikipedia.org)
  • global
  • Although they clearly show a lack of knowledge on this issue nevertheless they continue to try to convince people that there is no such thing as GLOBAL WARMING and that the climate is not changing. (freewebs.com)
  • Plus, WSJ Europe editorial writer Anne Jolis on Michael Mann's new book on global warming, "The Hockey Stick and Climate Wars. (wsj.com)
  • Intel Corporation believes that global climate change is a ... serious environmental, economic, and social challenge that warrants an equally serious response by governments and the private sector. (intel.com)
  • By its nature, climate change is a global problem that defies simple "silver bullet" solutions or contributions by a narrow group of countries or a few industry sectors. (intel.com)
  • While hosting a global warming symposium sponsored by The Commonwealth Club of California with academic experts and journalists around the Arctic Circle, Dalton decided to form Climate One, a branch of the Club that focuses on sustainability measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate commitment studies attempt to assess the amount of future global warming that is "committed" under the assumption of some constant level of forcings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their scalability to effectively affect global climate is, however, debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most experts and major reports advise against relying on climate engineering techniques as a simple solution to global warming, in part due to the large uncertainties over effectiveness and side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate Challenge is a Flash-based global warming game produced by the BBC and developed by Red Redemption. (wikipedia.org)
  • If all inhomogeneities would be purely random perturbations of the climate records, collectively their effect on the mean global climate signal would be negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2016 Global Risks Report by the World Economic Forum, concluded that forced migration and climate change are the biggest risks for the global economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Global Security Defense Index on climate change evaluates the extents of governments in considering climate change to be a national security issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2017, Global Catastrophic Risks report, issued by the Swedish Global Challenges Foundation, highlighted a broad range of security related topics, among them climate change, and concluded that global warming has a high likelihood to end civilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the appearance of cold surface water in the east equatorial pacific around 3 million years ago may have contributed to global cooling and modified global climate response to Milankovitch cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other well-known modes of variability include: The Antarctic oscillation The Arctic oscillation The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation The Indian Ocean Dipole The Madden-Julian oscillation The North Atlantic oscillation The Pacific decadal oscillation The Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern The Quasi-biennial oscillation Atmospheric anomaly Climate change Climate model Global warming Teleconnection 100,000-year climate pattern linked to sun's magnetic cycles, according to a new analysis "climate science_glossary" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • variability
  • Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather", or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. (mcgill.ca)
  • To study climate change and variability long instrumental climate records are essential, but are best not used directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • These datasets are essential since they are the basis for assessing century-scale trends or for studying the natural (long-term) variability of climate, amongst others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many modes of variability are used by climatologists as indices to represent the general climatic state of a region affected by a given climate pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measured via an empirical orthogonal function analysis, the mode of variability with the greatest effect on climates worldwide is the seasonal cycle, followed by El Niño-Southern Oscillation, followed by thermohaline circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • For instance, coral bleaching can occur in a single warm season, while trees may be able to persist for decades under a changing climate, but be unable to regenerate. (wikipedia.org)
  • determinants
  • The variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least in so far as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned. (mcgill.ca)
  • Other climate determinants are more dynamic: the thermohaline circulation of the ocean leads to a 5 °C (9 °F) warming of the northern Atlantic Ocean compared to other ocean basins. (wikipedia.org)
  • define
  • The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two difficulties in defining organization climate: how to define climate, and how to measure it effectively on different levels of analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • The observed transient climate sensitivity and the equilibrium climate sensitivity are proportional to the thermal inertia time scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also explains the very large difference in response between "equilibrium" climate prediction runs in which only a shallow ocean is used and it is assumed that the climate has come to equilibrium and "transient" climate prediction runs in which a full ocean is used and the climate is out of balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • Emotional climates indicate the emotional relationships interwoven among members of a community and describe the quality of the environment within a particular context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environments
  • Mara W. Allodi, Department of Special Education, Stockholm University's article The Meaning of Social Climate of Learning Environments: Some Reasons Why We Do Not Care Enough About It, discusses the idea that social competence is as important to learning as curriculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnify
  • In 2016, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper noted: Unpredictable instability has become the "new normal," and this trend will continue for the foreseeable future…Extreme weather, climate change, environmental degradation, rising demand for food and water, poor policy decisions and inadequate infrastructure will magnify this instability. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Location maps and a complete list of U.S. ice core drilling sites can be found on the website for the National Ice Core Laboratory: http://icecores.org/ Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees, primarily from properties of the annual tree rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. (mcgill.ca)
  • According to the Holdridge life zone system, alpine climate occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F), which prevents tree growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melting ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica take time to respond to the emissions of fossil fuel carbon in the climate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2013 review by the U.S. National Research Council assessed the implications of abrupt climate change, including implications for the physical climate system, natural systems, or human systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • others assert that the threat of climate engineering could spur emissions cuts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors have argued that any public support for climate engineering may weaken the fragile political consensus to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Players manage the economy and resources of the 'European Nations' as its president, while reducing emissions of CO2 to combat climate change and managing crises. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpine
  • There are multiple definitions of alpine climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • If alpine climate is defined by the tree line, then it occurs as low as 650 metres (2,130 ft) at 68°N in Sweden, while on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, alpine and the tree line occurs at 3,950 metres (12,960 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • identifies
  • Emotional atmosphere refers to the collective behavior that a community may manifest when it is focused on a common event, emotional climate identifies instead the emotional relationships between the members of the society. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • Climate indices are generally identified or devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. (mcgill.ca)
  • Because the climate indices are generally determined from measurements made in a localized area, they can have impacts in other areas around the globe, through processes sometimes called teleconnections. (mcgill.ca)
  • greenhouse
  • Climate drawdown is the point at which greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere begin to decline on a year-to-year basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate engineering is an umbrella term for measures that mainly fall into two categories: greenhouse gas removal and solar radiation management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air bubbles in the ice, which contain trapped greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, are also helpful in determining past climate changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • approaches
  • The National Wildlife Federation works where people live-in cities and towns-to promote wildlife-friendly and climate-smart approaches to urban sustainability. (nwf.org)
  • Given that all types of measures for addressing climate change have economic, political, or physical limitations, some climate engineering approaches might eventually be used as part of an ensemble of measures, which can be referred to as climate restoration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on costs, benefits, and various types of risks of most climate engineering approaches is at an early stage and their understanding needs to improve to judge their adequacy and feasibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventions at large scale may run a greater risk of disrupting natural systems resulting in a dilemma that those approaches that could prove highly (cost-) effective in addressing extreme climate risk, might themselves cause substantial risk. (wikipedia.org)