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  • alleles
  • The alleles primarily recognized are HLA-DR53 (DRB4*01), DRB1*0402, DQA1*03, and possibly DQB1*0302. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the highly polymorphic nature of the HLA class II alleles, such reactivity is critical in the development of a broadly useful therapeutic. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, we utilized HLA genotype data from more than four million individuals from publicly accessible repositories such as the Allele Frequency Net Database, Major Histocompatibility Complex Database and Immune Epitope Database to study the HLA alleles associated with DILI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We utilized novel in silico strategies to examine HLA haplotype relationships among the alleles associated with DILI by using bioinformatics tools such as NetMHCpan, PyPop, GraphViz, PHYLIP and TreeView. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrated that many of the alleles that have been associated with liver injury induced by structurally diverse drugs (flucloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, ximelagatran, lapatinib, lumiracoxib) reside on common HLA haplotypes, which were present in populations of diverse ethnicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our bioinformatic analysis indicates that there may be a connection between the different HLA alleles associated with DILI caused by therapeutically and structurally different drugs, possibly through peptide binding of one of the HLA alleles that defines the causal haplotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both of these mechanisms highlight that the unique interaction between drug, T-cell receptor and MHC molecule is a key factor in the development of immune-mediated adverse reactions to drugs and, as such, the study of HLA alleles represents a logical route to study the genetic basis of such immune-mediated reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • A total of more than 1500 alleles of HLA-B gene have been identified [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • immune
  • HLA-DM-an endosomal and lysosomal chaperone for the immune system," Trends Biochem Sci, 24(4):150-154 (1999). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Immune responses targeting these proteins could thus result in a limited or no generation of antigen-loss variants and, therefore, they may efficiently control in vivo tumor growth, thus meeting the requirements for an ideal TAA set forth above. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, Baruj Benacerraf described the importance of these antigens in the immune response . (plos.org)
  • proteins
  • Our prediction is that at least some of the CSC antigens will match proteins already known to serve as TAAs and expressed by embryo-fetal tissues (e.g., survivin, telomerase, cancer/testis antigens) reflecting common functions between embryonic stem cells and CSCs, i.e., multipotent differentiation, plasticity, and self-renewal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • genes
  • Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • Anti-Kv1.4 antibody was first discovered by our group in 2005 using a protein immunoprecipitation assay using 35 S-labeled rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cellular extracts [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We cannot detect anti-Kv1.4 antibody by immunoblot or ELISA using Kv1.4 recombinant protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Although originally described as a tumor suppressor gene, the WT1 protein also seems to be involved in tumorigenesis, as WT1 expression is up-regulated in leukemia cells of all lineages ( 2 , 3 ) and in several solid tumors, including malignant mesothelioma, lung, breast, prostate, and ovarian carcinomas ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 12. The prophylactic, symptom progress-suppressive, and/or therapeutic agent according to claim 1, wherein the PD-1 agonist is a PD-1 bispecific antibody, a PD-1 agonist antibody, or a PD-1 bispecific protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • clinical
  • Detection of striational antibodies provides more specific and useful clinical information in MG patients. (hindawi.com)
  • After a decade of cancer immunotherapy (both active and adoptive), based on the use of well-defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and despite the large amount of new information that has been collected both in preclinical and clinical settings, the clinical outcome of immunotherapy trials has been altogether disappointing ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • Recently, another group of TAAs was described that include antigens overexpressed by neoplastic and fetal cells, and was weakly expressed in a phase-specific way in a few normal cells ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, because these TAAs are expressed even by the majority of cancer cells of a given tumor, while CSCs encompass a small subpopulation of the tumor mass, CSCc may represent a better target if specifically enriched in cancer/testis, IAP-derived and/or mutated (unique) antigens in parallel with stem cell markers (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is helpful to distinguish between (i) germline biomarkers, which can influence systemic drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and (ii) biomarkers in the somatic cancer genome, which modulate how cancer cells respond to drugs. (springer.com)
  • marker
  • To test the B-cell antigen D8/17 as a marker of past rheumatic fever (RF) in a predominantly Aboriginal Australian population, and to evaluate technical modifications to allow its use in remote settings. (mja.com.au)
  • Anti-Kv1.4 antibody is a useful marker for the potential development of lethal autoimmune myocarditis and response to calcineurin inhibitors. (hindawi.com)
  • bind
  • However, antiphospholipid antibodies bind phospholipids at sites similar to sites bound by anti-coagulants such as PAP1 sites and augment anti-coagulation activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some MG patients have antibodies that bind in a cross-striational pattern to skeletal and heart muscle tissue sections. (hindawi.com)
  • severe
  • In an ex vivo rodent model, HLA class II antibody-dependent monocyte activation leads to severe pulmonary edema in a relevant period of time, whenever neutrophils are present and the endothelium is preactivated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • reactions
  • Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • particularly
  • Particularly, three types of striational antibodies including those to titin, ryanodine receptor (RyR), and Kv1.4 have been investigated by many researchers. (hindawi.com)
  • donors
  • Having identified the biologic mechanism of HLA class II antibody-induced TRALI, strategies to avoid plasma from immunized donors, such as women with a history of pregnancy, appear to be justified preventive measures. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 3 ⇓ - 5 A recently published literature review states that in 80% of all TRALI cases, white blood cell antibodies can be identified in the implicated blood donor, 6 and most implicated donors have been women with a history of pregnancy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • they are also critical in the field of transplant surgery where the donors and the recipients must be HLA-compatible [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However
  • [ 2 ] However, in patients at high risk (eg, those who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes), it may be appropriate to perform annual screening for anti-islet antibodies before the age of 10 years, along with 1 additional screening during adolescence. (medscape.com)
  • found
  • The MHC was first associated with disease in 1967 when HLA-B antigens were found at increased frequency in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma . (plos.org)
  • insulin
  • Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. (medscape.com)
  • specific
  • This contrasts with the major, specific, activity of AAHA, defining a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies that specifically interacts with Apo-H. AHAA only inhibits the anti-coagulation activity in the presence of Apo-H and the AAHA component of ACLA correlates with a history of frequent thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pretransplant C3d-Fixing Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies Are Not Associated with Increased Risk for Kidney Graft Failure. (nih.gov)
  • Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) in an organ-specific autoimmune disorder generally mediated by antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) or less frequently by antimuscle-specific tyrosine antibodies at the neuromuscular junction [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • disease
  • The D8/17 non-HLA B-cell antigen has not been studied in Australia, where Aboriginal people have among the world's highest prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). (mja.com.au)
  • cases
  • Upon determination of the physical size of the region, it appeared that LD extended more than 2 Mb in some cases, but not all. (plos.org)
  • history
  • The B-cell antigen D8/17 accurately identifies Australians with a past history of RF, and the assay is feasible in remote settings with access to facilities capable of performing D8/17 staining within half a day of sample collection. (mja.com.au)
  • least
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein, in step (c), the proteolytic digestion is accomplished by a mixture of at least two proteinases. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • usually
  • Assays for D8/17 expression described to date usually require testing of fresh whole blood within 1 or 2 hours of sample collection, which has made it difficult to assess D8/17 expression in people living in remote settings. (mja.com.au)
  • plasma
  • Synchronized inhibition of the phospholipid mediated autoactivation of factor XII in plasma by beta 2-glycoprotein I and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I". Thromb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Celiac Disease
  • Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten that appears in genetically predisposed patients The clinical spectrum of CD is wide and includes classic presentation of malabsorption with diarrhea, nonclassical extraintestinal features, subclinical or asymptomatic forms, and potential disease characterized by positive serology with a normal intestinal mucosa on biopsy [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DRB1*1102: Tiopronin intolerance in rheumatoid arthritis DRB1*1104: pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis DR11 is an identifyer for the DR11-DQ7/DR7-DQ2 transhaplotype isoform of celiac disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles associated
  • After informed parental consent, HLA alleles associated with type 1 diabetes risk or protection were analyzed from cord blood, and subjects carrying risk-associated genotypes were followed over time to establish the time point of seroconversion and diabetes development. (rupress.org)
  • APCs
  • We generated CD8 + Ts cells by multiple in vitro stimulations of human CD3 + T-cells with allogeneic, xenogenic, or allopeptide-pulsed autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD8 + CD28 − Ts cells from such cultures interacted with priming APCs in an antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted and contact-dependent manner, inducing the upregulation of the Ig-like transcript (ILT) 3 and ILT4 and inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activation and CD40 signaling in APCs ( 14 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DR11
  • Serotypes are unknown the following alleles: DRB1*1110 to *1157 DR11 is associated with grape anaphylaxis, well-differentiated thyroid cancer, low antibody production in Hepatitis C. DRB1*11 is associated systemic sclerosis (SSc) & anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody DRB1*1101 is associated Anti-Ro/SSA with anti-La/SSB antibodies in neonatal lupus erythematosus, mite sensitive asthma, cervical cancer risk (HPV? (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • According to recent report, as of the year 2000, 972 million people were afflicted worldwide and this figure is believed to rise to more than 1.56 billion by the year 2025 ( 1 , 2 ). (medsci.org)
  • In August, 1999 and April, 2000 Congressional hearings were held in Washington D.C. dealing with questions of vaccine safety. (atlaschiro.com)
  • subset
  • In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with the major, specific, activity of AAHA, defining a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies that specifically interacts with Apo-H. AHAA only inhibits the anti-coagulation activity in the presence of Apo-H and the AAHA component of ACLA correlates with a history of frequent thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Experimental data suggest that prolonged islet allograft survival can be achieved using biological modifiers, such as monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptor ligands, which block T-cell activation and/or costimulation ( 4 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Statistically significantly gene ontology (GO) function and biological process differentially expressed in essential hypertension were MHC class II receptor activity and immune response respectively. (medsci.org)
  • receptor
  • Interaction by the complex of TSHR epitope, HLA-class II molecule, and T-cell receptor (TCR) is modified through binding of CD40 ligand to CD40 and of CTLA-4 to B7 ( 3 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • fetal
  • Recently, another group of TAAs was described that include antigens overexpressed by neoplastic and fetal cells, and was weakly expressed in a phase-specific way in a few normal cells ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • linkage
  • With DR3 this DQ2 has the second strongest linkage to Type 1 diabetes, and when paired with HLA-DQ8 is the most abundant phenotype found in late onset, "Type1-Type2" diabetes mellitus type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • lupus
  • These antibodies are involved in sclerosis and are strongly associated with thrombotic forms of lupus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two activities can be differentiated by the binding to Apo-H domains, whereas binding to the 5th domain promotes that anti-coagulant activity binding to the more N-terminal domains promotes lupus anticoagulant-like activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • serological
  • But CD can be clearly differentiated from this on the basis of serological tests for the detection of auto antibodies generated in response to gluten ingestion and small bowel biopsy. (omicsonline.org)
  • Disease
  • Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are two major components of AITDs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The disease is characterized by severe immune mediated damage to the small bowel, typically involving chronic diarrhea , abdominal bloating and distention, weight loss, iron deficient anemia , malnutrition and metabolic bone disease [ 2 , 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • genetic
  • The lipid changes were not attributable to HLA-associated genetic risk. (rupress.org)
  • When individuals having susceptible genetic background are exposed to environmental factors (e.g., iodine, smoking, infections, and stress, and others so far undisclosed), thyroid autoantigens break "self-tolerance" and AITDs develop ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • type
  • The incidence has reached record levels in Finland, where, currently, 1/120 children develops type 1 diabetes before the age of 15 yr ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • [ 2 ] However, in patients at high risk (eg, those who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes), it may be appropriate to perform annual screening for anti-islet antibodies before the age of 10 years, along with 1 additional screening during adolescence. (medscape.com)
  • DQ2 antibodies can be used to effectively type DQ2 bearing individuals, however antibody may detect DQB1*0303. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • However, because these TAAs are expressed even by the majority of cancer cells of a given tumor, while CSCs encompass a small subpopulation of the tumor mass, CSCc may represent a better target if specifically enriched in cancer/testis, IAP-derived and/or mutated (unique) antigens in parallel with stem cell markers (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • associations
  • Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • prevalence
  • However, World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) data states that the prevalence of CD in a healthy adult population varies between roughly 1 in 100 and 1 in 300 in most parts of the world and female to male ratio was 2:1. (omicsonline.org)