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  • substrates
  • The cortico-subcortico-cortical circuits with putaminal involvement are dense and complicated, consisting of a wide range of axonal, dendritic, chemical, afferent, and efferent substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • pars
  • A five loop division based off of primary cortical targets has been described as follows: A motor circuit originating in the supplementary motor area, motor cortex, and somatosensory cortex, which in turn projects to the putamen, which projects to the ventrolateral GPi and caudolateral SNr, before returning to the cortex via the ventralis lateralis pars oralis and ventralis lateralis pars medialis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pars reticulata of the substantia nigra is an important processing center in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Lesioning the output nucleus of this circuit in adult male zebra finches reverses moderate changes in song structure and variability caused by deafening. (jneurosci.org)
  • The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). (wikipedia.org)
  • neural circuits
  • functional studies of the gene in mice and in songbirds indicate that it is important for modulating plasticity of neural circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, Doupe was awarded the Pradel Research Award by the National Academy of Sciences for her work on neural circuits and information processing in song birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michale Fee's research aims to understand how neural circuits in the brain subserve the generation and learning or complex motor sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • Thus, in birds, as in mammals, the contribution of basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical circuits to motor control may change when feedback is absent or unexpected and includes both "active" and "permissive" roles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bailey, Kathleen R., "The role of frontal cortical-basal ganglia circuits in simple and sequential visuomotor learning" (2004). (unh.edu)
  • In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. (wikipedia.org)
  • prefrontal cortex
  • Inspired by the mechanism of decision making in human brain, we propose a general computational model, named as prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia (PFC-BG) algorithm. (springer.com)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • Results suggest that cortico-striatal circuits are involved in initiating learned motor sequences consistent with a role in motor planning. (unh.edu)
  • Other BG circuits, those associated with cognition and motor control, work in tandem with elements of the reward system to develop appropriate goal-directed actions. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to the different rates of song development between the intact and deafened birds, developmental gene expression in the motor circuit is conserved in an age-dependent manner from the juvenile stage until the older adult stage, even in the deafened birds, which indicates the audition-independent robustness of gene expression dynamics during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the basal ganglia are associated with motor control, cognition, emotions, learning, and domain-general functions important for executive functioning as well as support for domain-specific languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • loop
  • Given the relevance of the cerebellar-basal ganglia-corticel loop for speech and language processing, Peter Hagoort is happy to have a lecture of the world leading expert on the topic of the role of these areas at MPI. (mpi.nl)
  • behavior
  • However, many studies have been done on the basal ganglia and relevant brain-behavior relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • This circuit is important in executive functions including complex problem solving, learning new information, planning ahead, recalling remote memories, responding with appropriate behavior, and chronological ordering of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventral
  • Although cells that respond to different aspects of reward such as anticipation, value, etc., are found throughout the brain, at the center of this network is the cortico-ventral basal ganglia (BG) circuit. (nih.gov)
  • dysfunction
  • Dysfunction of this circuit often results in personality change including behavioral disinhibition, emotional lability, aggressive outbursts, poor judgment, and lack of interpersonal sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunction in this circuits lead to decreased motivation including prominent apathy, indifference to pain, thirst or hunger, lack of spontaneous movements, and verbalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, there are open connections to these circuits integrating information from other areas of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleagues also found that a brain circuit necessary for song learning also generates the variability in juvenile song. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • These circuits are involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (wikipedia.org)
  • vocal
  • Although auditory input is crucial for acquiring complex vocal patterns, its exact role in neural circuit maturation for vocal learning and production is not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ölveczky BP, Andalman AS, Fee MS (2005) Vocal Experimentation in the Juvenile Songbird Requires a Basal Ganglia Circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • songbird
  • We used electrical stimulation to measure with high temporal precision the time course of information flow through the songbird BG circuit. (jneurosci.org)