• normally
  • Overly long, overly short, and normally appearing but randomly oriented cilia have been associated with PCD and Kartagener syndrome. (mhmedical.com)
  • Normally, cilia beat 7 to 22 times per second, and any impairment can result in poor mucociliary clearance, with subsequent upper and lower respiratory infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynein
  • Lack of dynein arms, which are structures that form temporary cross-bridges between adjacent ciliary filaments and are believed to be responsible for generating movement in cilia and sperm tails, remains the most common defect identified (type 1) and the one classically associated with Kartagener syndrome. (mhmedical.com)
  • Structures that make up the cilia including inner and/or outer dynein arms, central apparatus, radial spokes, etc. are missing or dysfunctional and thus the axoneme structure lacks the ability to move. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The axoneme of cilia contains 200 different proteins, and defects in genes coding for any one of these products could conceivably be responsible for PCD and thus Kartagener syndrome. (mhmedical.com)