• genes
  • Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain few functional genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their ancestral genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome repetitive DNA sequences are accumulated, representing a dominant and early process forming the Y chromosome, probably before genes start to degenerate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A chromosome is a discrete unit of the genome that carries many genes, or sets of instructions for inherited traits. (blogspot.com)
  • The chromosomes of eukaryotes consist of unique genes among a complex pattern of repeated DNA sequences. (blogspot.com)
  • Based on the recent finding that the frequency of meiotic recombination between two marker genes is significantly increased in auto- and allotetraploid Arabidopsis , compared to that in diploid plants, we are investigating the molecular basis for this difference and determining the role of cis- and trans-acting genetic factors in meiotic recombination. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes Download via Hotfile Rapidshare Fileserve Megaupload & FileSonic, Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes free torrent downloads included crack, serial, keygen. (renminbao.info)
  • Polytene chromosomes have distinct thick and thin banding patterns from which the many genetics could be studied, particularly the indentity of genes and their functions related to transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stains do not band chromosomes, but instead allow for DNA probing of specific regions and genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He showed that the mechanisms of evolution that acted at the level of the chromosome created possibilities far more rich than the simple mutations and deletions that affect single genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning, shotgun sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis became widely used to sequence large DNA molecules like human chromosomes and to engineer genes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silene recently evolved sex chromosomes 5-10 million years ago and are widely used by geneticists and biologists to study the mechanisms of sex determination since they are one of only 39 species across 14 families of angiosperm that possess sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can develop uni-sexual reproductive structures because of the loss and gain of sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the Y chromosome carries three dominant genes that determine the sexual expression in a Silene offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there are deletions and mutations in the Y chromosome during reproduction, then different sex-linked genes are lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different combinations of possible sex-related genes that an individual Silene can have in one Y chromosome are what creates the rich variation of sexual phenotypes throughout this genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They differ because there are multiple sex determining genes on the Y chromosome of S. latifolia, while in humans the presence or absence of the Y chromosome strictly determines whether the offspring is male or female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different combinations of the genes present in a Silene Y chromosome affect the sexual expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, there are two genetic variations that can lead to male sterility in S. latifolia: if it possesses two Y chromosomes (YY) or if the Y chromosome possesses the female suppression and male promoting genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, Y chromosomes carrying both female suppression and male fertility genes creates an asexual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By minimizing the amount of unnecessary genetic information on the chromosome and including the basic components necessary for replication (centromere, telomeres, replication sequence), scientists aim to construct a chromosomal platform which can be utilized to insert/present new genes into a host organism's cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newly synthesized truncated chromosome can then be altered through the insertion of new genes for desired traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional methods of genetic engineering, minichromosomes can be used to transfer and express multiple sets of genes onto one engineered chromosome package, Traditional methods which involve the insertion of novel genes into existing sequences may result in the disruption of endogenous genes and thus negatively affect the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, with traditional gene insertion methods, scientists have had less ability to control where the newly inserted genes are located on the host cell chromosomes which makes it difficult to predict inheritance of multiple genes from generation to generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of segregation of novel traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, scientists demonstrated the successful use of telomere truncation in maize plants to produce minichromosomes that could be utilized as a platform for inserting genes into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Using a biotechnology technique called CGM (Clean Genome Multiplication), Kaiima has found a way to create polyploidy in plants, without encroaching on their DNA. (israel21c.org)
  • Some carp and some ferns have more than 50 chromosomes in the haploid genome. (blogspot.com)
  • A distinctive feature of plant cell division is the plant cell has three genomes (the nuclear, mitochondrial , and plastid genome) to replicate and divide. (blogspot.com)
  • DNA synthesis occurs in the synthesis (S) phase, beginning at origins of replication distributed around the genome, occurring on average every 66 kb in dicotyledonous plants and on average every 47 kb in monocotyledonous plants. (blogspot.com)
  • He has pioneered the use of flow cytometry in plant science for the analysis of nuclear genome size and regularly holds international training courses on the subject. (wiley.com)
  • He has studied plant genomes for almost 30 years and is an expert on intraspecific variation of genome size. (wiley.com)
  • He is a taxonomist specializing in plant biosystematics, including genome size determination and has co-authored a book on taxonomy analysis. (wiley.com)
  • Using the model plant Arabidopsis , we investigate chromatin, gene expression, recombination, inheritance and natural variation in diploids, upon genome duplication in polyploids and after stress treatments. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • With a small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs, Arabidopsis thaliana became the first plant to have its entire genetic makeup sequenced. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope, Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice, Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution (2 volumes), and Cytology of Different Species of Palms and Its Bearing on the Solution of the Problems of Phylogeny and Speciation are some of his notable works. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post his official retirement, he continued his association with CSIR as an emeritus scientist from 2001 to 2005 when he moved to the National Institute for Plant Genome Research, an autonomous institute under the Department of Biotechnology as an INSA Senior Scientist in 2006, holding the position till 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof Messing is also involved in the Plant Genome Initiative at Rutgers, which has contributed to the sequencing of the maize, sorghum, and the rice genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • centromere
  • Another example within the fly itself is the tandem duplication of various polytene bands located near the centromere of the X chromosome which results in the Barr phenotype of kidney-shaped eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, the book goes on to discuss examples of application in plant genetics, genomic analysis, cell cycle analysis, marine organism analysis and breeding studies. (wiley.com)
  • A former president of the Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding (1994-97), he started the Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences during his tenure as the president. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was associated with several other science journals such as Journal of Genetics, Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology and Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy and mentored 32 doctoral scholars in their researches. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Rutgers, his plant genetics initiatives are directed towards the evolution of plant chromosomes and gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924, he started on an Advanced genetics course of Emerson and started to use John Belling's iron-aceto-carmine smear technique to clarify chromosome numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In order to modulate H3 phosphorylation, root meristems of different plant species were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin or with ice-water. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome numbers of European species of Potentilla L . Acta F. R. N. Univ. (wiley.com)
  • He redefined angiosperm taxonomy, proposed new concepts of the dynamic DNA and dynamic structure and behaviour of chromosomes and suggested the use of embryo irradiation and in-vitro cultures for the generation of variability, and tissue culture as a tool for conservation of endangered species and for maintaining genetic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower altitude site is estimated to have about 50 mature plants, making it the most endangered Drosera species, since it is threatened with extinction in the wild. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very little is known about N. thorelii and it is unlikely to have entered cultivation, although various other taxa are often mislabelled as this species in the plant trade. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2010, Charles Clarke and François Mey travelled to the site where the photographs had been taken, as well as to the type location, but were unable to find any remaining plants of this species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • 3. A method according to Claim 2 wherein the sources of DNA in the target plant are from the same genus. (google.co.uk)
  • He carried out important research into plant chromosomes of iris, orchid genus and corn plants (such as Maize). (wikipedia.org)
  • Those which are most commonly found within this genus are hermaphroditism (monoecious plant with both staminate and pistillate), dioecy (male and female reproductive systems found in separate morphs), and gynodioecy (existence of female and hermaphroditic reproductive systems among the individuals of the population). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosera regia, commonly known as the king sundew, is a carnivorous plant in the sundew genus Drosera that is endemic to a single valley in South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • When it does, the plants with four chromosomes typically show advantages over those with just two sets in each nucleus. (israel21c.org)
  • In flowering plants (angiosperms), there is a unique double fertilization where by one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form the diploid (2n) zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid nutritive tissue, or endosperm, which will nourish the embryo in the seed. (blogspot.com)
  • His early researches helped in the discovery of structural arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus and later, working on Escherichia coli and its bacteriophage Lambda, he described its transcription map. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • She has experience with classical cytogenetic techniques (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei) and molecular methods (comet analysis and gel electrophoresis in a constant electric field/CFGE). (omicsonline.org)
  • occurs
  • Since polyploidy occurs after endoreplication also in somatic cells of otherwise diploid plants, we are investigating the differences of gene expression in cells with increased DNA content and the factors that determine the degree of endoreplication. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • Asexual reproduction of mature plants usually occurs after flowering with new plants arising from the rhizome and roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • karyotype
  • The karyotype and the number of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome were studied. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The karyotype of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome belongs to'3B' type. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic/clastogenic effect and anti-cytotoxic/anti-clastogenic potential of geraniol (ethanolic extract) evaluated by chromosome aberration test in barley (reconstructed karyotype MK14/2034) and cultured human lymphocytes. (omicsonline.org)
  • This number, along with the visual appearance of the chromosome, is known as the karyotype, and can be found by looking at the chromosomes through a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Each eukaryotic chromosome contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled, folded, and compacted by its interaction with chromosomal proteins called histone. (blogspot.com)
  • Cytology
  • Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the University and is known for his contributions to the studies on the physical and chemical nature of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then studied cytology with Lester in the Botany Department and minored in Plant Breeding with Emerson. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also was an instructor in botany, until 1923, when Prof. Emerson recommended Randolph to get a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) appointment at Cornell to investigate corn chromosome cytology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollen
  • Studies have shown that the operculate pollen shed in tetrads (fused groups of four pollen grains), characteristics that are similar in the related Dionaea muscipula (the Venus flytrap) and Aldrovanda vesiculosa, is incompatible with clones, failing to produce seed when plants are self-fertilised. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) [page needed] Schubert V, Ruban A, Houben A (2016) Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Rare in plants to begin with, experts had long thought that animals were more susceptible to often-fatal cancer conditions because they exclusively experience chromothripsis, commonly called "chromosome shattering. (natureworldnews.com)
  • researches
  • Sharma pioneered researches in cytogenetics and cytochemistry in India and is credited with developing new research techniques for the study of chromosome structure of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researches of Sushil Kumar which focused on the fields of plant and microbial genetical genomics are reported to have assisted in a wider understanding of biotechnology and crop breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silene
  • Several studies concentrated on Silene latifolia have shown a correlation between loci on the Y chromosome and the sex that is expressed phenotypically in the flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system for determining sex in Silene latifolia is close to that found in humans because in both cases the Y chromosome determines what reproductive mechanisms will be expressed in the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. (purdue.edu)
  • For some time now, plant breeders and scientists have been trying to encourage this doubling or "polyploidy" in certain plants with high economic value, using artificial methods including colchicine treatment, nitrous oxide treatment and temperature shock. (israel21c.org)
  • This wicked technique actually gave rise to modern agriculture thanks to the innovative mind of one of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's first scientists, a plant geneticist named George Shull. (cshl.edu)
  • typically
  • Next, the desired contents of the minichromosome must be transformed into a host which is capable of assembling the components (typically yeast or mammalian cells) into a functional chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • degenerate
  • The Y chromosome, which is thought to carry the male determining gene, was isolated by UV laser microdissection and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. (oup.com)
  • cell
  • The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. (springer.com)
  • Bradbury EM (1992) Reversible histone modifications and the chromosome cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • To maintain the genetic information of a cell, it is essential that chromosomes correctly replicate and divide as a cell divides. (blogspot.com)
  • In cell division in plant cells, the two daughter nuclei are partitioned to form two separate cells by a cell plate that grows at the equator of the mother cell. (blogspot.com)
  • Sharma was the founder of the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome which was established during his tenancy as the head of the department of Botany at the University of Kolkata. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Subsequently, he became head of the Botany Department at Reading University (1992 - 1996) before moving to Cambridge in 1996 as Director of the Botanic Garden, Curator of the University Herbarium (1999 - 2010) and Professor of Plant Cytogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Explaining why the research was conducted on castor plants, Krolzig says that the castor plant, grown mainly in India and China, is widely utilized in the chemical, plastic and cosmetic industries and also as a lubricant that doesn't break down under high temperatures, for use in high-speed cars and airplanes. (israel21c.org)
  • These investigations, concerning the anti-cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic potential of geraniol could be useful in health research on the pharmacological capacity and activity of the present and other natural plant compounds. (omicsonline.org)
  • He is a former director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, India, and Indian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as a senior grade scientist in 1989, he became the director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in 1993, superannuating in that position in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds derived from plants identified as N. thorelii have been the subject of some research. (wikipedia.org)
  • corn
  • Corn plants sow across upon themselves produced astounding mixtures of growth. (cshl.edu)
  • notion
  • RS: The notion that plant breeding is somehow unnatural has been around for hundreds of years. (cshl.edu)
  • Bateson had spent the last two decades fighting against the notion that chromosomes were the seat of what he had been calling "heredity factors" and had only very recently capitulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • In 1932, he collaborated with Karl Heinrich Bauer with whom he discovered that the tangled chromosomes having distinct bands are unique to the cells of the salivary glands, midgut, Malphigian tubules, and brain of the flies Bibio hurtulunus and Drosophila funebris. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Plant mitochondrial genomes are much larger than the mitochondrial genomes of yeast or animals. (blogspot.com)
  • Targeted at beginners as well as experienced users, this handy reference explains the benefits and uses of flow cytometery in the study of plants and their genomes. (wiley.com)
  • He has constantly been developing novel techniques to study plant genomes, among them many methods based on flow cytometry. (wiley.com)
  • Today, there is an extensive catalogue of all plants' variants and their genomes. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Han Tan explained in a recent release that now that it's understood how this disastrous process can be triggered, it could be applied in plant breeding as a way to create new genomes - similar to GMO design. (natureworldnews.com)
  • rounds
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, for example, the chromosomes of the larval salivary glands undergo many rounds of endoreduplication, to produce large quantities of adhesive mucoprotein ("glue") before pupation. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Our group is interested in the interplay between genetic and epigenetic changes, in epigenetic diversity in polyploid plants, in different ecotypes and after exposure to abiotic stress. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • 1983
  • In 1983, Bruce Lee Bednar wrote that cultivated plants labelled as N. kampotiana were thought to represent a natural hybrid between N. mirabilis and N. thorelii, and that these appeared on some lists under the unofficial name N. × lecouflei. (wikipedia.org)