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  • boundary
  • Second, the neo-sex chromosome is homologous to the sex chromosomes of mammals, which makes it possible - for the first time - to study mammalian X gene homologs in a novel, avian Z-linked environment where females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and thus to draw direct parallels over the avian ZW-mammalian XY boundary. (lu.se)
  • genes
  • Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain few functional genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their ancestral genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome repetitive DNA sequences are accumulated, representing a dominant and early process forming the Y chromosome, probably before genes start to degenerate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A chromosome is a discrete unit of the genome that carries many genes, or sets of instructions for inherited traits. (blogspot.com)
  • The chromosomes of eukaryotes consist of unique genes among a complex pattern of repeated DNA sequences. (blogspot.com)
  • Based on the recent finding that the frequency of meiotic recombination between two marker genes is significantly increased in auto- and allotetraploid Arabidopsis , compared to that in diploid plants, we are investigating the molecular basis for this difference and determining the role of cis- and trans-acting genetic factors in meiotic recombination. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • These stains do not band chromosomes, but instead allow for DNA probing of specific regions and genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He showed that the mechanisms of evolution that acted at the level of the chromosome created possibilities far more rich than the simple mutations and deletions that affect single genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning, shotgun sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis became widely used to sequence large DNA molecules like human chromosomes and to engineer genes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silene recently evolved sex chromosomes 5-10 million years ago and are widely used by geneticists and biologists to study the mechanisms of sex determination since they are one of only 39 species across 14 families of angiosperm that possess sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can develop uni-sexual reproductive structures because of the loss and gain of sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the Y chromosome carries three dominant genes that determine the sexual expression in a Silene offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there are deletions and mutations in the Y chromosome during reproduction, then different sex-linked genes are lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different combinations of possible sex-related genes that an individual Silene can have in one Y chromosome are what creates the rich variation of sexual phenotypes throughout this genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They differ because there are multiple sex determining genes on the Y chromosome of S. latifolia, while in humans the presence or absence of the Y chromosome strictly determines whether the offspring is male or female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different combinations of the genes present in a Silene Y chromosome affect the sexual expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, there are two genetic variations that can lead to male sterility in S. latifolia: if it possesses two Y chromosomes (YY) or if the Y chromosome possesses the female suppression and male promoting genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, Y chromosomes carrying both female suppression and male fertility genes creates an asexual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • By minimizing the amount of unnecessary genetic information on the chromosome and including the basic components necessary for replication (centromere, telomeres, replication sequence), scientists aim to construct a chromosomal platform which can be utilized to insert/present new genes into a host organism's cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newly synthesized truncated chromosome can then be altered through the insertion of new genes for desired traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional methods of genetic engineering, minichromosomes can be used to transfer and express multiple sets of genes onto one engineered chromosome package, Traditional methods which involve the insertion of novel genes into existing sequences may result in the disruption of endogenous genes and thus negatively affect the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, with traditional gene insertion methods, scientists have had less ability to control where the newly inserted genes are located on the host cell chromosomes which makes it difficult to predict inheritance of multiple genes from generation to generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of segregation of novel traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, scientists demonstrated the successful use of telomere truncation in maize plants to produce minichromosomes that could be utilized as a platform for inserting genes into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • In conjunction with an enhanced system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a new binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector has been developed that is capable of transferring at least 150 kb of foreign DNA into a plant nuclear genome. (rti.org)
  • Some carp and some ferns have more than 50 chromosomes in the haploid genome. (blogspot.com)
  • A distinctive feature of plant cell division is the plant cell has three genomes (the nuclear, mitochondrial , and plastid genome) to replicate and divide. (blogspot.com)
  • DNA synthesis occurs in the synthesis (S) phase, beginning at origins of replication distributed around the genome, occurring on average every 66 kb in dicotyledonous plants and on average every 47 kb in monocotyledonous plants. (blogspot.com)
  • He has pioneered the use of flow cytometry in plant science for the analysis of nuclear genome size and regularly holds international training courses on the subject. (wiley.com)
  • He has studied plant genomes for almost 30 years and is an expert on intraspecific variation of genome size. (wiley.com)
  • He is a taxonomist specializing in plant biosystematics, including genome size determination and has co-authored a book on taxonomy analysis. (wiley.com)
  • Using the model plant Arabidopsis , we investigate chromatin, gene expression, recombination, inheritance and natural variation in diploids, upon genome duplication in polyploids and after stress treatments. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • With a small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs, Arabidopsis thaliana became the first plant to have its entire genetic makeup sequenced. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope, Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice, Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution (2 volumes), and Cytology of Different Species of Palms and Its Bearing on the Solution of the Problems of Phylogeny and Speciation are some of his notable works. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post his official retirement, he continued his association with CSIR as an emeritus scientist from 2001 to 2005 when he moved to the National Institute for Plant Genome Research, an autonomous institute under the Department of Biotechnology as an INSA Senior Scientist in 2006, holding the position till 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof Messing is also involved in the Plant Genome Initiative at Rutgers, which has contributed to the sequencing of the maize, sorghum, and the rice genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • A couple weeks back, in the very infrequent Fruit Genetics Friday series, I discussed sex chromosomes in fruit , specifically papaya. (blogspot.com)
  • The book provides a unique combination of historical and modern subject matter, revealing the central role of plant cytogenetics in plant genetics and genomics as currently practiced. (slugbooks.com)
  • Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, the book goes on to discuss examples of application in plant genetics, genomic analysis, cell cycle analysis, marine organism analysis and breeding studies. (wiley.com)
  • A former president of the Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding (1994-97), he started the Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences during his tenure as the president. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was associated with several other science journals such as Journal of Genetics, Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology and Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy and mentored 32 doctoral scholars in their researches. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Rutgers, his plant genetics initiatives are directed towards the evolution of plant chromosomes and gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924, he started on an Advanced genetics course of Emerson and started to use John Belling's iron-aceto-carmine smear technique to clarify chromosome numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytology
  • We hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come.Hank W. Bass is a Professor in the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University.James A. Birchler is a Professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri. (slugbooks.com)
  • Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the University and is known for his contributions to the studies on the physical and chemical nature of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then studied cytology with Lester in the Botany Department and minored in Plant Breeding with Emerson. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also was an instructor in botany, until 1923, when Prof. Emerson recommended Randolph to get a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) appointment at Cornell to investigate corn chromosome cytology. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In order to modulate H3 phosphorylation, root meristems of different plant species were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin or with ice-water. (springer.com)
  • Here we review the occurrence and role of repetitive DNA in Y chromosome evolution in various species with a focus on dioecious plants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FISH using probes specific to both 5S rDNA unit types showed differences in the distribution and intensity of signals on the chromosomes of polyploid wheat species and their diploid progenitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He redefined angiosperm taxonomy, proposed new concepts of the dynamic DNA and dynamic structure and behaviour of chromosomes and suggested the use of embryo irradiation and in-vitro cultures for the generation of variability, and tissue culture as a tool for conservation of endangered species and for maintaining genetic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, the telomere sequence is conserved which implies this strategy can be utilized to successfully construction additional minichromosomes in other plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower altitude site is estimated to have about 50 mature plants, making it the most endangered Drosera species, since it is threatened with extinction in the wild. (wikipedia.org)
  • Löve also wrote papers about plant evolution from a more theoretical angle, e.g. the still cited The biological species concept and its evolutionary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome numbers of central and northwest European plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasconcellea goudotiana (also known as papayuelo) is a species of flowering plant in the Caricaceae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • She has experience with classical cytogenetic techniques (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei) and molecular methods (comet analysis and gel electrophoresis in a constant electric field/CFGE). (omicsonline.org)
  • sequence
  • Because fragmentation produces overlapping fragments, sequences can be concatenated by overlapping sequence information, thereby reconstructing contiguous sequences (contigs), which was first exemplified by the complete structure of a plant DNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • interphase
  • DNA that was replicated in interphase is condensed from molecules with lengths reaching 4 cm to chromosomes that are measured in micrograms. (wikipedia.org)
  • His early researches helped in the discovery of structural arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus and later, working on Escherichia coli and its bacteriophage Lambda, he described its transcription map. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences
  • Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • occurs
  • Since polyploidy occurs after endoreplication also in somatic cells of otherwise diploid plants, we are investigating the differences of gene expression in cells with increased DNA content and the factors that determine the degree of endoreplication. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • Asexual reproduction of mature plants usually occurs after flowering with new plants arising from the rhizome and roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Each eukaryotic chromosome contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled, folded, and compacted by its interaction with chromosomal proteins called histone. (blogspot.com)
  • Pollen
  • Studies have shown that the operculate pollen shed in tetrads (fused groups of four pollen grains), characteristics that are similar in the related Dionaea muscipula (the Venus flytrap) and Aldrovanda vesiculosa, is incompatible with clones, failing to produce seed when plants are self-fertilised. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • He carried out important research into plant chromosomes of iris, orchid genus and corn plants (such as Maize). (wikipedia.org)
  • Those which are most commonly found within this genus are hermaphroditism (monoecious plant with both staminate and pistillate), dioecy (male and female reproductive systems found in separate morphs), and gynodioecy (existence of female and hermaphroditic reproductive systems among the individuals of the population). (wikipedia.org)
  • diploid
  • In flowering plants (angiosperms), there is a unique double fertilization where by one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form the diploid (2n) zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid nutritive tissue, or endosperm, which will nourish the embryo in the seed. (blogspot.com)
  • Polyploid
  • Our group is interested in the interplay between genetic and epigenetic changes, in epigenetic diversity in polyploid plants, in different ecotypes and after exposure to abiotic stress. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • researches
  • Sharma pioneered researches in cytogenetics and cytochemistry in India and is credited with developing new research techniques for the study of chromosome structure of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researches of Sushil Kumar which focused on the fields of plant and microbial genetical genomics are reported to have assisted in a wider understanding of biotechnology and crop breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Rare in plants to begin with, experts had long thought that animals were more susceptible to often-fatal cancer conditions because they exclusively experience chromothripsis, commonly called "chromosome shattering. (natureworldnews.com)
  • genomic
  • A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytogenetics
  • This reference book provides information on plant cytogenetics for students, instructors, and researchers. (slugbooks.com)
  • In addition, chapters are included on several methods in plant cytogenetics, informatics, and even laboratory exercises for aspiring or practiced instructors. (slugbooks.com)
  • This breadth of coverage, together with the inclusion of methods and instruction, is intended to convey a deep and useful appreciation for plant cytogenetics. (slugbooks.com)
  • Subsequently, he became head of the Botany Department at Reading University (1992 - 1996) before moving to Cambridge in 1996 as Director of the Botanic Garden, Curator of the University Herbarium (1999 - 2010) and Professor of Plant Cytogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding
  • In 1945, where he served as director of Institute of Botany and Plant Breeding at the University of Iceland 1945-1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • The flowering phenology and reproductive features of the endangered plant Disanthus cercidifolius var. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Silene are a flowering plant that evolved a dioecious reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system for determining sex in Silene latifolia is close to that found in humans because in both cases the Y chromosome determines what reproductive mechanisms will be expressed in the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • Sushil Kumar (born 1940) is an Indian geneticist and academic, known for his Plant and microbial genetical genomics, especially the studies on Escherichia coli and Lambda phage as well as on the mutants of Rhizobium. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • These investigations, concerning the anti-cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic potential of geraniol could be useful in health research on the pharmacological capacity and activity of the present and other natural plant compounds. (omicsonline.org)
  • He is a former director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, India, and Indian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as a senior grade scientist in 1989, he became the director of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in 1993, superannuating in that position in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. (purdue.edu)
  • composition
  • This is followed by cytokinesis, the process of cytoplasmic division, which results in two daughter cells, each having the same number of chromosomes and genetic composition as the parent cell. (blogspot.com)
  • cell
  • The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. (springer.com)
  • Bradbury EM (1992) Reversible histone modifications and the chromosome cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • To maintain the genetic information of a cell, it is essential that chromosomes correctly replicate and divide as a cell divides. (blogspot.com)
  • In cell division in plant cells, the two daughter nuclei are partitioned to form two separate cells by a cell plate that grows at the equator of the mother cell. (blogspot.com)
  • Sharma was the founder of the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome which was established during his tenancy as the head of the department of Botany at the University of Kolkata. (wikipedia.org)
  • boundary
  • Second, the neo-sex chromosome is homologous to the sex chromosomes of mammals, which makes it possible - for the first time - to study mammalian X gene homologs in a novel, avian Z-linked environment where females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and thus to draw direct parallels over the avian ZW-mammalian XY boundary. (lu.se)
  • genus
  • Geogenanthus poeppiggi belongs to the genus Geogenanthus of the flowering plant family Commelinaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those which are most commonly found within this genus are hermaphroditism (monoecious plant with both staminate and pistillate), dioecy (male and female reproductive systems found in separate morphs), and gynodioecy (existence of female and hermaphroditic reproductive systems among the individuals of the population). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ajuga pyramidalis, commonly known as pyramidal bugle, is a flowering plant of the genus Ajuga in the family Lamiaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypochaeris is a genus of plants in the dandelion family. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • The genome sizes of thousands of eukaryotes have been analyzed over the past 50 years, and these data are available in online databases for animals, plants, and fungi (see external links). (wikipedia.org)
  • LOC51030 is highly conserved in chordates and also shows conservation in eukaryotes, including fungi and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The diversity present in the un-adapted gene pool has provided many useful traits now deployed widely in elite germplasm, and expanded use of this germplasm resource is seen as crucial to accelerating the rate of genetic gain in plant breeding. (krishisewa.com)
  • It was surprising to observe such a striking Y chromosome discontinuity between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, such as would be consistent with a predominantly male-mediated genetic influx" says first author Rui Martiniano. (blogspot.com)
  • When recombination does occur in XY chromosomes, it is confined to the tips of the chromosome, leaving most of the genetic material in the Y chromosome intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • The trivial name 'phytoplasma' has been adopted to collectively name wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects, which were formerly known as mycoplasma-like organisms. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Gymnosperms
  • He was the first to provide an accurate description of the embryonic sac in gymnosperms (such as conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants), along with demonstrating double-fertilization in angiosperms. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Plant
  • Sweet, Robert The British Flower Garden: Containing Coloured Figures and descriptions of Hardy Herbaceous Plants, Volume 1, p. 74, at Google Books Kelly D. Norris A Guide to Bearded Irises: Cultivating the Rainbow for Beginners and Enthusiasts, p. 122, at Google Books "Iridaceae Iris variegata L". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Several studies concentrated on Silene latifolia have shown a correlation between loci on the Y chromosome and the sex that is expressed phenotypically in the flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • particularly
  • This plant is particularly unique because its cymes rise from the lower nodes, which often looks like their growing out of the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • It is extremely hardy, because after flowering, its leaves die entirely away in the autumn and the plants remain dormant, until the spring when it regrows leaves and stems. (wikipedia.org)
  • ground
  • People in northern temperate climates will probably think twice about growing dahlias because you have to dig them up each fall, store the tubers carefully over the winter, and then plant them in the late spring when the ground temperature reaches 60 degrees . (wordpress.com)
  • flower
  • Plants do not flower or set seeds freely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lifting, dividing and replanting the rhizomes is best done once flowering has finished, because this is when the plant grows the new shoots that will flower the following year. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • If there was ever a 'king (or queen) of health foods' it would appear that the humble prune would wear the crown as they are highly nutritious and provide considerable health benefits.However, although our knowledge is growing, little is really understood of how their range of nutrients and natural plant chemicals (phytochemicals) actually work at the biological level. (totalhealth.co.uk)
  • unique
  • Prunes contain large amounts of unique phytonutrients (essential nutrients that come from plants) called neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids. (totalhealth.co.uk)