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  • alleles
  • specifically, the length differences observed between microsatellite alleles are generally multiples of the repeat unit length. (wikipedia.org)
  • (6) reported an association between prostate cancer and AR alleles with fewer CAG repeats (relative risk, 1.52) using prostate cancer cases and age-matched controls selected from participants in the Physician's Health Study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These associations between short AR CAG alleles and prostate cancer may be a consequence of enhanced transactivation function (7 , 8) or increased mRNA levels (9) observed in in vitro experiments using AR genes with fewer CAG repeats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We set out to determine whether prostate cancer was linked to the AR gene and whether we could measure an effect of short AR CAG alleles on the occurrence, age of diagnosis, and/or histological grade of prostate cancer in our families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One individual was found to carry a 12 kb deletion in one copy of the ASPA gene on 17p13, which when mutated in both alleles leads to Canavan disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • disorder
  • Expanded SCA1 and CAG repeats were found to cosegregate with the disorder in six of the families tested and were also observed in one sporadic individual with a negative family history of SCA. (springer.com)
  • The present invention is directed to methods of detecting the presence of a bipolar mood disorder susceptibility locus in an individual, comprising analyzing a sample of DNA for the presence of a DNA polymorphism on the long arm of chromosome 18 between markers D18S469 and D18S554, wherein the DNA polymorphism is associated with a form of bipolar mood disorder. (google.com)
  • The invention for the first time provides strong evidence of a susceptibility gene for bipolar mood disorder that is located in the 18q22-q23 region of the long arm of chromosome 18. (google.com)
  • The first trinucleotide repeat disorder to be identified was Fragile X syndrome , a condition which frequently exhibits co-occurring autism and is usually due to an expansion of trinucleotide CGG repeats which ultimately promotes hypermethylation and reduced gene expression . (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • DM is a multisystemic disorder caused by two different microsatellite expansions. (embopress.org)
  • Occasional families may exist in which a single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of bipolar disorder involves the interaction of multiple genes (epistasis) or more complex genetic mechanisms (such as dynamic mutation or imprinting). (bmj.com)
  • Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder. (bmj.com)
  • To date most candidate gene studies have focused on neurotransmitter systems influenced by medication used in clinical management of the disorder but no robust positive findings have yet emerged. (bmj.com)
  • DMPK
  • DM arises from the expansion of two similar non-coding microsatellites in the DMPK and CNBP genes which have been proposed to cause disease through a common mechanism, a toxic RNA gain-of-function which can either inhibit or activate specific proteins. (ufl.edu)
  • triplet
  • The first triplet disease to be identified was fragile X syndrome, which has since been mapped to the long arm of the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second, related DNA-triplet repeat disease, fragile X-E syndrome, was also identified on the X chromosome, but was found to be the result of an expanded CGG repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscleblind
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrated that in fruit flies, a protein previously known to bind CUG repeats (muscleblind, or mbl) is also capable of binding CAG repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these candidates, the muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of proteins encoded by three genes, MBNL1, MBNL2, and MBNL3, are sequestered into discrete nuclear foci by RNA repeat expansions, preventing interactions with endogenous RNA targets and compromising their activity. (ufl.edu)
  • specific genes
  • Category I includes Huntington's disease (HD) and the spinocerebellar ataxias that are caused by a CAG repeat expansion in protein-coding portions of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This and additional evidence supports the hypothesis that loss of MBNL1 function in DM causes defects in the alternative splicing of specific genes during postnatal development which leads to distinct pathological features in adult-onset disease, including myotonia and insulin insensitivity. (ufl.edu)
  • mediate
  • The mechanism by which trinucleotide secondary structures mediate expansions is not well understood. (embopress.org)
  • Thus the AR activates these genes to mediate the effects of androgens in the human body, including the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype and generalized anabolic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Identifying trinucleotide repeats as the basis of disease has brought clarity to our understanding of a complex set of inherited neurological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As more repeat expansion diseases have been discovered, several categories have been established to group them based upon similar characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These diseases are characterized by typically much larger repeat expansions than the first two groups, and the repeats are located outside of the protein-coding regions of the genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the causative genes are widely expressed in all of the known polyglutamine diseases, each disease displays an extremely selective pattern of neurodegeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microsatellite repeats, particularly trinucleotide repeats, have been indicated in a number of diseases, especially relating to the central nervous system. (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • Although the presence of these subtle mechanisms may be beneficial to a whole population, when they go wrong, as is thought to happen in the case of human trinucleotide repeat associated diseases, such as Huntington's disease, the consequences for the individual can be fatal. (bmj.com)
  • STRs
  • We also demonstrate that STRs are significantly overrepresented in disease-related genes in both human and mouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • introns
  • Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses, and can be located in a wide range of genes, including those that generate proteins , ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). (wn.com)
  • genetic
  • Although the transfer of a number of genes from these organelles to the nucleus prevents them from living independently, each still possesses genetic material in the form of double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, they are extremely useful in such fields as forensic DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis, which can be used to search for genes involved in a wide range of disorders. (bmj.com)
  • However, when used to refer to the number of repeating units of genetic information that are sufficient to encode the blueprint for something as complex as a human being, it never ceases to amaze me that this number is big enough! (bmj.com)
  • intron
  • When proteins are generated from intron-containing genes, RNA splicing takes place as part of the RNA processing pathway that follows transcription and precedes translation . (wn.com)
  • The word intron is derived from the term intragenic region , i.e. a region inside a gene. (wn.com)
  • Mahadevan et al , 1992 ), while type 2 (DM2) is caused by a CCTG expansion in intron 1 of the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3 ( Liquori et al , 2001 ). (embopress.org)
  • In breast cancer, a dinucleotide CA-repeat within the first intron of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene correlates with the gene's transcription levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phenotype
  • Thus, the phenotype of traits linked to genes found in either chloroplasts or mitochondria are determined exclusively by the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Nevertheless, even focusing as intended upon microsatellites and their relevance to humans, it should become clear that most of these questions remain ones that will require consideration, even if only in passing. (bmj.com)
  • consist
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • Overexpression of Mre11p or Rad50p suppresses the inhibition of DSB repair by CAG 98 and significantly increases the average size of expansions found at the recipient locus. (embopress.org)
  • Recent studies have provided epidemiological evidence in support of a possible prostate cancer susceptibility locus on the X chromosome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To examine the potential role of the AR locus in prostate cancer susceptibility, the AR CAG repeat length was measured in 270 Caucasian men with prostate cancer from 133 unrelated families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Once specific hereditary prostate cancer genes have been identified, future studies can more carefully delineate the potential role of this AR polymorphism as a modifier locus in high-risk families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The results in PAR1/PAR2 are the first large-scale studies of gene dosage in these regions, and the findings at the ASMT locus indicate that further studies of the duplication of the ASMT gene are needed in order to gain insight into its potential involvement in ASD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • base pairs
  • Four divergent domains consisted of microsatellite repeats biased in composition with purines on one strand and pyrimidines on the other, including mononucleotide repeats of C:G base pairs approximately 20 bp in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • AT in ATATATATAT) is repeated at least three times, (3) there are only few base pairs that do not match the periodic motif (see Methods). (biomedcentral.com)
  • PolyQ
  • Furthermore, when the CAG repeat was changed to a repeating series of CAACAG (which also translates to polyQ), toxicity was dramatically reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Overall, these results demonstrate that MBNL1 is an alternative splicing factor that regulates gene expression during postnatal life while MBNL3 expression is essential for normal myogenic differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. (ufl.edu)
  • encodes
  • The FMR1 gene encodes the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) which is thought to be involved in regulating protein synthesis. (brainscape.com)
  • short
  • For example, minisatellite DNA is a short region (1-5kb) of 20-50 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • In this latter study, short AR CAG repeat lengths predisposed to higher histological grade and more advanced stage prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mbnl
  • Our working hypothesis is that MBNL genes show distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns that influence age-of-onset and disease-associated pathological changes. (ufl.edu)
  • We conclude that Mbnl3 null lines must be created to determine if expression of this Mbnl gene is essential for normal embryonic muscle development. (ufl.edu)
  • The results are consistent with a mechanism for DM pathogenesis in which expanded repeats cause a loss of MBNL and/or gain of CELF activities, leading to misregulation of alternative splicing of specific pre‐mRNA targets. (embopress.org)
  • disorders
  • These disorders are characterized by autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance (with the exception of spino-bulbar muscular atrophy, which shows X-linked inheritance), midlife onset, a progressive course, and a correlation of the number of CAG repeats with the severity of disease and the age at onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the common etiology underlying these varied disorders, for some time it had been a mystery to scientists how glutamine expansion tracts could prove toxic. (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • Such inclusions are associated with toxicity in some of the trinucleotide repeat disorders. (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • All of these disorders have reported somatic mosaicism within the mutated genes, such that different extremes of expansion are seen in different organ systems. (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • found
  • Two subjects showed partial duplication of the TM4SF2 gene on Xp11.4, previously implicated in X-linked non-specific mental retardation, but in our subsequent analyses such variants were also found in controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • findings
  • No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. (bmj.com)
  • Chromosome 18 is also of interest but the findings are confusing with up to three possible regions implicated. (bmj.com)
  • Thus
  • The Mre11 complex thus appears to be directly involved in removing CAG or CTG hairpins that arise frequently during DNA synthesis accompanying gene conversion of these trinucleotide repeats. (embopress.org)
  • loci
  • However, the origin and evolution of tandem repeat loci remain largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distinct CRM1TR sequence variants occupy the two CRM1TR loci, indicating that there is little or no movement of repeats between loci, even though they are separated by only ~1.4 Mb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of monomers from two different CRM1TR loci shows that gene conversion is the major cause of sequence variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through statistical analysis and enhanced tag cloud representation on defined functional related genes and cross-species clusters, the proposed system can correctly represent the patterns, loci, colors, and sizes of identified SSRs in accordance with gene functions, pattern qualities, and conserved characteristics among species. (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, I identified novel QTLs underlying NPC proliferation and these loci serve as starting points to identify genes (e.g. (ubc.ca)
  • Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Decreased Rate of Evolution in Y Chromosome STR Loci of Increased Size of the Repeat Unit (Järve et al. (blogspot.com)
  • In order to study the evolutionary dynamics of STRs according to repeat unit size, we analysed variation at 24 Y chromosome repeat loci: 1 tri-, 14 tetra-, 7 penta-, and 2 hexanucleotide loci. (blogspot.com)
  • in the rodent genomes, complex ITS loci are present in which a retrotranscribed fragment of the telomerase RNA, far away from the canonical template, was inserted together with the telomeric repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the mutation rate at microsatellite loci is expected to differ from other mutation rates, such as base substitution rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSRs
  • Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are not only applied as genetic markers in evolutionary studies but they also play an important role in gene regulatory activities. (hindawi.com)
  • Efficient identification of conserved and exclusive SSRs through cross-species comparison is helpful for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and associations between specific gene groups and SSR motifs. (hindawi.com)
  • Ultraconserved or exclusive SSRs among cross-species orthologous genes could be effectively retrieved and displayed through a friendly interface design. (hindawi.com)
  • SSRs have been demonstrated as important motifs involved within various biological events including evolutionary processes, gene expression, genetic disease, chromatin organization, and DNA metabolic processes [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, identifying highly conserved SSRs through cross-species comparison may provide an alternative approach to recognize significant biomarkers or discover putative gene regulatory SSR motifs from enormous gene candidates under the assumption of natural long-term evolutionary processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widely used as molecular markers in maize genetics and breeding, but only two thousands pairs of SSRs have been published currently, which hardly satisfies for the increasing needs of geneticists and breeders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • chromosomal
  • In fact "functional DNA", consisting of transcribed genes and regions involved either in transcriptional regulation or in maintaining chromosomal structure/integrity, is thought to comprise less than a sixth of the total human genome. (bmj.com)
  • The chromosomal instability resulting from this trinucleotide expansion presents clinically as intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and macroorchidism in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscleblind
  • One of these candidates, the muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of proteins encoded by three genes, MBNL1, MBNL2, and MBNL3, are sequestered into discrete nuclear foci by RNA repeat expansions, preventing interactions with endogenous RNA targets and compromising their activity. (ufl.edu)
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrated that in fruit flies, a protein previously known to bind CUG repeats (muscleblind, or mbl) is also capable of binding CAG repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific genes
  • This and additional evidence supports the hypothesis that loss of MBNL1 function in DM causes defects in the alternative splicing of specific genes during postnatal development which leads to distinct pathological features in adult-onset disease, including myotonia and insulin insensitivity. (ufl.edu)
  • Category I includes Huntington's disease (HD) and the spinocerebellar ataxias that are caused by a CAG repeat expansion in protein-coding portions of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The search for these modifiers, much as the search for the HD gene did in the past, offers to open new entrées into the process of Huntington's disease pathogenesis by unlocking the biochemical changes that occur many years before diagnosis, and thereby providing validated target proteins and pathways for development of rational therapeutic interventions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • DM arises from the expansion of two similar non-coding microsatellites in the DMPK and CNBP genes which have been proposed to cause disease through a common mechanism, a toxic RNA gain-of-function which can either inhibit or activate specific proteins. (ufl.edu)
  • citation needed] Currently, nine neurologic disorders are known to be caused by an increased number of CAG repeats, typically in coding regions of otherwise unrelated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Queen's University, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Medical Genetics) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 2007  Sara Helen Alison Harbord, 2007 ii Abstract Skewed somatic X inactivation (XCI), X-linked gene overexpression and abnormal X content have been associated with breast and ovarian cancer. (ubc.ca)
  • Microsatellites are also used in population genetics to measure levels of relatedness between subspecies, groups and individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Skewed somatic X inactivation (XCI), X-linked gene overexpression and abnormal X content have been associated with breast and ovarian cancer. (ubc.ca)
  • Since the early 1990s, a new class of molecular disease has been characterized based upon the presence of unstable and abnormal expansions of DNA-triplets (trinucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • We propose that successive intrastrand deletions generated the initial repeat structure, and gene conversions increased the size of each tandem repeat locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coalescence age estimates, based on penta/hexanucleotide and tri/tetranucleotide repeats and the respective mutation rates, and ancestral haplotypes (estimated as the weighted median number of repeats at each locus) of Y chromosome haplogroups. (blogspot.com)
  • Overexpression of Mre11p or Rad50p suppresses the inhibition of DSB repair by CAG 98 and significantly increases the average size of expansions found at the recipient locus. (embopress.org)
  • The human androgen receptor (AR) is a protein encoded by a gene located on the proximal long arm of the X chromosome (locus Xq11-Xq12). (wikipedia.org)
  • myoglobin
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • amplification
  • Based on the insertion times of heterologous retrotransposons that have inserted into these tandem repeats, amplification of the repeats is estimated to have begun at least ~4 (CRM1TR) and ~1 (CRM4TR) million years ago. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, STR markers with longer repeat units are more robust in distinguishing Y chromosome haplogroups and, in some cases, phylogenetic splits within established haplogroups. (blogspot.com)
  • The Mre11 complex thus appears to be directly involved in removing CAG or CTG hairpins that arise frequently during DNA synthesis accompanying gene conversion of these trinucleotide repeats. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, the phenotype of traits linked to genes found in either chloroplasts or mitochondria are determined exclusively by the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • QTLs
  • A genome-wide association study in catfish reveals the presence of functional hubs of related genes within QTLs for columnaris disease resistance. (auburn.edu)
  • Genetic variation in QTLs on chromosome (Chr) 6 and 11 were significantly associated with the differences in NPC numbers in the RMS. (ubc.ca)
  • These QTLs are hypothesized to harbor genes important for NPC proliferation and downstream experimentation is required to validate the function of these genes. (ubc.ca)
  • genome-wide
  • My thesis aims to gain insights into the genes regulating NPC proliferation using a phenotypic-driven, genome-wide approach. (ubc.ca)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, we show that MBNL1 interacts with DM1 pathogenic and non-pathogenic repeat RNAs, but inherent differences in these interactions contribute to the ability to promote disease associated changes in alternative splicing. (ufl.edu)
  • Additionally, repeat regions with proximal repeats are more likely to be mutated. (g3journal.org)
  • humans
  • Nevertheless, even focusing as intended upon microsatellites and their relevance to humans, it should become clear that most of these questions remain ones that will require consideration, even if only in passing. (bmj.com)
  • foci
  • If the repeat is present in an intron it can cause toxic effects by forming spherical clusters called RNA foci in cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletions
  • A bias toward deletions at homopolymers and insertions at (AT) n microsatellites suggests a different mechanism for mismatch generation at these sites. (g3journal.org)
  • The telomeric repeat insertion occurred either without modification of the sequence at the break site or with processing of the ends produced by the break involving deletions, insertions or target site duplications [ 17 ] (Additional data file 1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • repetitive
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • In all RU variants examined, tandem repeats of the CGCAC:GTGCG sequence motif were also found adjacent to a C:G mononucleotide repeat within one of the repetitive pyrimidine:purine divergent domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogenetic
  • Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: Identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress. (auburn.edu)
  • Centromeric
  • In maize, centromeric satellite repeat (CentC) and centromeric retrotransposons (CR), a class of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, are enriched at centromeres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maize centromeres are enriched in the tandem centromeric satellite repeat CentC and centromeric retrotransposons (CR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most satellite DNA is localized to the telomeric or the centromeric region of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • androgen
  • We investigated the association between polymorphism in the androgen receptor ( AR ) and vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) genes and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study of genetically homogenous Swedish women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This combination functions as a transcription complex to turn on androgen gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • These data indicate that repair‐ associated DNA synthesis is inhibited by secondary structures formed by CAG 98 and that these structures promote repeat expansions during DSB repair. (embopress.org)
  • Telomerase utilizes a portion of its RNA component as a template for the synthesis of telomeric repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanism
  • Since that time, extensive investigations into the pathogenic mechanism have utilized the knowledge of the disease gene and its defect but, with notable exceptions, have rarely relied for guidance on the genetic findings in human patients to interpret the relevance of findings in non-human model systems. (beds.ac.uk)
  • overexpression
  • Partial or complete reactivation of the inactive X in females may be a step in breast and ovarian cancer progression, leading to overexpression of some tumour enhancing gene. (ubc.ca)
  • short
  • Investigations of the relation between the AR polymorphism and breast cancer ( Table 1 ) have been conflicting, variably reporting that short repeats are associated with a decreased risk ( 14 - 18 ) or are not associated with risk ( 19 - 21 ) or are associated with decreased breast cancer survival ( 16 , 22 , 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we focus on a class of very short tandem repeats and their contribution to disease risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, minisatellite DNA is a short region (1-5kb) of 20-50 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • base-pairs
  • AT in ATATATATAT) is repeated at least three times, (3) there are only few base pairs that do not match the periodic motif (see Methods). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four divergent domains consisted of microsatellite repeats biased in composition with purines on one strand and pyrimidines on the other, including mononucleotide repeats of C:G base pairs approximately 20 bp in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the strand-biased microsatellite repeats and G:C mononucleotide repeats, all sequence variations retained one or two base pairs with A (purine) interrupting the pyrimidine-rich strand and T (pyrimidine) interrupting the purine-rich strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • These data suggest a closer scrutiny of tumor suppressors with homopolymeric runs with proximal repeats as the potential drivers of oncogenesis in mismatch repair defective cells. (g3journal.org)
  • regulatory
  • Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response. (auburn.edu)
  • adjacent
  • Interestingly, 5% of the single base pair substitutions might represent double-slippage events that occurred at the junction of immediately adjacent repeats, resulting in a shift in the repeat boundary. (g3journal.org)
  • Markers
  • Markers of an X reactivation event were examined: X gene dosage, expression, and methylation in 8 ovarian cancer cell lines. (ubc.ca)
  • Expression
  • Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges. (auburn.edu)
  • As proof of concept, a candidate gene called Galanin receptor 2 (Galr2) in the Chr 11 QTL was demonstrated to be a pro-proliferative regulator of NPCs using in vitro techniques manipulating Galr2 expression and Galr2 knockout mice. (ubc.ca)
  • Expression levels of 8 X-linked genes were assessed by real-time PCR. (ubc.ca)
  • Expression was inconsistent between different genes and among cell lines, ranging from a 2 to 300-fold increase compared to a control. (ubc.ca)
  • Overall, expression was greatly increased for genes subject to inactivation but not increased in genes that escape inactivation for most ovarian cancer cell lines. (ubc.ca)
  • Nevertheless, several interesting hypotheses exist suggesting that certain microsatellites may exert subtle influences on the regulation of gene expression. (bmj.com)
  • Our working hypothesis is that MBNL genes show distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns that influence age-of-onset and disease-associated pathological changes. (ufl.edu)
  • We conclude that Mbnl3 null lines must be created to determine if expression of this Mbnl gene is essential for normal embryonic muscle development. (ufl.edu)
  • Overall, these results demonstrate that MBNL1 is an alternative splicing factor that regulates gene expression during postnatal life while MBNL3 expression is essential for normal myogenic differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. (ufl.edu)