• genes
  • Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome vary (for technical details, see gene prediction). (wikipedia.org)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • To improve our ability to detect and prioritize chromosomal regions containing type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes, the GIFT consortium has implemented a meta-analysis of four scans conducted in European samples. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The proportion of a genome that encodes for genes may be very small (particularly in eukaryotes such as humans, where coding DNA may only account for a few percent of the entire sequence). (wikipedia.org)
  • The next stage took place after the development of genetics in the early 20th century, when it was appreciated that chromosomes (that can be observed by karyotype) were the carrier of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBR1 interacts with various genes and proteins in order to regulate cortical development, specifically within layer VI of the developing six-layered human cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, due to its relation to T-box genes (such as Tbx-1, Tbx-2, Tbx-3), TES-56 was renamed TBR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β-subunit of hCG gonadotropin (beta-hCG) contains 145 amino acids, encoded by six highly homologous genes that are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 - CGB (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8) The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of a sphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor, which is involved in speech development, are different in the human lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several genes involved in hearing were also found to have changed during human evolution, suggesting selection involving human language-related behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • A database now exists containing the genetic differences between human and chimpanzee genes, with about thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively small changes in these genes may account for the morphological differences between humans and chimps. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of 348 transcription factor genes code for proteins with an average of about 50 percent more amino acid changes in the human lineage than in the chimp lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pattern suggests that one or a few strongly selected genes in the chromosome region may have been preventing the random accumulation of neutral changes in other nearby genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although changes in expression of genes that are expressed in the brain tend to be less than for other organs (such as liver) on average, gene expression changes in the brain have been more dramatic in the human lineage than in the chimp lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Vampires are one of the four known supernatural species in the Twilight series, with the others being vampire-human hybrids , true werewolves (also called Children of the Moon), and shapeshifters . (wikia.com)
  • Similar complexities and prevalent sterility pertain to horse-zebra hybrids, or zorses, whose chromosomal disparity is very wide, with horses typically having 32 chromosome pairs and zebras between 16 and 23 depending on species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo-anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The previously clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, and Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English). (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunological response of a species to its own antigens (e.g. human to human) was set to be 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic number of chromosomes in the somatic cells of an individual or a species is called the somatic number and is designated 2n. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthologs were found in species as distantly related to Humans as the Choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis using BLAST and the ALIGN tool through the San Diego Super Computer Biology Workbench. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homo
  • Linnaeus (1758) used Homo troglodytes as the taxonomical name for a hypothetical human and orangutan hybrid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern humans (Homo sapiens, ssp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, and that sapiens is the singular form (while there is no such word as sapien). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Homo sapiens, the CCDC142 gene encodes for two alternatively spliced isoforms of the mRNA, called isoform 1 and isoform 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • metaphase
  • It localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei, but it is enriched within the centromeric heterochromatin of metaphase chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joe Hin Tjio working in Albert Levan's lab was responsible for finding the approach: Using cells in tissue culture Pretreating cells in a hypotonic solution, which swells them and spreads the chromosomes Arresting mitosis in metaphase by a solution of colchicine Squashing the preparation on the slide forcing the chromosomes into a single plane Cutting up a photomicrograph and arranging the result into an indisputable karyogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In eukaryotic cells (cells that package their DNA within a nucleus), chromosomes consist of very long linear double-stranded DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is an intriguing cellular mechanism with links to many poorly understood features of the folding of chromosomes inside the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also noticed by Mary Lyon that the inactive X took on a condensed structure in the nucleus called the Barr body (Figure 5) at the same time during development as the genetic inactivation of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now well-accepted that chromatin is not randomly organized in the cell nucleus, but the positions of each chromosome domain relative to its neighboring domains is characteristic of different cell types, and after this geography is established in each newly formed cell, the chromosome domains do not move appreciably until the next cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • PILRA is thought to act as a cellular signaling inhibitory receptor by recruiting cytoplasmic phosphatases like PTPN6 /SHP-1 and PTPN11 /SHP-2 via their SH2 domains that block signal transduction through dephosphorylation of signaling molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • diploid
  • CISH showed that all cases with faint staining were diploid, while from the cases with moderate staining 10 were diploid and 12 polysomic for chromosome 17. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Investigation into the human karyotype took many years to settle the most basic question: how many chromosomes does a normal diploid human cell contain? (wikipedia.org)
  • Painter in 1922 was not certain whether the diploid of humans was 46 or 48, at first favoring 46, but revised his opinion from 46 to 48, and he correctly insisted on humans having an XX/XY system. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestors
  • I do know that if our ancient ancestors had 24 chromosomes and 2 joined together then that would leave 23, not 22. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • In 1960, J. H. Taylor showed that the active and inactive X chromosomes replicate in a different pattern, with the active X replicating earlier than the inactive X, whereas all the other pairs of chromosomes replicate in the same temporal pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • segment
  • Frequently a few adjacent origins open up to duplicate a segment of a chromosome, followed some time later by another group of origins opening up in an adjacent segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • researcher
  • In 1977, researcher J. Michael Bedford discovered that human sperm could penetrate the protective outer membranes of a gibbon egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • An example of such assembler Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package developed by BGI for de novo assembly of human-sized genomes, alignment, SNP detection, resequencing, indel finding, and structural variation analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin is glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately 14.5 αhCG and 22.2kDa βhCG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference in length is made entirely by amino acids missing from the C-terminus of isoform 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human form has 1883 amino acid residues, with an isoelectric point of 8.74 and a molecular mass of 205,100 Daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences
  • Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes, and any other physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six different characteristics of karyotypes are usually observed and compared: Differences in absolute sizes of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms
  • The main difference between the isoforms that isoform 2 has a shorter exon 9 and 3' UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, increasing numbers of human societies began to practice sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus allowing for the growth of civilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • hybrids
  • In a direct parallel to the chimp-human case, the Przewalski's Horse (Equus przewalskii) with 33 chromosome pairs, and the domestic horse (E. caballus) with 32 pairs, have been found to be interfertile, and produce semi-fertile offspring: male hybrids can breed with female domestic horses. (wikipedia.org)