• genomic
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • For example, the haploid complement of Homo sapiens DNA contains between 3.12 and 3.2 gigabases (the prefix "giga" denotes billions), while the haploid complement of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) DNA contains 12,057,500 base pairs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • evolution
  • In the last 2 decades, PCR- and sequence-based techniques, particularly whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly furthered our knowledge of the genetic diversity, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this once enigmatic pathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. (frontiersin.org)
  • May we not feel that in the virus, in their merging with the cellular genome and their re-emerging from them, we observe processes which, in the course of evolution, have created the succesful genetic patterns that underlie all living things? (panspermia.org)
  • Thus, if one is to understand genome structure and its evolution, one must understand transposable elements. (mbl.edu)
  • Our research teams explore the basic science questions of how mobile genetic elements accomplish their movement and how that movement affects genome evolution. (mbl.edu)
  • In the process of addressing these questions we may also gain insights into related phenomena such as retroviral infection, antibody gene formation, RNA splicing, protein splicing, the evolution of sexual reproduction, and the lateral dispersal of transposable elements in the biosphere. (mbl.edu)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of genes
  • Relocation of genes from the intracellular symbiont into the host genome is critical to the origin of organelles by endosymbiosis, and an increasingly large body of evidence indicates that acquisition of genes from external sources can influence the organelle function to a large extent. (springer.com)
  • strains
  • This review considers strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in the mosquito, together with issues related to the transfer of laboratory-acquired knowledge to the field, such as minimization of transgene fitness load to the mosquito, driving genes through populations, avoiding the selection of resistant strains, and how to produce and release populations of males only. (biologists.org)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transposon
  • The transposase makes a staggered cut at the target site producing sticky ends, cuts out the DNA transposon and ligates it into the target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposon that avoids these problems and functions in any bacterial species would provide a universal tool for genetic studies of several species including many important pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • transfer
  • This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fact, both mariner -like and Tc1-like elements have been used to transfer markers between insects ( 14 - 16 ), and the mariner element Mos1 , originally derived from Drosophila mauritania , has been shown to transpose in Leishmania major ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the analogy between genes and written text, this move is a transfer of paragraphs or pages from one library to another. (panspermia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded by the host that are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.2.4 Extrachromosomal agents and horizontal gene transfer. (nhbs.com)
  • Genes mix and match in processes like horizontal gene transfer and gene or genome duplications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of wilt-fungi like Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, the increased virulence is dependent on homologous genes picked up from some incidence of horizontal gene transfer with a bacterium early in its evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposition
  • Transposition often results in duplication of the same genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposition enables a piece of DNA to move within the same chromosome, or to a different chromosome, to a location with which it has no similarity. (panspermia.org)
  • These latter discoveries demonstrated that transposable elements can have important medically relevant effects, led to the discoveries of multiple different transposition pathways, and stimulated an enormous output of transposable element research. (mbl.edu)
  • Dr. Reznikoff is interested in DNA transposition, in which the DNA sequence of the transposable element is cut out of a donor DNA molecule and inserted into a new site. (mbl.edu)
  • DNA transposition is catalyzed by element-encoded proteins called transposases that are structurally and mechanistically related to retroviral integrases and to the immune system RAG-1 protein. (mbl.edu)
  • evolutionary
  • The Darwinian paradigm holds that copying mistakes and the shuffling of existing genes are sufficient to write the new genes needed for evolutionary advances. (panspermia.org)
  • Instead, for a species to make evolutionary progress, new genes must first be installed into its genome from outside. (panspermia.org)
  • The four most widely recognised evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this gene to highlight beak diversity, along with whole genome sequencing of 120 individuals from the different islands, the researchers concluded that individual finches of different species had more similar beak shapes and sizes with birds inhabiting the same islands, and thus feeding from the same sources of food, than with birds of the same species that lived on different islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • Prokaryotic cells tend to be very small, have few or no cytoplasmic organelles, and have the cellular DNA arranged in a "nucleoid region" that is not separated from the remainder of the cell by any membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that gene number is the main factor influencing the size of the prokaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • The non-coding portions of the gene, known as introns, which are largely not present in prokaryotes, are removed by RNA splicing before translation of the protein can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic
  • During interphase, the nuclear DNA is organized in a dispersed network of chromatin , which is a complex consisting of nucleic acid and basic proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • novel
  • In one novel use of high-throughput sequencing, homologously recombinant subpopulations of the bacterial culture were detected. (nih.gov)
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • Dr. Belfort studies mobile introns and inteins, elements that interrupt genes and that are removed by RNA and protein splicing, respectively. (mbl.edu)
  • modification
  • In recent years, methods for the genetic modification of mosquitoes have been developed, and effector genes whose products interfere with Plasmodium development in the mosquito are beginning to be identified. (biologists.org)
  • Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • When one of them infects a new cell, it inserts the stolen DNA into the new cell, where the stolen piece becomes integrated into the new cell's DNA. (panspermia.org)
  • Polymerase
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • retroviral
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)