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  • bacteria
  • Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation , conjugation and transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite being integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the bacteria, the F factor of Hfr cells can still initiate conjugative transfer, without being excised from the bacterial chromosome first. (wikipedia.org)
  • If effective genes are well understood, bacteria and plants could be genetically modified to clean up even those pollutants that are not chemically found in nature such as herbicides, pesticides and plastics. (prezi.com)
  • Steve Busby's work concerns the mechanisms by which the expression of different genes is regulated in bacteria. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only known gene is vicA, the fourth gene in the operon, whose product is a Mas homologue, a protein needed for the switch from citric acid cycle to glyoxylate cycle, both for metabolic reasons and to avoid glyoxylate accumulation, which is toxic for the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one example, quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to restrict the expression of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the resulting phenotypes will be most beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, they must possess three characteristics: to secrete a signaling molecule, an autoinducer, to detect the change in concentration of signaling molecules, and to regulate gene transcription as a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they have a receptor that detects AHLs from other bacteria and change their gene expression in accordance with the presence of other "quorate" populations of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unusually, the toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • H-NS is about 15.6 kDa and assists in the regulation of bacterial transcription in bacteria by repressing and activating certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • In addition to the lantibiotic Cyl gene cluster, this revealed a novel set of virulence factors involved in vancomycin resistance and pathogenicity [ PMID: 12066186 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • All effects coming from the infection of R. fascians do not depend on plant cells transformation (as for Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Agrobacterium rhizogenes), but on expression of virulence-related genes of bacterium and on the production of compounds that can interfere with normal plant growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, hyp is involved in post transcriptional control of virulence-related genes, maybe on fas products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • Functional analysis of the mutations is done in transgenic mice lacking the endogenous Brca2 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1998). Different chromosomal-determined genetic elements have shown their functional role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to the plant cell and bacterial colonization: the loci chvA and chvB, involved in the synthesis and excretion of the b -1,2 glucan (Cangelosi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent example had used iPSC of patient with SOD-1 dominant mutation and they studied the motor neurons derived from the patient, and they found that the functional genes and the ER stress regulating genes of the mitochondria were reduced in SOD-1 patients, similar to the effect of C9orf72 mutation on the patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method has been used to generate functional bacterial or yeast chromosomes containing approximately one million base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The operon codifies for genes involved in cytokinin synthesis and degradation (orf 4,5,6), in particular for an isopentenyl transferase, a cytokinin oxidase and a glutation-s transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was supposed that the first three genes supply energy for the synthesis and degradation of cytokinin, performed by the last three genes of the operon: R. fascians can actually produce and degrade zeatin and isopentenil adenine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes attA-attH may be involved in synthesis of compounds needed for transcription of attR and attX. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the genes encoding for the synthesis of opines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercial gene synthesis services are now available from numerous companies worldwide, some of which have built their business model around this task. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current gene synthesis approaches are most often based on a combination of organic chemistry and molecular biological techniques and entire genes may be synthesized "de novo", without the need for precursor template DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Because of the large numbers of nucleotide changes made to the original DNA sequence, the only practical way to create the newly designed genes is to use gene synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Using deletion mutations, it was possible to identify three loci on the plasmid: fas, att, and hyp, and one locus on the chromosome, vic. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Cells that do contain chromosomes with DNA ends, or telomeres (most eukaryotes), have acquired elaborate mechanisms to overcome these challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • At high cell density, the local concentration of signaling molecules may exceed its threshold level, and trigger changes in gene expressions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The results support the view that the mammalian SCN is composed of functionally distinct cell groups, of which some are light induced and others are rhythmic with respect to clock gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Alternatively, it may be that two distinct populations of cells, one rhythmic and the other nonrhythmic with regard to clock gene expression, are a general feature of mammalian SCN organization. (jneurosci.org)
  • regulate
  • Individual enhancers in BMP genes provide a genomic mechanism for controlling precise growth domains in particular cartilages and bones, making it possible to separately regulate skeletal anatomy at highly specific locations in the body. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • antibiotic
  • A gene that makes the cells resistant to an antibiotic such as the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin, spectinomycin or tetracyclin, is an easy selector to use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic gene is not usually transferred to the plant cell but remains within the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjugative transfer
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1984
  • Rhodococcus fascians (known as Corynebacterium fascians until 1984) is a Gram positive bacterial phytopathogen that causes leafy gall disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Degradation of toxic chemicals requires complex biochemical pathways that involve many enzymes, which are coded for by many genes. (prezi.com)
  • During the elongation phase of replication, the enzymes that were assembled at oriC during initiation proceed along each arm ("replichore") of the chromosome, in opposite directions away from the oriC, replicating the DNA to create two identical copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elongation enzymes then disassemble, and the two "daughter" chromosomes are resolved before cell division is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • It can occur within a single bacterial species, as well as between diverse species. (wikipedia.org)
  • BacMap is a freely available web-accessible database containing fully annotated, fully zoomable and fully searchable chromosome maps from more than 2500 prokaryotic (archaebacterial and eubacterial) species. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the bacterial species listed in BacMap now have bacterial 'biography' cards, with corresponding information on the microbe's taxonomy, phenotypic traits, other descriptions and electron microscopy or other high-resolution images of the microbe itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction−induced artifacts. (g3journal.org)
  • used a de novo sequencing approach, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of Mst77Y -like genes followed by cloning and sequencing, and found 18 Mst77Y genes. (g3journal.org)
  • sequence
  • sequenced more than 100 clones and only picked gene sequence variants occurring twice or more. (g3journal.org)
  • The speB gene encodes for an amino acid sequence that becomes the 40 kDa zymogen, known as SpeBz, after cleavage of the signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • C) is cultured inside the human cell, which contains the gene to be cloned. (bartleby.com)
  • Due to the large size of bacterial chromosome, it is very rare for the entire chromosome to be transferred into the F − cell as time required is simply too long for the cells to maintain their physical contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other genes required for RcGTA function, such as the genes required for RcGTA release through cell lysis are located separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. (g3journal.org)
  • genomic
  • Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. (g3journal.org)
  • incorporation
  • There are generally three types of recombination events that can lead to this incorporation of bacterial DNA into the viral DNA, leading to two modes of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have carried out large-scale enhancer surveys to identify the regulatory architecture controlling developmental expression of the mouse Bmp5 gene, which encodes a secreted signaling molecule required for normal morphology of specific skeletal features. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our findings suggest that individual bones are composite structures whose detailed growth patterns are built from many smaller lineage and gene expression domains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this case, motor cells can be grown, and the gene expression is controlled. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to knock-out/in genes that are related to ALS, and it is very beneficial in increasing the expression of the genes to mimic the human model of ALS for a faster onset of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Redesigning these genes offers a means to improve gene expression in many cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Infected plants show typical symptoms, such as leaf deformation, witches broom and leaf gall, which development depends on the plant's cultivar, plant's age, and the bacterial strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • We are interested in the structure of the TCR on the surface of T lymphocytes, the cytoplasmic signaling proteins that convey the signal to the nucleus and how new genes get turned on by TCR signals. (openwetware.org)
  • The expression of synthetic genes encoding proteins rich in essential amino acids, along with normal protein production within the tuber, may increase the overall nutritional quality of the potato as well as its aggregated value in the market especially for the food industry. (springer.com)
  • In western blotting of bacterial extracts, This antibody does not cross-react with endogenous proteins. (abnova.com)
  • These vesicles are complex structures made of proteins encoded by at least 14 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • All Archaea have lipids with ether links between the head group and side chains, making the lipids more resistant to heat and acidity than bacterial and eukaryotic ester-linked lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also involved in chromosome separation (mitosis and meiosis), and are the major constituents of mitotic spindles, which are used to pull apart eukaryotic chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • In this context, "genome size" was being used in the sense of genotype to mean the number of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 1970s, "genome size" was in common usage with its present definition, probably as a result of its inclusion in Susumu Ohno's influential book Evolution by Gene Duplication, published in 1970. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, but not prokaryotes, variation in genome size is not proportional to the number of genes, an observation that was deemed wholly counterintuitive before the discovery of non-coding DNA and which became known as the C-value paradox as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although there is no longer any paradoxical aspect to the discrepancy between genome size and gene number, this term remains in common usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many mitochondria have less than 20 genes in their entire genome, whereas a free-living bacterium generally has at least 1000 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, and transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
  • 8 ] analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a bacteriophage-type DNA polymerase gene and revealed three clusters of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' strains from the Southeast Asia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The next step in this new gene formation involves V(D)J recombinations and class switch recombinations, i.e. the deletion and subsequent recombination of various gene segments at the heavy chain locus so that the gene codes for either an IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD antibody isotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in humans, promoters show certain structural features characteristic for each chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The researchers were able to use the MinION™ to accurately identify and differentiate viral and bacterial species from samples. (blogspot.se)
  • In this issue of the JCI , Cottineau and colleagues characterize 5 individuals who exhibited growth restriction, facial deformities, and a history of bacterial and viral infection. (jci.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent analysis of a wide range of mtDNA genomes suggests that both these features may dictate mitochondrial gene retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • FISH allows the analysis of a large series of archival cases much easier to identify the pinpointed chromosome by creating a probe with an artificial chromosomal foundation that will attract similar chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • 7 ] identified an outer member protein gene ( omp ) to differentiate isolates/strains of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' from different geographical origins, although each regions was represented by only one to three strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • regulate
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sequence
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Names and taxonomy' section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • At this point, though the drug had shown success in treating numerous bacterial diseases, it was still so difficult to produce and so dilute that it was not feasible to produce quantities large enough for mass production, so an effort was begun to find a strain of Penicillium with a higher rate of production of penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Our subsequent experimental work focused upon practical applications of BOEC: their use for gene therapy, tissue engineering, assessment of mutant gene effect, and discovery of heterogeneity in endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • resistance
  • Destéfano-Beltran L, Nagpala P, Cetiner S, Dodds JH, Jaynes JM (1990) Enhancing bacterial fungal disease resistance in plants: application to potato. (springer.com)
  • expression
  • Re-programming by new gene expression is important for the development of the thymocyte precursors of T cells in the thymus and for the response of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs. (openwetware.org)
  • In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • For instance, Dr. Stephen Meyer of Discovery Institute says that "bacterial cells are propelled by rotary engines called flagellar motors that rotate at 100,000 rpm," which is powerful evidence for design by an intelligent cause. (blogspot.fi)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The ENO3 gene makes a chemical called enolase, which is an enzyme that helps the muscles use glycogen for energy. (nih.gov)
  • location
  • This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)