• genomes
  • We observed remarkable gene order conservation (synteny) between these genomes despite the difference in repetitive element content, which accounts for most of the genome size difference between them. (jove.com)
  • The fact that the CS-505 and D9 genomes are small and streamlined compared to those of other filamentous cyanobacterial species and the lack of the ability for heterocyst formation in strain D9 allowed us to define a core set of genes responsible for each trait in filamentous species. (jove.com)
  • Further comparisons to all available cyanobacterial genomes covering almost the entire evolutionary branch revealed a common minimal gene set for each of these cyanobacterial traits. (jove.com)
  • Large-scale GI maps have been reported for eukaryotic organisms like yeast 3-7 , but GI information remains sparse for prokaryotes 8 , which hinders the functional annotation of bacterial genomes. (jove.com)
  • 3. How do bacterial genomes change during the course of chronic infections? (drexel.edu)
  • Genetic
  • Phenotypes are determined by a complex series of physical ( e.g. protein-protein) and functional ( e.g. gene-gene or genetic) interactions (GI) 1 . (jove.com)
  • Recombination probably mediates genetic change in all bacterial species and is likely to have been crucial in allowing bacteria to avoid the immune response, in distributing among the population genes that increase virulence or transmission between hosts, and in providing increased resistance to antibiotics. (asmscience.org)
  • Included among the highly variable loci of B. cereus s.l. are a diverse range of mobile genetic elements, including small plasmids, insertion sequences, transposons, introns and, importantly, bacteriophages ( 21 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacteriophages have a very well-described impact on bacterial genetic diversity and behavior through the introduction of virus-encoded factors that alter bacterial phenotypes in a process called lysogenic conversion ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Plasmids and prophages are known to play specific roles in gene transfer in bacteria and can potentially serve as efficient genetic tools in these organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, a wide distribution of homologs of the three rep genes was identified in L. interrogans isolates, and correlation tests showed that the transformability of the shuttle vectors in L. interrogans isolates depended, to certain extent, on genetic compatibility between the rep sequences of both plasmid and host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vectors constructed with the rep genes of the three replicons successfully transformed into saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira species alike, but this was partly dependent on genetic compatibility between the rep sequences of both plasmid and host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the first complete genome of the bacterium was published a decade ago [ 3 ], remarkable progress has been made in understanding its genetic blueprint as well as the functions of a variety of its genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial recombination In Bacteria there are: regular bacterial recombination, as well as noneffective transfer of genetic material, expressed as unsuccessful transfer or abortive transfer which is any bacterial DNA transfer of the donor cell recipients who have set the incoming DNA as part of the genetic material of the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shuffling of genes brought about by genetic recombination produces increased genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Typically, we use loss-of-function single mutants bearing non-essential gene deletions ( e.g. the 'Keio' collection 11 ) and essential gene hypomorphic mutations ( i.e. alleles conferring reduced protein expression, stability, or activity 9, 12, 13 ) to query the functional associations of non-essential and essential genes, respectively. (jove.com)
  • Aggravating (or negative) GIs often result between loss-of-function mutations in pairs of genes from compensatory pathways that impinge on the same essential process 2 . (jove.com)
  • Efficient clinical xenotransplantation requires multi-modified pigs that coexpress several xenoprotective transgenes and carry inactivation mutations in several endogenous genes. (tum.de)
  • encode
  • The low mutant frequency suggests that a relatively small number of genes make a major contribution to this phenotype or that other thermotolerance genes encode essential or redundant functions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although the HOT1 locus was shown previously to encode a major heat shock protein (Hsp), Hsp101, chromosomal map positions indicate that HOT2, 3 , and 4 do not correspond to major Hsp or heat shock transcription factor genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Phage
  • Phage particles were observed in the culture supernatant of 56609 after mitomycin C induction, and lcp3, which contained phage-related genes, was considered to be an inducible prophage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 174, 11-15), has been exploited in studies aimed at the identification of a transducing phage carrying this locus. (mun.ca)
  • The coding capacities of a λaroA transducing phage containing a portion of this chromosomal region (R. Weisberg, personal communication), have been analysed in an UVL irradiation and infection system by a combination of techniques of immunoprecipitation and SDS and two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (mun.ca)
  • This information has permitted an analysis of the relationship between the arrangement of bacterial DNA sequences in the insert contained by the transducing phage and that of the chromosomal region from which it was derived. (mun.ca)
  • The similarity of structure indicated by this analysis supports identification of the bacterial activity governing expression of rpsA in the phage context as the normal chromosomal promoter for this gene. (mun.ca)
  • genomic
  • In this work different approaches are shown how several xenoprotective transgenes can be combined at one genomic locus. (tum.de)
  • By this approach several xenogenes can be precisely placed "step by step" at a single genomic locus known to support expression. (tum.de)
  • The long-term goal of this research is to apply statistical genomic approaches developed by human geneticists to the identification of bacterial virulence factors that contribute to disease in natural populations. (drexel.edu)
  • alleles
  • In previous work, we identified single recessive alleles of four loci required for thermotolerance of hypocotyl elongation, hot1-1, hot2-1, hot3-1 , and hot4-1 . (plantphysiol.org)
  • Completed screening of M 2 progeny from approximately 2500 M 1 plants has now identified new alleles of three of these original loci, along with three new loci. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have described both missense and protein null alleles of the Hsp101 gene ( HOT1 ) that do not acquire thermotolerance in response to pretreatments at several stages of development (Hong and Vierling, 2000 , 2001 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The crossover process leads to offspring having different combinations of genes from those of their parents, and can occasionally produce new chimeric alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • GI screens, in which the growth of double mutants bearing two deleted or inactivated genes is measured and compared to the corresponding single mutants, can illuminate epistatic dependencies between loci and hence provide a means to query and discover novel functional relationships 2 . (jove.com)
  • Four out of the five chromosomal mutants were defective to various extents at injecting Yops into tissue culture cells. (jove.com)
  • regulatory
  • Within the past two decades, we have entered into a new RNA regulatory era where countless examples of RNAs that function to control gene expression across all kingdoms of life have been characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we investigate the contribution of chromosomal genes to the complex regulatory process controlling type III secretion in Yersinia pestis. (jove.com)
  • The main hurdle at the moment is to obtain high and ubiquitous expression of all complement regulatory genes and to combine all the necessary modifications into a single genotype. (tum.de)
  • Cells revealing the highest expression levels of the complement regulatory genes were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer and two founder animals were obtained. (tum.de)
  • genome-wide
  • The purpose of this study was to perform a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of key genes encoding metabolism of diverse storage compounds by Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and to examine its ability to synthesize and accumulate triacylglycerols (TAG), wax esters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), glycogen and polyphosphate (PolyP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have generated high-resolution genome-wide maps of transformation, finding massive variation in rates at different chromosomal loci. (drexel.edu)
  • Selection for recombinants that acquired the trait, followed by genome-wide profiling of donor-specific allele frequencies, we can rapidly identify the relevant genes. (drexel.edu)
  • strains
  • YSU or of a wider variety of bacterial strains. (jove.com)
  • With the aim of identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate oenological phenotypes, we performed linkage analysis using three crosses between highly diverged S. cerevisiae strains. (jove.com)
  • protein
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Conversely, alleviating (or positive) interactions can occur between genes in the same pathway or protein complex 2 as the deletion of either gene alone is often sufficient to perturb the normal function of the pathway or complex such that additional perturbations do not reduce activity, and hence growth, further. (jove.com)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the archaea, the ortholog of the bacterial RecA protein is RadA. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • We observed that genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, sugar transport, nitrogen metabolism, and the uncharacterized ORF YJR030W explained most of the phenotypic variation in oenological traits. (jove.com)
  • infection
  • We have used this method to map an operon involved in intracellular invasion of airway epithelial cells, a trait with implications for chronic infection, bacterial persistence, and trafficking of cells to different body sites. (drexel.edu)
  • different
  • The oenological phenotypes resulting from fermentation, such as the production of acetic acid, glycerol, and residual sugar concentration are regulated by multiple genes and vary quantitatively between different strain backgrounds. (jove.com)
  • expression
  • First, it does not rely on the expression of a transposase gene by the host. (jove.com)
  • We also found that reduced expression of the three virulence genes correlated with a strong decrease in virulence in a sea bass model, demonstrating that RstB constitutes a master regulator of the three P. damselae subsp. (frontiersin.org)
  • define
  • Further analysis of the original four loci was performed to define the nature of their thermotolerance defects. (plantphysiol.org)
  • pathway
  • Overall, systematically identifying and analyzing GI networks can provide unbiased, global maps of the functional relationships between large numbers of genes, from which pathway-level information missed by other approaches can be inferred 9 . (jove.com)
  • isolates
  • The OXA-23 gene was detected at high prevalence among the CRAB isolates and the prevalence rate among the various STs differed. (frontiersin.org)
  • single
  • Here, the loss of a single gene is buffered, such that either single mutant is viable. (jove.com)
  • 10. The seed of claim 7, wherein one or both of the first and second plants comprises a single locus conversion. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • cells
  • Subsequently, these cells were further modified by a knockout of the GGTA1 gene. (tum.de)
  • human
  • Our primary model system is the human bacterial pathogen Haemophilus influenzae , an important agent of ear infections (otitis media) in children, as well as lung infections associated with chronic respiratory conditions. (drexel.edu)
  • several
  • Based on this information, the location of several genes on the classical map can be approximated with respect to RFLP markers without having to map them directly. (springer.com)
  • high
  • To this end, we and others have developed high-throughput quantitative bacterial GI screening methods 9, 10 . (jove.com)