• phenotype
  • To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • These include glycolysis enzymes, which allow ATP synthesis in an oxygen-independent manner, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines and growth factors
  • Local factors are necessary for intercellular communication and include cytokines and growth factors. (unu.edu)
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • Transforming
  • The term cytokine is now generally used to include molecules that were originally defined as growth factors, e.g., the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the transforming growth factors (TGF alpha and TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (unu.edu)
  • GDF2 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF2 contains an N-terminal TGF-beta-like pro-peptide (prodomain) (residues 56-257) and a C-terminal transforming growth factor beta superfamily domain (325-428). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Using an in vivo avian model for mechanical loading, we have found increased blood penetration into the growth plates of loaded chicks. (physiology.org)
  • intracellular
  • Previously, we have shown that expression of D469del-COMP in transgenic mice causes intracellular retention of D469del-COMP, thereby recapitulating pseudoachondroplasia chondrocyte pathology. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular retention of COMP in growth plates of D469del-COMP mice from E15 to 2 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • Fibroblast
  • FGF-3 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • My currently evolving model involves growing primary rat costal chondrocytes in 1.2% alginate gels, examining the ECM proteins (collagens) and proteoglycans they produce. (protocol-online.org)
  • cells
  • I'd also like to hearing pointers any of you may have from any experience in using Alginate with Chondrocytes, or any other cells for that matter. (protocol-online.org)
  • I think that 15 days is still a bit early, I would go for 21 days or more, and also consider that most people seed 4x10^6 cells/ml (I know it's hard to isolate that amount of chondrocytes). (protocol-online.org)
  • It is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) that works both by decreasing factors that increase the growth of breast cells and increasing factors that decrease the growth of breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • COMP
  • Here, we report developmental studies of D469del-COMP-induced chondrocyte pathology from the prenatal period to adolescence. (nih.gov)
  • D469del-COMP retention was limited prenatally and did not negatively affect the growth plate until 3 weeks after birth. (nih.gov)
  • Histomorphometric analysis of D469del-COMP growth plates from E15 to 2 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • H&E staining of growth plates at various ages in control C57BL/6 ( A-F ) and D469del-COMP ( G-L ) mice. (nih.gov)
  • D469del-COMP and control growth plates are similar until P14 ( D and J ), when the growth plates of D469del-COMP mice are more disorganized. (nih.gov)
  • Growth plates from D469del-COMP mice are narrower than those of controls at P21, 1 month, and 2 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • Fewer chondrocytes are present in the D469del-COMP growth plate, compared with controls, at 1 and 2 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • Immunostaining of D469del-COMP ( A-F ) and control C57BL/6 ( G-L ) growth plates with FLAG (green) and COMP (red) antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • matrix
  • In hard tissues another mechanism of control exists, where locally produced growth factors, or those in the circulation, are incorporated into mineralised matrix and are released during matrix dissolution by osteoclasts or chondroclasts. (unu.edu)
  • puberty
  • Development of osteochondromas take place during skeletal growth between the ages of 13 and 15 and ceases when the growth plate fuses at puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of treatment can be problematic in that the Ilizarov might need to be applied both during early childhood (to keep the femur from being extremely short at the onset of growth) and after puberty (to match leg lengths after growth has ended). (wikipedia.org)
  • factor
  • GDF2 (BMP9) is secreted as a pro-complex consisting of the BMP9 growth factor dimer non-covalently bound to two BMP9 prodomain molecules in an open-armed conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan can also promote growth factor (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Despite much research, the causes remain unclear but include repetitive physical trauma, ischemia (restriction of blood flow), hereditary and endocrine factors, avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow), rapid growth, deficiencies and imbalances in the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, and problems of bone formation. (wikipedia.org)