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  • phenotype
  • To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • These include glycolysis enzymes, which allow ATP synthesis in an oxygen-independent manner, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet-derive
  • The term cytokine is now generally used to include molecules that were originally defined as growth factors, e.g., the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the transforming growth factors (TGF alpha and TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (unu.edu)
  • Transforming
  • GDF2 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF2 contains an N-terminal TGF-beta-like pro-peptide (prodomain) (residues 56-257) and a C-terminal transforming growth factor beta superfamily domain (325-428). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Local factors are necessary for intercellular communication and include cytokines and growth factors. (unu.edu)
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • vivo
  • Using an in vivo avian model for mechanical loading, we have found increased blood penetration into the growth plates of loaded chicks. (physiology.org)
  • puberty
  • Development of osteochondromas take place during skeletal growth between the ages of 13 and 15 and ceases when the growth plate fuses at puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of treatment can be problematic in that the Ilizarov might need to be applied both during early childhood (to keep the femur from being extremely short at the onset of growth) and after puberty (to match leg lengths after growth has ended). (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • My currently evolving model involves growing primary rat costal chondrocytes in 1.2% alginate gels, examining the ECM proteins (collagens) and proteoglycans they produce. (protocol-online.org)
  • cells
  • I'd also like to hearing pointers any of you may have from any experience in using Alginate with Chondrocytes, or any other cells for that matter. (protocol-online.org)
  • I think that 15 days is still a bit early, I would go for 21 days or more, and also consider that most people seed 4x10^6 cells/ml (I know it's hard to isolate that amount of chondrocytes). (protocol-online.org)
  • It is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) that works both by decreasing factors that increase the growth of breast cells and increasing factors that decrease the growth of breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • locally
  • In hard tissues another mechanism of control exists, where locally produced growth factors, or those in the circulation, are incorporated into mineralised matrix and are released during matrix dissolution by osteoclasts or chondroclasts. (unu.edu)
  • We hypothesized that regulatory networks acting locally in the growth plate may also be important. (semanticscholar.org)
  • formation
  • Despite much research, the causes remain unclear but include repetitive physical trauma, ischemia (restriction of blood flow), hereditary and endocrine factors, avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow), rapid growth, deficiencies and imbalances in the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, and problems of bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • factor
  • GDF2 (BMP9) is secreted as a pro-complex consisting of the BMP9 growth factor dimer non-covalently bound to two BMP9 prodomain molecules in an open-armed conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan can also promote growth factor (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induces the formation of an organizer at the end of the limb bud, called the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which guides further development and controls cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • Cells from the lateral plate mesoderm and the myotome migrate to the limb field and proliferate to create the limb bud. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • These include glycolysis enzymes, which allow ATP synthesis in an oxygen-independent manner, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bovine
  • This was in agreement with previous data showing chondroitin sulfate GAG chains attached to bovine perlecan produced by chondrocytes and that recombinant human domain I protein was glycosylated with both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains when expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGF2
  • Recently, an IGF2 mutation was identified in humans with early postnatal growth restriction. (biologists.org)
  • Importantly, the Igf2 null mouse model does not represent a simple delay of growth but instead uncoordinated growth plate development. (biologists.org)
  • I've been reading, for the past pretty much 1 year ++, that GH/IGF1/IGF2, increases intelligence, longitude bone growth, and 'strength' FAST (not mass fast, but it will increase mass over time, but raw power increases FAST). (anabolicminds.com)
  • calcium
  • Despite much research, the causes remain unclear but include repetitive physical trauma, ischemia (restriction of blood flow), hereditary and endocrine factors, avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow), rapid growth, deficiencies and imbalances in the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, and problems of bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • In fracture healing, endochondral osteogenesis is the most commonly occurring process, for example in fractures of long bones treated by plaster of Paris, whereas fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with metal plates, screws, pins, rods and nails may heal by intramembranous osteogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • This work links glucose metabolism with cartilage development and provides insight into the fundamental understanding of human growth abnormalities. (biologists.org)
  • form
  • In the more severe forms, the This is a hereditary condition with multiple deformities of hands and feet form a single plate with almost no inde- the spine and synostoses of the ribs, usually on both sides. (maxvaluepharmacy.com)
  • Chondrocytes multiply and form trebeculae. (wikipedia.org)