• phenotype
  • To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Phenotype and survival of mice after knockout of some FGFR genes: Paracrine signaling through fibroblast growth factors and its respective receptors utilizes the receptor tyrosine pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • These include glycolysis enzymes, which allow ATP synthesis in an oxygen-independent manner, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming
  • The term cytokine is now generally used to include molecules that were originally defined as growth factors, e.g., the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the transforming growth factors (TGF alpha and TGF beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). (unu.edu)
  • GDF2 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF2 contains an N-terminal TGF-beta-like pro-peptide (prodomain) (residues 56-257) and a C-terminal transforming growth factor beta superfamily domain (325-428). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Using an in vivo avian model for mechanical loading, we have found increased blood penetration into the growth plates of loaded chicks. (physiology.org)
  • Fibroblast
  • FGF-3 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, Hedgehog family, Wnt family, and TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • My currently evolving model involves growing primary rat costal chondrocytes in 1.2% alginate gels, examining the ECM proteins (collagens) and proteoglycans they produce. (protocol-online.org)
  • epidermal
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • puberty
  • Development of osteochondromas take place during skeletal growth between the ages of 13 and 15 and ceases when the growth plate fuses at puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of treatment can be problematic in that the Ilizarov might need to be applied both during early childhood (to keep the femur from being extremely short at the onset of growth) and after puberty (to match leg lengths after growth has ended). (wikipedia.org)
  • matrix
  • In hard tissues another mechanism of control exists, where locally produced growth factors, or those in the circulation, are incorporated into mineralised matrix and are released during matrix dissolution by osteoclasts or chondroclasts. (unu.edu)
  • formation
  • Despite much research, the causes remain unclear but include repetitive physical trauma, ischemia (restriction of blood flow), hereditary and endocrine factors, avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow), rapid growth, deficiencies and imbalances in the ratio of calcium to phosphorus, and problems of bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • factor
  • GDF2 (BMP9) is secreted as a pro-complex consisting of the BMP9 growth factor dimer non-covalently bound to two BMP9 prodomain molecules in an open-armed conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan can also promote growth factor (e.g. (wikipedia.org)