• genome
  • It is possible that the inverted repeats help stabilize the rest of the chloroplast genome, as chloroplast DNAs which have lost some of the inverted repeat segments tend to get rearranged more. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) after further backcross generations, a plant is obtained with the new genetic combination (chloroplast genome b and nuclear genome A). Juniperus (Cupressaceae) Pinus (Pinaceae) Quercus (Fagaceae) Ruppia (Ruppiaceae) Heuchera (Saxifragaceae) Rieseberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastids
  • Chloroplasts are one of several different types of plastids , plant cell organelles that are involved in energy storage and the synthesis of metabolic materials. (fsu.edu)
  • electron
  • The effect of dimethyl sulphoxide on electron transport in chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been found that concentrations of DMSO up to 20% (v/v) do not inhibit electron transport in freshly isolated chloroplasts, but that higher concentrations start to cause inhibition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in chloroplasts that have been aged for 8 to 24 hours by storage at 4 degrees C, the addition of DMSO at concentrations up to 20% causes stimulation of electron transport. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • He found that isolated chloroplasts from plants can release oxygen when they are illuminated by sunlight in the presence of a suitable electron acceptor such as ferricyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • To demonstrate the Hill reaction in the laboratory dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was used as the terminal electron acceptor, replacing NADP which was not available due to the extraction of the chloroplasts from the plant cellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique of replacing the natural electron acceptors with artificial electron acceptors can be used in the laboratory to provide a means to measure phosphorylation in chloroplasts and observe its relation to the discharge of oxygen in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his observations of isolated chloroplasts placed under light conditions but with the absence of CO2, the artificial electron acceptors were reduced and then oxidized, completing the cycle and allowing the process to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The work described in this paper demonstrates, in a controlled laboratory setting, the first few steps that would be required to establish an intracellular symbiosis such as the one believed to have been responsible for the first chloroplasts (which therefore enabled the evolution of plants, an oxygen atmosphere, animals, and eventually you and I. There are no known mammalian endosymbioses, and work such as this is one way to understand why. (scienceblogs.com)
  • He demonstrated that isolated chloroplasts would make oxygen (O2) but not fix carbon dioxide (CO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ferrocyanide is reduced (just as NADP is when the chloroplast is in vivo) while water (H2O) is oxidized into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen cations during the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Evolutionary Trends in Plants 5: 65-84 Terry RG, Nowak RS, Tausch (2000) Genetic variation in chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA in Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma, Cupressaceae): evidence for interspecific gene flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Chloroplasts are food producers only found in the cells of a plants and a select number of protists. (reference.com)
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nucleoids can be found in each chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Chloroplasts take the light energy given off by the sun and convert it into sugars, which are used by the cells to help the plant stay healthy and grow. (reference.com)
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • On the average, the chloroplast density on the surface of a leaf is about one-half million per square millimeter. (fsu.edu)