• acetic acid
  • A mixture of ethyl cyanoacetate (Note 1) (56.6 g., 0.5 mole) , freshly distilled butyraldehyde (43.2 g., 0.6 mole) , 1 g. of palladium on carbon (Note 2) , and 80 ml. of glacial acetic acid is placed in a 500-ml. bottle suitable for attachment to a low-pressure reduction apparatus. (orgsyn.org)
  • The sequence begins by formation of the palladium-Aryl cationic complex via Friedel-Crafts or concerted deprotonation metallation process which eliminates an acetic acid to generate a palladium-Aryl species. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkenes
  • This work was an extension of earlier work by Fujiwara (1967) on the Pd(II)-mediated coupling of arenes (Ar-H) and alkenes and earlier work by Heck (1969) on the coupling of arylmercuric halides (ArHgCl) with alkenes using a stoichiometric amount of a palladium(II) species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palladium reacts with alkenes to form a pi complex which can react with a multitude of nucleophiles akin a oxymercuration reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetate
  • In presence of a catalytic amount of palladium acetate, dimethyl phthalate was directly converted to a biaryl species that was then dehydrated to give biphthalic anhydride, a precursor of polyimide polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used stoichiometric palladium acetate to couple 4-bromo indole and protected dehydroalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one modification palladium acetate and the ionic liquid (bmim)PF6 are immobilized inside the cavities of reversed-phase silica gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • halide
  • This coupling reaction is stereoselective with a propensity for trans coupling as the palladium halide group and the bulky organic residue move away from each other in the reaction sequence in a rotation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dichloro
  • Aegis chloride is an important agitator broadly acclimated in the petrochemical and auto bankrupt conversion, usually acquired abstracts extracted from automated wastes aegis dichloro diammine aegis and aegis chloride, and again reclaim circuitous process. (wordpress.com)
  • carbonate
  • For example, gold(III) chloride to gold(I) chloride: AuCl3 → AuCl + Cl2 at 160°C Metal halides are also prepared by the neutralization of a metal oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with the appropriate halogen acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • nickel
  • Another study used 34 patients to test the sensitivity and specificity if the MELISA test, and concluded that it is not useful for diagnosis of contact allergy to the metals gold, palladium and nickel, since a large number of false-positive results will be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, Nozaki and Kishi independently discovered that the reaction depended on the nickel impurities in the chromium(II) chloride salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • In that study, in an intermediate layer, finely powdered particles like aluminum oxide, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin were distributed within a metallic matrix. (wikipedia.org)