• microorganisms
  • Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side effects (eg damage to the bone marrow) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life threatening infections (eg typhoid fever). (abcam.com)
  • 2017
  • In the context of preventing endophthalmitis, a complication of cataract surgery, a 2017 systematic review found moderate evidence that using chloramphenicol eye drops in addition to an antibiotic injection (cefuroxime or penicillin) will likely lower the risk of endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or antibiotic injections alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • The condition can be prevented by using chloramphenicol at the recommended doses and monitoring blood levels, or alternatively, third generation cephalosporins can be effectively substituted for the drug, without the associated toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • typhoid
  • The original indication of chloramphenicol was in the treatment of typhoid, but the now almost universal presence of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella typhi has meant it is seldom used for this indication except when the organism is known to be sensitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps Smadel's most notable professional achievement was the series of field studies in Kuala Lumpur in 1948 which established chloramphenicol as an effective treatment for typhus and typhoid fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • DRUG
  • Toxic levels of chloramphenicol after 2-9 days result in: Loss of appetite Vomiting Ashen gray color of the skin Hypotension (low blood pressure) Cyanosis (blue discolouration of lips and skin) Hypothermia Cardiovascular collapse Hypotonia Abdominal distension Irregular respiration Increased blood lactate Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are thought to play a role in the development of gray baby syndrome after exposure to the anti-microbial drug chloramphenicol. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Chloramphenicol may interfere with the effects of cyanocobalamin in the treatment of anemia by impairing bone marrow function. (drugs.com)
  • Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramphenicol has been used in the U.S. in the initial empirical treatment of children with fever and a petechial rash, when the differential diagnosis includes both Neisseria meningitidis sepsis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, pending the results of diagnostic investigations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramphenicol is also effective against Enterococcus faecium, which has led to its being considered for treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Carrion's disease is often comorbid with Salmonella infections, chloramphenicol has historically been the treatment of choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • CAT activity is determined by looking for the acetylated forms of chloramphenicol, which have a significantly increased migration rate as compared to the unacetylated form. (wikipedia.org)