• efficacy
  • In the first reports from the trials, vaccine efficacy was 56.5% in the Asian study and 64.7% in the Latin American study in patients who received at least one injection of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of both the Latin American and Asian studies at the 3rd year of follow-up showed that the efficacy of the vaccine was 65.6% in preventing hospitalization in children older than 9 years of age, but considerably greater (81.9%) for children who were seropositive (indicating previous dengue infection) at baseline. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phase 2 study of a recombinant gB subunit CMV-vaccine published in 2009 indicated an efficacy of 50% in seronegative women of childbearing age-thus the protection provided was limited and a number of subjects contracted CMV infection despite the vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • One HIV vaccine candidate which showed some efficacy was studied in RV 144, which was a trial in Thailand beginning in 2003 and first reporting a positive result in 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • If antibodies against LDH-C4 do indeed inhibit fertilization, then this result highlights how the difference in the functioning of mucosal immunity from humoral immunity may be critical to the efficacy of contraceptive vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Oral vaccines also obviate the need for trained medical personnel to administer them and reduce the risks of infection associated with needles. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is an urgent need for a vaccine that is safe, prevents infection and/or limits disease. (harvard.edu)
  • In the current study, designing and production of a chimeric construct as a primary step to stimulate the immune system against Brucella infection is investigated. (g3m.ir)
  • In 2017 the manufacturer recommended that the vaccine only be used in people who have previously had a dengue infection, as outcomes may be worsened in those who have not been previously infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017 the manufacturer recommended that the vaccine only be used in people who have previously had a dengue infection as otherwise there was evidence it may worsen subsequent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Cytomegalovirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or to prevent it re-activation in those who are already infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preventative medications such as antiretroviral treatments have been put into use to help prevent infection, but do not work as well as a vaccine would. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Algae are an attractive platform for producing subunit vaccines because they are relatively inexpensive to grow, genetically tractable, easily scaled to large volumes, have a short generation time, and are devoid of inflammatory, viral, or prion contaminants often present in other systems. (jove.com)
  • polio
  • These mice today are used not only to continue to understand poliovirus pathogenesis but as a means to test the safety of stocks of the polio vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have eliminated naturally occurring smallpox, and nearly eliminated polio, while other diseases, such as typhus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and B and others are well controlled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • In silico analysis of chimeric TF, Omp31 and BP26 fragments of Brucella melitensis for development of a multi subunit vaccine candidate. (nih.gov)
  • Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development , the third volume of The Flaviviruses details the current status of technologies for detection and differentiation of these viruses, their use in surveillance and outbreak investigation, and also reviews the latest clinical research. (indigo.ca)
  • Thus, gp350/220 provides an attractive candidate for prophylactic subunit vaccine development. (harvard.edu)
  • The SARS coronavirus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic toward new diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of all these, there has been considerable effort made towards the development of a vaccine, with particular emphasis on protection of pregnant women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of such a vaccine has been emphasized as a priority by the National Vaccine Program Office in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • candidate
  • Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • A synergistic formulation with another live attenuated candidate vaccine (prime-boost strategy) is also being evaluated in a phase II study. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Newborn mice producing PVR were infected with wild-type poliovirus and a chimeric poliovirus in which this element was replaced with the same region from hepatitis C virus, a liver specific virus, or coxsackievirus B3, a virus that infects the heart or meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Even for diseases for which vaccines exist, limited access - due to financial as well as infrastructural or medical personnel limitations - is a major contributor to this high infectious disease burden. (frontiersin.org)
  • recipients
  • No safety signals were detected in the three clinical trials with no remarkable differences in incidence of adverse events (AEs) between vaccine and placebo recipients. (mdpi.com)
  • However, attenuated forms of a pathogen can convert to a dangerous form and may cause disease in immunocompromised vaccine recipients (such as those with AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many developing world diseases do not yet have vaccines, in part because traditional vaccine production costs present a significant investment hurdle, considering the financial capacity of the intended consumers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the increased cost, subunit vaccines are being developed because they are safe, effective, and can elicit antibodies that confer protection against diseases that are not currently vaccine-preventable. (jove.com)
  • Conventional vaccines cover a small number of diseases, while other infections kill millions of people every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • In both trials vaccine reduced by about 80% the number of severe dengue cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine passed phase I trials and is being tested in phase II studies in Thailand and Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • TDEN PIV is inactivated tetravalent vaccine undergoing phase I trials as part of a collaboration between GSK and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is no effective HIV vaccine but many research projects managing clinical trials seek to create one. (wikipedia.org)
  • titers
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The phase II clinical trial of hCG vaccines was quite successful among women who had antibody titers above 50 ng/mL, but quite poor among those with antibody titers below this threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • effective
  • Interestingly, the holotoxin was more effective in this regard than the native B-subunit pentamer indicating a conformational difference between the two. (springer.com)
  • Any vaccine that lacks this breadth is unlikely to be effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The urgency of the search for a vaccine against HIV stems from the AIDS-related death toll of over 25 million people since 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an HIV vaccine is generally considered as the most likely, and perhaps the only way by which the AIDS pandemic can be halted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1984, after the confirmation of the etiological agent of AIDS by scientists at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Pasteur Institute, the United States Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler declared that a vaccine would be available within two years. (wikipedia.org)
  • advantages
  • Oral vaccination has many distinct advantages over parenteral administration, but has proven difficult to achieve thus far, reflected by the scarcity of licensed oral vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • disease
  • The World Health Organization only recommends the vaccine as a possible option in areas of the world where the disease is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • however, no human WN vaccines are approved. (mdpi.com)
  • This chimeric VLP is predicted to provide a superior safety profile as it is efficiently produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using a platform devoid of human nucleic acid and EBV-transforming genes. (harvard.edu)
  • develop
  • We are using these data to develop new vaccine initiatives for the continued and long-term control of leprosy. (www.gov.uk)
  • The Naval Medical Research Center attempted to develop a monovalent DNA plasmid vaccine, but early results showed it to be only moderately immunogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • administration
  • A vaccine could overcome the inherent limitations of the drug treatment program by providing protection in individuals who are not already harboring the Mycobacterium leprae bacilli at the time of administration and effectively interrupt the transmission cycle over a wider timespan. (www.gov.uk)
  • cost
  • The batch costs of plant-produced vaccines may be as much as a thousand times less than traditional animal cell culture or even bacterial or yeast cell culture, though it has been noted that this will not translate directly to per-dose cost because downstream sales, packaging, and distribution costs are similar regardless of production method ( Rybicki, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)