• cytokines
  • Mononuclear phagocytes and other leukocytes are thought to be responsible for both initiation of graft-versus-host reaction and for the subsequent injury to host tissues after complex interactions with cytokines and chemokines ( 1 , 2 , 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • On tumor cells, the TF-VIIa binary complex mediates activation of protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 and thereby shapes the tumor microenvironment by inducing an array of proangiogenic and immune modulating cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • SCH-530,348 SCH530348 has been recently shown to attenuate the neutrophilic inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines CXCL1, CCL2 and CCL7. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maintenance of foam cells and the subsequent progression of plaque build-up is caused by the secretion of chemokines and cytokines from macrophages and foam cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages within the atherosclerotic legion area have a decreased ability to migrate, which further promotes plaque formation as they are able to secrete cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and growth factors that stimulate modified lipoprotein uptake and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes
  • While the expression of these chemokines has been identified in a variety of cell types in the mouse, little is known about their expression with murine B-lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • recruitment
  • Moreover, the potential relevance of these findings is supported by the poor ability of LPS-activated aged B cells to specifically mediate CXCL1-dependent leukocyte recruitment when compared to younger B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, the decreased expression of CXCL1 chemokines by aged B cells in response to LPS may have potential implications on the secondary recruitment of leukocytes to sites of microbial infections and inflammation possibly contributing to the increased susceptibility of older subjects to pathogen challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mice
  • An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may offer a neuro-protective function. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. (diva-portal.org)
  • The rectal release of GRO-α and MIG was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissue expression of the chemokines was detected in colonic tissue by immunohistochemistry. (diva-portal.org)
  • important
  • Conclusions CXC-chemokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis and may become targets for novel treatment strategies. (diva-portal.org)
  • found
  • Chemokines are found in all vertebrates, some viruses and some bacteria, but none have been described for other invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)