• immune
  • Despite all of these reports, few studies have focused on chemokine production by B cells and the relevance of such production in cell-mediated immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • The rectal release of GRO-α and MIG was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissue expression of the chemokines was detected in colonic tissue by immunohistochemistry. (diva-portal.org)
  • migration
  • Besides migration, chemokines also induce the rapid activation of integrin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes (homing) in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory: inflammatory chemokines are produced in high concentrations during infection or injury and determine the migration of inflammatory leukocytes into the damaged area. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Moreover, these chemokines are expressed at higher levels in B cells derived from young (4 m) compared to old (24-29 m) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Materials and methods The expression of CXC-chemokines was studied in eight controls and in 11 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis in the distal part of the colon, before and during topical treatment with corticosteroids. (diva-portal.org)
  • important
  • Conclusions CXC-chemokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis and may become targets for novel treatment strategies. (diva-portal.org)
  • found
  • Chemokines are found in all vertebrates, some viruses and some bacteria, but none have been described for other invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may offer a neuro-protective function. (wikipedia.org)