• bombs
  • Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel has ordered an examination of the medical records of all US troops responsible for detecting roadside bombs and other dangerous explosives in Iraq. (csmonitor.com)
  • The revelation about possible exposure of US service members to dangerous chemicals came in the wake of a New York Times report last month, which prompted Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel to order the DOD to examine the medical records of all US troops responsible for detecting roadside bombs and other dangerous explosives, assigned to what is known as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units. (csmonitor.com)
  • This previously untold chapter of the occupation became public after an investigation by The New York Times revealed last month that although troops did not find an active weapons of mass destruction program, they did encounter degraded chemical weapons from the 1980s that had been hidden in caches or used in makeshift bombs. (sej.org)
  • The anti-regime activists in Khan Sheikhoun, however, have painted a narrative that has the Syrian air force dropping chemical bombs on a sleeping civilian population. (wordpress.com)
  • Iraqi MiG and Mirage aircraft began dropping chemical bombs on Halabja's residential areas, far from the besieged Iraqi army base on the outskirts of the town[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, a report by the United Nations and the OPCW explicitly blamed the Syrian military of Bashar al-Assad for dropping chemical weapons (chlorine bombs) on the towns of Talmenes in April 2014 and Sarmin in March 2015 and ISIS for using sulfur mustard on the town of Marea in August 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iraq On June 28, 1987, dropped what Iranian authorities believed to be mustard gas bombs on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, in two separate bombing runs on four residential areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The town and surrounding district were attacked with bombs, artillery fire and chemical weapons, the last of which proved most devastating. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] From the over 300 soldiers present at the time of the attack, 90 lost their lives as a result of the chemical bombs within a few days. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In addition to the soldiers of the Fajr Battalion, soldiers from nearby battalions-including Fath Platoon-were also affected by the use of chemical bombs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it is possible that Egypt may possess limited stockpiles of chemical bombs, rockets and shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hassan al-Ma
  • The Court was responsible for the trial of Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid (also known as "Chemical Ali"), former Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan, former deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz and other former senior officials in the deposed Ba'athist regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Anfal genocide trial, Saddam's cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid (aka Chemical Ali), former defense minister Sultan Hashim Ahmed al-Tay, and former deputy Hussein Rashid Mohammed were sentenced to hang for their role in the Al-Anfal Campaign against the Kurds on June 24, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kurds
  • Following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq he was charged by the Iraqi Special Tribunal with crimes against humanity, which were alleged were committed against the Kurds during the al-Anfal campaign. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 April 1991 At a European Union meeting in Luxembourg, a UN safe-haven and a no-fly zone, code-named Operation Provide Comfort, in northern Iraq was established north of the latitude 36 degrees north, for the protection of Kurds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Killing of Iraq Kurds 'genocide' BBC News, 23 December 2005 "Van Anraat, most wanted by the FBI" (in Dutch). (wikipedia.org)
  • sarin
  • some accounts speak of just this phenomena, but this occurred at the site of the attack, where the rescuers were overcome by a "pungent smelling" chemical - again, Sarin is odorless. (wordpress.com)
  • The UNHRC commission also found that the sarin used in the Khan al-Asal attack bore "the same unique hallmarks" as the sarin used in the Ghouta attack and indicated that the perpetrators likely had access to chemicals from the Syrian Army's stockpile. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a volatile chemical, although less so than either sarin or soman. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • Between 1981 and 1991, Iraq produced over 3,857 tons of CW agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • 29 November 1990 The UN Security Council passes Resolution 678, giving Iraq a withdrawal deadline of 15 January 1991, and authorizing member states "all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660" if Iraq failed to withdraw by that deadline. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 January 1991 The United States Congress passed a joint resolution to authorizing the use of military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17 January 1991 A day after a deadline was passed set in Resolution 678, Coalition forces launch Operation Desert Storm with a massive air campaign against targets in Iraq and Kuwait. (wikipedia.org)
  • 22 February 1991 Iraq agrees to a Soviet-proposed cease-fire agreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 March 1991 Iraq accepts the terms of a ceasefire. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 April 1991 Iraq accepts Resolution 687. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18 April 1991 Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have biological weapons program 19 April 1991 Swedish diplomat Rolf Ekéus is appointed as the Executive Chairman of UNSCOM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Summer, 1991 Rolf Ekéus, Executive Chairman of UNSCOM, arranges for a loan to UNSCOM of an US Lockheed U-2 spy plane for taking surveillance photos of Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 August 1991 UNSCOM's biological inspection team is told by Iraq that any research into biological weapons was "for defensive military purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15 August 1991 The UN Security Council proposes Resolution 706, a "food for oil" resolution, allowing Iraq to export up to $1.6bn of oil, the revenue from which would be paid into a UN-administered account. (wikipedia.org)
  • In testimony before the Subcommittee on Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials in 1991, US Navy Rear Admiral Thomas Brooks cited this evidence in identifying Egypt as a "probable" chemical weapons possessor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991 Rear Admiral Thomas Brooks identified Ethiopia as a "probable" chemical weapons possessor in testimony before Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iranian
  • The attack was part of the Al-Anfal Campaign in northern Iraq, as well as part of the Iraqi attempt to repel the Iranian Operation Zafar 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the 2013 conference of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Ahmad Zangiabadi listed Iranian sacrifices. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 22, 1980, Iraq staged an all-out war on Iran from ground, air, and sea and came to occupy a vast part of Iranian territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • To stop the human-wave-attack tactics of the Iranians, the Iraqis employed their home-produced chemical agents as a defensive measure against the much-less-prepared Iranian infantry. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 21 March 1986, the Security Council stated that the Council members were "profoundly concerned by the unanimous conclusion of the specialists that chemical weapons on many occasions have been used by Iraqi forces against Iranian troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008 , ISBN 978-600-5201-13-0 Khateri S. Victims of chemical weapons in Iran - an evaluation on health status of 45,000 Iranian victims of chemical warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • 1) The Committee on Armed Services of the U.S. House of Representatives, in their Special Inquiry Into the Chemical and Biological Threat, concluded that despite the demise of the Soviet Union, with its sizable chemical and biological arsenal, the threat has increased in terms of widespread proliferation, technological diversity, and the probability of use. (haciendapub.com)
  • Summarizing the threat posed by Iraq, Powell declared: 'When we confront a regime that harbors ambitions of regional domination, hides weapons of mass destruction and provides haven and active support for terrorists, we are not confronting the past, we are confronting the present, and unless we act, we are confronting an even more frightening future. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Iraq is more of a threat to Israel than to us anyway. (chicagotribune.com)
  • crude chemical
  • It has been difficult to establish where the chemicals originated from, but specialists suspect that the mustard gas used in Syria came from an undeclared chemical stockpile, or that militants have gained the basic knowledge to develop and conduct a crude chemical attack with rockets or mortars. (rt.com)
  • tons
  • In the chemical agent factory in Dyhernfurth an der Oder, codenamed "Hochwerk", at least 12,000 metric tons of this agent were manufactured between 1942 and 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albania, as a party to the Chemical Weapons Convention, declared in March 2003 a stockpile of 16 tons of chemical agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • It is the troubling institutional reluctance to explore evidence of chemical exposure earlier that is particularly puzzling to defense analysts, given that surveys handed out to troops asked them specifically about symptoms of exposure. (csmonitor.com)
  • For me, the biggest failure was not the exposure of troops to chemicals in the first instance, because war is inherently dangerous, and all battlefields have hazards," Carter says. (csmonitor.com)
  • If the service members who believe they may have been exposed to these chemical agents are no longer in the military, the Pentagon "will provide the Department of Veterans Affairs will all necessary information and documentation to verify exposure to ensure these veterans are afforded the appropriate services and disability benefits that may be available to them through the VA," Rear Adm. (csmonitor.com)
  • The U.S. government suppressed information about chemical weapons it found in Iraq, and several servicemembers were injured by their exposure to those weapons, The New York Times is reporting. (flipboard.com)
  • Society for Chemical Weapons Victims Support (SCWVS) (www.scwvs.org), April 2003, ISBN 964-93602-5-5 Khateri S, Ghanei M, Soroush MR, Haines D. Effects of mustard gas exposure in paediatric patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person's clothing can release the toxic chemical for up to 30 minutes after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • warfare agents
  • More than 600 American service members since 2003 have reported to military medical staff members that they believe they were exposed to chemical warfare agents in Iraq, but the Pentagon failed to recognize the scope of the reported cases or offer adequate tracking and treatment to those who may have been injured, defense officials say. (sej.org)
  • biological weapons
  • As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). (haciendapub.com)
  • Powell's evidence included aerial photos of what he identified as munitions bunkers, sites where Iraq tried to conceal chemical weapons, tapes of Iraqi generals ordering subordinates to 'clear out' facilities and diagrams of mobile biological weapons labs, much of the evidence bolstered by information from defectors and informants. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The resolution also called for the destruction, or removal of all chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km and related repair and production facilities, recognize Kuwait, account for missing Kuwaitis, return Kuwaiti property and end its support for international terrorism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article Lake reported that a Pentagon Special Investigator named David Gaubatz had been led to sealed storage facilities of chemical and biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tehran
  • Tehran, Iran: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, 2003, p. 183 Khateri S, Wangerin R. Denied Truths, the story of victims of chemical weapons in Iran, center for women and family affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In April 2017, the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack drew international condemnation and provoked the first U.S. military action against the Syrian government-controlled airbase at Shayrat. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Reuters report published on 17 August 2017 detailed the extent of Syria's reluctance to abandon chemical weapons, citing information from investigators, inspectors and diplomatic sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • disarmament
  • Despite the disarmament process, dozens of incidents with suspected use of chemical weapons followed throughout Syria, mainly blamed on Syrian Ba'athist forces, as well as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and even on Syrian opposition forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasion of I
  • The area was overrun by Peshmerga forces from the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), with U.S. air support, at the beginning of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the U.S. administrator, L. Paul Bremer, suspended capital punishment on June 10, declaring that "the former regime used certain provisions of the penal code as a means of oppression, in violation of internationally acknowledged human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • bomb
  • For example, the Syrian government inaccurately or even falsely declared the types, purposes and quantities of chemicals in its possession, and is suspected of continuing to hold at least 2000 chemical bomb shells that should have been converted to conventional weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • According to Iraq, while the majority of its mustard gas was of 90-95% purity, it struggled to consistently produce nerve agents of high purity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tabun was the first nerve agent known, a property of this chemical discovered by accident in January 1936 by the German researcher Gerhard Schrader. (wikipedia.org)
  • arsenal
  • According a source cited in the report, "There are certainly some gaps, uncertainties, discrepancies" regarding Syria's chemical weapons arsenal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chinese government has declared that it had possessed small arsenal of chemical weapons in the past but that it had destroyed it before ratifying Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Security Council
  • Secretary of Commerce Howard Baldridge and Secretary of State George Shultz successfully lobby the National Security Council (NSC) adviser to approve the sale of 10 Bell helicopters to Iraq in spite of objections from other NSC members. (historycommons.org)
  • UNITED NATIONS - Secretary of State Colin L. Powell , presenting satellite images, intercepted telephone calls and informants' accounts, warned the Security Council yesterday that Iraq is making extensive efforts to build weapons of mass destruction and deceive United Nations arms inspectors, bringing it 'closer to the day when it will face serious consequences. (chicagotribune.com)
  • 6 August 1990 The UN Security Council passes Resolution 661, placing economic sanctions on Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firms
  • According to Iraqi documents, assistance in the development of chemical weapons was obtained from firms in many countries, including the United States, West Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kuwait
  • US troops invaded Iraq from Kuwait. (csmonitor.com)
  • 8 August 1990 Iraq appoints puppet regime in Kuwait which declares a merger with Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US rejected the proposal but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave twenty-four hours for Iraq to begin withdrawing forces from Kuwait. (wikipedia.org)
  • inspectors
  • 2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. (haciendapub.com)
  • Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin of France, a pivotal force on the council, proposed that the inspections be beefed up with enhanced monitoring and a doubling or tripling of the number of inspectors, but would not rule supporting military action if Iraq ultimately failed to cooperate. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Pentagon
  • Washington - The US military acknowledges that more than 700 American troops may have been exposed to chemical agents in Iraq between 2004 and 2010, according to a statement released by the Pentagon Friday. (csmonitor.com)
  • military
  • It may be 700, or it may be more, since these are the people who reported that they were definitely exposed to chemical weapons," says Philip Carter, Director of the Military, Veterans, and Society Program at the Center for a New American Security. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Pentagon's disclosure abruptly changed the scale and potential costs of the United States' encounters with abandoned chemical weapons during the occupation of Iraq, episodes the military had for more than a decade kept from view. (sej.org)
  • Use of chemical weapons by the US military in Iraq. (informationclearinghouse.info)
  • An investigation by RAI News 24, the all-news Italian satellite television channel, has pulled the veil from one of the most carefully concealed mysteries from the front in the entire US military campaign in Iraq. (informationclearinghouse.info)
  • Specifically, Giraldi says his sources on the ground in Middle East - active duty U.S. military and intelligence stationed in the Middle East, intimately familiar with facts - say that the chemical weapons claim is a sham . (wordpress.com)
  • Instead, using skills honed in his years as a military briefer, Powell gradually laid out his case, drawing on precise examples from what appeared to be a large store of damaging U.S. secrets about Iraq. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Because Sardasht was not considered a military target, the population was both unprotected and unprepared for a chemical weapons assault. (wikipedia.org)
  • This attack had not been anticipated by the Iraq military, which did not prepare for an assault on the Faw Peninsula from across the Shatt Al-Arab. (wikipedia.org)
  • insecticide
  • Schrader was experimenting with a class of compounds called organophosphates, which kill insects by interrupting their nervous systems, to create a more effective insecticide for IG Farben, a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate, at Elberfeld. (wikipedia.org)
  • agents
  • Many nations continue to research and/or stockpile chemical weapon agents despite numerous efforts to reduce or eliminate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Iran currently maintains at least two major facilities for the research and production of chemical weapon agents. (wikipedia.org)