• 1980s
  • This previously untold chapter of the occupation became public after an investigation by The New York Times revealed last month that although troops did not find an active weapons of mass destruction program, they did encounter degraded chemical weapons from the 1980s that had been hidden in caches or used in makeshift bombs. (sej.org)
  • The program reached its zenith in the late 1980s during the Iran-Iraq War. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As part of Project 922, German firms helped build Iraqi chemical weapons facilities such as laboratories, bunkers, an administrative building, and first production buildings in the early 1980s under the cover of a pesticide plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court also ruled that the killing of thousands of Kurds in Iraq in the 1980s was indeed an act of genocide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, Egypt supplied Iraq with mustard gas and nerve agents, and related production and deployment technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the official declaration submitted to OPCW Iranian government admitted that it had produced mustard gas in 1980s but that ceased the offensive program and destroyed the stockpiles of operational weapons after the end of war with Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • After launching a research effort in the 1970s, Iraq was able to use chemical weapons in its war against Iran and to kill large numbers of its own Kurdish population in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • German companies helped Iraq to build Muthana facilities such as laboratories, an administrative building, bunkers early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • bombs
  • Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel has ordered an examination of the medical records of all US troops responsible for detecting roadside bombs and other dangerous explosives in Iraq. (csmonitor.com)
  • The revelation about possible exposure of US service members to dangerous chemicals came in the wake of a New York Times report last month, which prompted Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel to order the DOD to examine the medical records of all US troops responsible for detecting roadside bombs and other dangerous explosives, assigned to what is known as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units. (csmonitor.com)
  • In all, American troops secretly reported finding roughly 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs, according to interviews with dozens of participants, Iraqi and American officials, and heavily redacted intelligence documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. (worldaffairsboard.com)
  • In August 2016, a report by the United Nations and the OPCW explicitly blamed the Syrian military of Bashar al-Assad for dropping chemical weapons (chlorine bombs) on the towns of Talmenes in April 2014 and Sarmin in March 2015 and ISIS for using sulfur mustard on the town of Marea in August 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iraq On June 28, 1987, dropped what Iranian authorities believed to be mustard gas bombs on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, in two separate bombing runs on four residential areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The town and surrounding district were attacked with bombs, artillery fire and chemical weapons, the last of which proved most devastating. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] From the over 300 soldiers present at the time of the attack, 90 lost their lives as a result of the chemical bombs within a few days. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In addition to the soldiers of the Fajr Battalion, soldiers from nearby battalions-including Fath Platoon-were also affected by the use of chemical bombs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it is possible that Egypt may possess limited stockpiles of chemical bombs, rockets and shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hassan al-Ma
  • The Court was responsible for the trial of Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid (also known as "Chemical Ali"), former Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan, former deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz and other former senior officials in the deposed Ba'athist regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kurdish
  • The German Federal Intelligence Service, or BND ( Bundesnachrichtendienst) has confirmed from laboratory tests that ISIS has used chemical weapons against Kurdish forces in Northern Iraq. (iraq-businessnews.com)
  • Kurdish authorities say that, with the help of the US-led coalition, they are investigating yet another supposed chemical attack conducted by Islamic State militants (IS, former ISIS,ISIL) against Kurdish militia fighters in Iraq. (rt.com)
  • This is not the first time Kurdish authorities have blamed IS for resorting to the use of chemical weapons, such as chlorine and mustard gas. (rt.com)
  • US State Department official Jonathan T. Howe sends Secretary of Defense Lawrence Eagleburger a memo reporting that US intelligence has determined that "Iraq has acquired a CW [chemical weapons] production capability, primarily from Western firms, including possibly a US foreign subsidiary" and that Iraq has used chemical weapons against Iranian forces and Kurdish insurgents. (historycommons.org)
  • He also used chemicals in 1988 in the Al-Anfal Campaign against his civilian Kurdish population and during a popular uprising in the south in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • His forces embarked on a systematic campaign of mass killings, property destruction and forced population transfer (called "Arabization") in which thousands of Kurdish villages were razed and their inhabitants either killed or deported to the south of Iraq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kurds
  • Following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq he was charged by the Iraqi Special Tribunal with crimes against humanity, which were alleged were committed against the Kurds during the al-Anfal campaign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Killing of Iraq Kurds 'genocide' BBC News, 23 December 2005 "Van Anraat, most wanted by the FBI" (in Dutch). (wikipedia.org)
  • sarin
  • The Syrian government gave up its own supply of chemical weapons under international supervision after hundreds of civilians were killed with sarin nerve gas in a Damascus suburb in 2013. (rt.com)
  • There is, however, a likelihood that sarin and/or cyclosarin (nerve gases) were released during the destruction of Iraqi munitions at Kharnisiyah, Iraq , and that these chemicals might be linked to the syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The UNHRC commission also found that the sarin used in the Khan al-Asal attack bore "the same unique hallmarks" as the sarin used in the Ghouta attack and indicated that the perpetrators likely had access to chemicals from the Syrian Army's stockpile. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a volatile chemical, although less so than either sarin or soman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other German companies provided Iraq with 1,027 tons of precursors of mustard gas, sarin, tabun, and tear gasses in all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iraqis
  • British forces invade Iraq and occupy Baghdad, ostensibly to save the Iraqis from the Ottoman Empire during World War I. In reality, the occupation is at least partly motivated by the desire to secure the Iraqi oil fields for Britain. (historycommons.org)
  • To stop the human-wave-attack tactics of the Iranians, the Iraqis employed their home-produced chemical agents as a defensive measure against the much-less-prepared Iranian infantry. (wikipedia.org)
  • warfare agents
  • More than 600 American service members since 2003 have reported to military medical staff members that they believe they were exposed to chemical warfare agents in Iraq, but the Pentagon failed to recognize the scope of the reported cases or offer adequate tracking and treatment to those who may have been injured, defense officials say. (sej.org)
  • shells
  • A controlled detonation of recovered mustard shells near Taji, Iraq, on Aug. 17, 2008. (worldaffairsboard.com)
  • The shells supposedly contained a chemical substance that caused the symptoms, it added. (rt.com)
  • For example, the Syrian government inaccurately or even falsely declared the types, purposes and quantities of chemicals in its possession, and is suspected of continuing to hold at least 2000 chemical bomb shells that should have been converted to conventional weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the team removed some 80 munitions and components, including 122 millimetre artillery chemical warheads and 155 millimetre "binary" artillery shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • munitions
  • Powell's evidence included aerial photos of what he identified as munitions bunkers, sites where Iraq tried to conceal chemical weapons, tapes of Iraqi generals ordering subordinates to 'clear out' facilities and diagrams of mobile biological weapons labs, much of the evidence bolstered by information from defectors and informants. (chicagotribune.com)
  • While the bunkers damaged by coalition airstrikes, collapsed, concealing unaccounted Chemical Weapons equipment and munitions in the debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iranian
  • At the 2013 conference of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Ahmad Zangiabadi listed Iranian sacrifices. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 21 March 1986, the Security Council stated that the Council members were "profoundly concerned by the unanimous conclusion of the specialists that chemical weapons on many occasions have been used by Iraqi forces against Iranian troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saddam
  • Even if Syria were hoping that the USA would leave Iraq and Saddam to come back in power there would be no point in keeping them as the all the transport and waiting times would be high risk and the weapons likely degraded. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • We both know Russia and china would not have allowed nuclear use, Especialy if the WMD's were used on Iraq soil in defence not USA soil (IF WMD had been used in the USA diffrent game), plus Saddam was dead anyway may as well have gambled. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • It was the first known instance of chemical weapons use in Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein, the source said. (rt.com)
  • If Iraq was unstable under Saddam, what do you call it now? (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Powell argued that the 'irrefutable and undeniable' evidence left the Security Council no choice but to conclude that Iraq is flagrantly violating its demand in November that President Saddam Hussein disarm, and that to preserve its credibility it has to authorize the use of force to do the job. (chicagotribune.com)
  • He sold raw materials for the production of chemical weapons to Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • In testimony before the Subcommittee on Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials in 1991, US Navy Rear Admiral Thomas Brooks cited this evidence in identifying Egypt as a "probable" chemical weapons possessor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991 Rear Admiral Thomas Brooks identified Ethiopia as a "probable" chemical weapons possessor in testimony before Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • tabun
  • It is occasionally suggested that cyanide was also included among these chemical weapons, though this assertion has been cast into doubt, as cyanide is a natural byproduct of impure Tabun. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tabun or GA is an extremely toxic chemical substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tabun was the first nerve agent known, a property of this chemical discovered by accident in January 1936 by the German researcher Gerhard Schrader. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • It is the troubling institutional reluctance to explore evidence of chemical exposure earlier that is particularly puzzling to defense analysts, given that surveys handed out to troops asked them specifically about symptoms of exposure. (csmonitor.com)
  • For me, the biggest failure was not the exposure of troops to chemicals in the first instance, because war is inherently dangerous, and all battlefields have hazards," Carter says. (csmonitor.com)
  • If the service members who believe they may have been exposed to these chemical agents are no longer in the military, the Pentagon "will provide the Department of Veterans Affairs will all necessary information and documentation to verify exposure to ensure these veterans are afforded the appropriate services and disability benefits that may be available to them through the VA," Rear Adm. (csmonitor.com)
  • These include chemical and biological weapons, the immunizations and preventive treatments used to protect against them, smoke from oil well fires, exposure to depleted uranium, and diseases endemic to the Arabian peninsula. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The U.S. government suppressed information about chemical weapons it found in Iraq, and several servicemembers were injured by their exposure to those weapons, The New York Times is reporting. (flipboard.com)
  • Society for Chemical Weapons Victims Support (SCWVS) (www.scwvs.org), April 2003, ISBN 964-93602-5-5 Khateri S, Ghanei M, Soroush MR, Haines D. Effects of mustard gas exposure in paediatric patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person's clothing can release the toxic chemical for up to 30 minutes after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve agent
  • The experimental drug was given to U.S. and Canadian troops during the war to protect soldiers against the effects of the chemical nerve agent soman. (encyclopedia.com)
  • destruction
  • Iraq signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 2009, declared the WMD, and signed up to a disposal or destruction. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • UNITED NATIONS - Secretary of State Colin L. Powell , presenting satellite images, intercepted telephone calls and informants' accounts, warned the Security Council yesterday that Iraq is making extensive efforts to build weapons of mass destruction and deceive United Nations arms inspectors, bringing it 'closer to the day when it will face serious consequences. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Summarizing the threat posed by Iraq, Powell declared: 'When we confront a regime that harbors ambitions of regional domination, hides weapons of mass destruction and provides haven and active support for terrorists, we are not confronting the past, we are confronting the present, and unless we act, we are confronting an even more frightening future. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In September 2013 the Syrian government entered into several international agreements for the destruction of its chemical weapons that stipulated an initial destruction deadline of 30 June 2014, a deadline apparently achieved in respect of declared chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most states have joined the Chemical Weapons Convention, which requires the destruction of all chemical weapons by 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5,000
  • At least 5,000 people died as an immediate result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that a further 7,000 people were injured or suffered long term illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Between 1992 and 1994, the UNSCOM destroyed 30,000 pieces of ordnance, 480,000 liters of chemical agents, and more than 2 million liters of chemical precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condemnation
  • In April 2017, the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack drew international condemnation and provoked the first U.S. military action against the Syrian government-controlled airbase at Shayrat. (wikipedia.org)
  • troops
  • US troops invaded Iraq from Kuwait. (csmonitor.com)
  • Washington - The US military acknowledges that more than 700 American troops may have been exposed to chemical agents in Iraq between 2004 and 2010, according to a statement released by the Pentagon Friday. (csmonitor.com)
  • From 2004 to 2011, American and Iraqi troops repeatedly encountered, and at times were wounded by, chemical weapons that were hidden or abandoned years earlier. (worldaffairsboard.com)
  • Five years after President George W. Bush sent troops into Iraq, these soldiers had entered an expansive but largely secret chapter of America's long and bitter involvement in Iraq. (worldaffairsboard.com)
  • militants
  • It has been difficult to establish where the chemicals originated from, but specialists suspect that the mustard gas used in Syria came from an undeclared chemical stockpile, or that militants have gained the basic knowledge to develop and conduct a crude chemical attack with rockets or mortars. (rt.com)
  • Islamic State
  • Despite the disarmament process, dozens of incidents with suspected use of chemical weapons followed throughout Syria, mainly blamed on Syrian Ba'athist forces, as well as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and even on Syrian opposition forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firms
  • According to Iraqi documents, assistance in the development of chemical weapons was obtained from firms in many countries, including the United States, West Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syria
  • And don't say chemical weapon use in Syria cause Syria has its own chemical weapons program. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Trump self-righteously justified attacking Syria in the name of upholding the global ban on using chemical weapons-because, he declared, they're "uniquely dangerous, not only because they inflict gruesome suffering, but because even small amounts can unleash widespread devastation. (revcom.us)
  • Hours after Kerry's statement, the Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov announced that Russia had suggested to Syria that it relinquish its chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peshmerga
  • If confirmed this will be eighth ISIL weaponized chemical attack against Peshmerga. (rt.com)
  • This week, lab tests confirmed that sulphur mustard was used on the battlefield in Iraq last August, affecting nearly 35 Peshmerga fighters, a source at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) told Reuters. (rt.com)
  • production
  • May as well supply Iraq with fresh new ones off the Syrian production line instead. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • What I find rather telling is how the politics has changed ever since oil production peaked out in Iraq. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Within three years (1978-1981), Project 922 had gone from concept to production for first generation Iraqi chemical weapons (mustard agent). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the testimony Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research Carl W. Ford before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, it is very probable that China has an advanced chemical warfare program, including research and development, production, and weaponization capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has declared only two former chemical production facilities that may have produced mustard gas and Lewisite. (wikipedia.org)
  • encounters
  • The Pentagon's disclosure abruptly changed the scale and potential costs of the United States' encounters with abandoned chemical weapons during the occupation of Iraq, episodes the military had for more than a decade kept from view. (sej.org)
  • Since the outset of the war, the scale of the United States' encounters with chemical weapons in Iraq was neither publicly shared nor widely circulated within the military. (worldaffairsboard.com)