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  • Immunol
  • Publications] T.Doi, T.watanabe, et al: 'The death signals from B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascades in murine B-cell line, WEHI-231' J.Immunol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • PMID
  • Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis [ PMID: 2969618 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B [ PMID: 2602367 ] have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors [ PMID: 1738162 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A novel method for virus immune evasion has been proposed in which the product of one or both of these proteins may bind interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6, preventing these cytokines reaching their natural receptors [ PMID: 1826022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I IL1R complexed with IL1RA has been determined to 2.7A resolution [ PMID: 9062194 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • IL1R1
  • IL1R1 contributes to IL-1 signaling, whereas the IL-1R2/CD121b has no signaling property and acts as a decoy for IL-1. (sinobiological.com)
  • mRNA
  • Only intracellular IL-1ra type I mRNA was detected in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) when they were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide/phorbol myristate acetate and transforming growth factor-β. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of an alternatively processed human type II interleukin-1 receptor mRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These isoforms can either result from alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding for the receptor or by shedding of the extra cellular domain of the receptor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) was originally discovered and cloned by Liebermann and Hoffman in 1990 as one of the 12 different mRNA transcripts that were induced in M1 myeloblastic leukemia cells upon activation with lung-conditioned medium or recombinant interleukin (IL)-6 (Lord et al. (springer.com)
  • interferon
  • Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2 −/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • This protein is structurally related to interferon receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also component of both the type I and type III interferon signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] Chang CH, Furue M Tamaki K: 'B7-1 bypressufn of Langerhaus cells is ufirgulatel by proinflaimmakity cytokinas,and is downrgnlated by interferon-γ on by intesleukin-10' European Journal of Immunology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Spatiotemporal regulation of MyD88-IRF-7 signalling for robust type-I interferon induction. (springer.com)
  • T helper (T H )1 cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ, promoting cell-mediated immunity and control of intracellular pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Expression of CXCL5 has also been observed in eosinophils, and can be inhibited with the type II interferon IFN-γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • 1) We established Lyn-kinase-deficient mice with immunoglobulin genes encoding an autoantibody against mouse RBC.We demonstrated by using this system a crucial role of Lyn kinase in regulating peripheral B cell tolerance and in preventing autoantibody production. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses and has been shown to bind to the IL-1 response element in the IL-6 gene, as well as to regulatory regions of several acute-phase and cytokine genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In summary, dysregulated expression of novel agonistic and antagonistic IL-1 family member ligands can promote cutaneous inflammation, revealing potential novel targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. (rupress.org)
  • 2000). "Identification and characterization of two members of a novel class of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode a novel secreted interleukin-1-binding protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The P2Z/P2X7 receptor of microglial cells: a novel immunomodulatory receptor. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we identifiled novel dermal thy-1+ dendritic cells (Dermal Thy-1^+DC) and futher studied, 1) the ontogeny of T cells in the skin, 2) cytokine secretion by fetal keratinocytes (KC), 3) interaction between KC and Langerhans cells (LC). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dermal Thy-1^+DC are novel T cells found in murine dermis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tamaki K, et al: 'Identificabiln and characterization of novel dermal THY-1 antigen Bearing DendRicic cells in murinl skin' Journal of Imvestgatine Deimatology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • kinases
  • It interacts with Janus kinases to elicit an intracellular signal following receptor interaction with its ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines including interleukins, interferons and hemopoietins activate the Janus kinases, which associate with their cognate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signalling through IL-4/IL-13 complexes is thought to occur through IL-4Rα-chain, which is responsible for activation of JAK-1 and Tyk2 kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT-1 intracellular signaling pathways include extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases, the janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) system, and PI3-kinase/Akt. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ligand binding of this receptor leads to the activation of various JAK kinases and STAT proteins, which connect to different biologic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Stimulation and activation of ECs by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 causes multiple responses within the endothelium but most notably induces the expression of adhesion molecules, which promote monocyte recruitment and infiltration into the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, and inflammation are strongly associated with parasitic infections and asthma ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize the activity of interleukin 1 by inducing the expression and release of this cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFN-alpha and IL12 are reported to induce the expression of this receptor in NK and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression and signaling of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in astrocytes and microglia. (springer.com)
  • Publications] Furue M, Tamaki K et al: 'Dysregulated expression of transformig growtn factor β and its type I and tyte II receptass in baoal-cell carcinoma' International Jornal of Cancer. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This receptor is reported to enhance cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL2-XL and BCL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac CT-1 expression is increased by hypoxia, where it protects cardiac myocytes from ischemic and reperfusion injury and apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, increased myocardial expression of CT-1 immediately became a candidate for the molecular basis of pathological hypertrophy and remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The tissue expression of CT-1 is not confined to the fetal or adult heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanical stretch of cardiac myocytes increases the expression of CT-1 and activates the JAK/STAT pathway, 9 providing a link from the biological properties of CT-1 to its potential role in remodeling in response to hemodynamic overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 Myocardial gene expression of CT-1 is increased in heart failure animal models, 11,12 ⇓ and in humans with chronic heart failure, circulating levels of CT-1 are increased. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 Importantly, in animal models, CT-1 expression precedes the development of pathological hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 In model systems, norepinephrine markedly increases the expression of CT-1 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in vivo, via a cAMP response element in the 5′ flanking region of the CT-1 gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fetal gene induction in the failing human heart is under partial β 1 -adrenergic control, 17 and so β-adrenergic stimulation of CT-1 gene expression is a candidate for the molecular mechanism of adrenergically-driven pathological remodeling in the failing human heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. (springer.com)
  • Sallusto F, Lenig D, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A: Flexible programs of chemokine receptor expression on human polarized T helper 1 and 2 lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the encoded protein can bind the promoter and upstream element and stimulate the expression of the collagen type I gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Receptor-mediated changes in the free cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) represent one of the major signal transduction pathways by which information from extracellular signals is transferred to intracellular sites. (springer.com)
  • Receptor-activated Ca 2+ inflow in animal cells: a variety of pathways tailored to meet different intracellular Ca 2+ signalling requirements. (springer.com)
  • murine
  • The highest degree of similarity is to the human and murine interleukin-1 receptors, although both proteins are related to a wide range of Ig superfamily members, including the interleukin-6 receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Tyk2 has broader and profound functions in humans than previously appreciated on the basis of analysis of murine models, which indicate that Tyk2 functions primarily in IL-12 and type I-IFN signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) The death signals from B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascade in a murine B-cell line, WEHI-23I cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL: Two types of murine helper T cell clone. (springer.com)
  • cytoplasmic domain
  • IL-1R2/CD121b structurally consisting of a ligand binding portion comprised of three Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane region, and a short cytoplasmic domain, is expressed in a variety of cell types including B lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, large granular leukocytes and endothelial cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • human
  • While human leukocyte antigen typing, autoantibody measurement, and thecharacterization of many regions affording genetic susceptibility have contributedtremendously to our ability to predict the onset of, comprehend the etiologyof, and track the progression of type 1 diabetes, these approaches are far fromcomplete in terms of their understanding. (ufl.edu)
  • Individuals with high risk human leukocyte antigen, autoantibody, andgenotypic profiles still escape overt disease, while in contrast individualswith low risk factors can progress to type 1 diabetes. (ufl.edu)
  • Microglia express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of these, CCR5 is the principal coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dementia isolates. (springer.com)
  • Molecular characterization of colony-stimulating factors and their receptors: human interleukin-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 on cytokine production from cord-blood T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feng Y, Klein BK, McWherter CA, Three-dimensional solution structure and backbone dynamics of a variant of human interleukin-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective up-regulation of chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 upon activation of polarized human type 2 Th cells. (springer.com)
  • Carballido JM, Faith A, Carballido-Perrig N, Blaser K: The intensity of T cell receptor engagement determines the cytokine pattern of human allergen-specific T helper cells. (springer.com)
  • regulation
  • From the study of the regulation of the cytokines, Mantovani was able to identify the operating principle of the decoy receptor for interleukin - 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the basic paradigm was discovered more than 15 years ago, new discoveries continue to be made that offer fresh insights into the regulation of this process (1). (springer.com)
  • transmembrane
  • Transmembrane signal transduction initiated by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential for various B cell activities, including cell activation, proliferation, anergy and deletion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • responses
  • These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • Publications] Y.Banu and T.Watanabe: 'Augumentation of antigen receptor-mediated responses by histamine H1 receptor signaling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Jak1 plays a critical role in initiating responses to multiple major cytokine receptor families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although allergic agents are numerous and the inflammatory responses produced are complex, clinical and experimental studies have strongly suggested the involvement of T helper type 2 (T H 2) lymphocytes, and the cytokines that they produce, in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pathway
  • This receptor is reported to promote survival of progenitor myeloid cells through the insulin receptor substrate-2/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated twopathways: the Vitamin D pathway and the interleukin-2/interleukin-2 receptor pathway;this, based on a variety of efforts that hinted at their potential involvement. (ufl.edu)
  • 4) We showed the first direct evidence of a cross-talk between G-protein mediated signal pathway and antigen-receptor mediated signal transduction pathway in T and B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • gp130
  • Structurally, gp130 is composed of five fibronectin type-III domains and one immunoglobulin-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain in its extracellular portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The members of the IL-6 receptor family all complex with gp130 for signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other proteins which associate with gp130, such as cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), and IL-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this group include LIF-R, OSM-R, and G-CSF-R. gp130 is an important part of many different types of signaling complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-4R and IL-13R), the gp130 receptor family (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT-1 has hypertrophic and cardioprotective properties and acts through LIF receptor β/glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-coupled signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Mice with genetic ablation of gp130 have hypoplastic hearts, 5 which suggests a role for CT-1 or other IL-6-type cytokines in normal cardiac development. (ahajournals.org)
  • signal transducer
  • 1 μmol/L). Growth suppression of INA-6 correlated with an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecular
  • Chemokines are small molecular weight cytokines with chemotactic properties, which act through 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled cell surface receptors on target cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • These studies have provided evidence that carnosol targets multiple deregulated pathways associated with inflammation and cancer that include nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), apoptotic related proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt, androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as molecular targets. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of myoglobin and cytoglobin genes in response to heat stress in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. (auburn.edu)
  • Tachykinin NK1 receptor consists of 407 amino acid residues, and it has a molecular weight of 58.000. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Among them, CD18 and its ligand ICAM-1 are particularly intriguing because CD18 and its heterodimer binding chains CD11a and CD11b were correspondingly expressed in ex vivo-expanded EPCs isolated from rat and murine bone marrows. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accordingly, we identified ligand and receptor pairs potentially involved in EPC recruitment to the ischemic myocardium, which include ICAM-1 (ischemic myocardium)/CD18 (integrin β2, EPC), SDF-1 (ischemic myocardium)/CXCR4 (EPC), fibronectin-1 and VCAM-1 (ischemic myocardium)/integrin α4 (EPC), and selectin (ischemic myocardium)/selectin ligand (EPC). (ahajournals.org)
  • The endogenous ligand for this receptor is Substance P, although it has some affinity for other tachykinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-pres
  • We characterized antigen-presenting cell (APC)-relevant chemokine receptor expression in dry eye disease (DED), and investigated the effect of topical CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-7 blockade specifically on Th17 cell immunity and dry eye disease severity. (arvojournals.org)
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin, by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • The activated NFATc is then translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), which, in turn, stimulates the growth and differentiation of T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • de Groot RP, Coffer PJ, Koenderman L. Regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival by the IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF receptor family. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of hypoxia inducible factors alpha (HIF-alpha) and their inhibiting factor (FIH-1) of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) under hypoxia. (auburn.edu)
  • Among the factors studied such as age, gender, ethnics, genetics, and xenobiotics, it seems that receptor-mediated gene regulation and genetic polymorphisms are the major contributors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The term epigenetics refers to three levels of gene regulation: (1) DNA methylation, (2) histone modifications, and (3) non-coding RNA (ncRNA) function. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • It has been reported that centrally-acting NK1 receptors antagonists, such as CP-99994, inhibit emesis induced by apomorphine and loperimidine, which are two compounds that act through central mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • GM-CSF induces differentiation, proliferation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells which are necessary for the subsequent T helper cell type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation. (springer.com)
  • human
  • Tolerogenic DCs have been generated in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , the active form of vitamin D 3 , and of vitamin D 3 analogues from both human blood monocytes and murine bone marrow and shown to induce Treg ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The present invention related to human antibodies and antibody fragments specific for human interleukin 6 receptor (hIL-6R) (extracellular domain hIL6-R SEQ ID NO:1), pharmaceutical compositions, and therapeutic methods thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of an expressible cDNA encoding human IL-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of some initial channel nomenclature confusion, in which the gene was referred to as Kir1.3 the channel was first cloned from human kidney by Shuck and coworkers in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007 the channel was found to interact with the Calcium-sensing receptor in human kidney, using a yeast-two-hybrid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12/15-lipoxygenase, leukocyte-type arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, or arachidonate omega-6 lipoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In the brain, glutamatergic neurotransmission is terminated predominantly by the rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate into astrocytes through the Na + -dependent glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and its subsequent conversion into glutamine by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). (jneurosci.org)
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute reported that the mutation of CUX1 reduces the inhibitory effects of a biological inhibitor, PIK3IP1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1), resulted in higher activity of the growth promoting enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) which leads to tumor progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal enzyme in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids to a wide range of physiologically and pathologically important products. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • The induction of tolerogenic DCs is mediated through the VPAC1 receptor and protein kinase A, and correlates with the inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and of NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Significant interindividual variability in CYP2B6 expression has been attributed to either genetic polymorphisms or chemical-mediated induction through the activation of constitutive androstane receptor and/or pregnane X receptor (PXR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Type IV systems are remarkably versatile in that they mobilize a broad range of substrates, including single proteins, protein complexes, DNA and nucleoprotein complexes, across the cell envelope. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • nuclear
  • This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of its biological effects in animals are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as an antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Exposure of astroglia to PACAP increased the maximal velocity of [ 3 H]glutamate uptake by promoting the expression of GLT-1, GLAST, and GS. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast to PACAP, vasoactive intestinal peptide promoted glutamate transporter expression only at distinctly higher concentrations, suggesting that PACAP exerts its effects on glial glutamate turnover via PAC1 receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Given the existence of various PAC1 receptor isoforms that activate PKA and PKC to different levels, these findings point to a complex mechanism by which PACAP regulates glial glutamate transport and metabolism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Calcineurin is linked to receptors for several brain chemicals including glutamate, dopamine and GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhancer
  • Desk 1 Embryonic/Larval Senescence Mutant Genes Hence our mutant display screen revealed different genotypes specified as both enhancer and suppressor mutants with a member of family increase and. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Functional
  • We further examined the functional involvement of ICAM-1/CD18 in EPC recruitment and repair of the infarcted myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Most T4SSs comprise three functional substructures: cell surface pili or adhesins that mediate contact between cells, a transport channel that conducts substrates across the bacterial cell envelope, and a type IV coupling protein (T4CP) that acts as substrate receptor at the cytoplasmic entrance of the secretion channel. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • inflammation
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 3 are a heterogenous population of APCs that contribute to innate immunity and initiate adaptive immune responses to Ags associated with infection and inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The binding of SP to the NK1 receptor has been associated with the transmission of stress signals and pain, the contraction of smooth muscles and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The AGE- and CML-dependent activation of NF-κBp65 and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression could be inhibited using the soluble form of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (soluble RAGE [sRAGE]), RAGE-specific antibody, or the antioxidant thioctic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the antibody or antigen-binding fragment of claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • glia
  • O. Venkatesh P, they demonstrate that mature retinal what can change their architectures and receptor expressions, while glia can change their architectures and metabolic profiles. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • cytokines
  • We generated expression profiles of MI heart and identified 16 chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules that were significantly upregulated in myocardial ischemic injury whose complementary receptors were also expressed in EPCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • effector
  • When NK1 receptors are stimulated, they can generate various second messengers, which can trigger a wide range of effector mechanisms that regulate cellular excitability and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The successful initiation of the adaptive immune response requires DC maturation, following signaling through the toll-like receptors and CD40. (jimmunol.org)
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • In this review, we examine the activation of protease-activated receptors by thrombin, the downstream signaling events mediated by these receptors, and the physiological role of thrombin in vascular cells and vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • activation
  • Although PAC1 receptor-dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) was sufficient to promote the expression of GLAST, the activation of both PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) was required to promote GLT-1 expression optimally. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cux1 DNA binding is stimulated by activation of the PAR2/F2RL1 cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptor in fibroblasts and breast-cancer epithelial cells to regulate Matrix metalloproteinase 10, Interleukin1-alpha, and Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Immature DC treated with VIP or PACAP up-regulate CD86 expression, stimulate T cell proliferation and promote Th2-type responses while inhibiting the Th1-type proinflammatory response ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Type IV secretion occurs across a wide range of prokaryotic cell envelopes: Gram-negative, Gram-positive, cell wall-less bacteria and some archaea. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Similar to the type III systems, this apparatus extends beyond the cell surface as a pilus structure important for direct contact and penetration of the recipient cell surface. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) affected by the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Chemokine receptor expression by corneal APCs was characterized using immunohistochemistry. (arvojournals.org)
  • Identification and expression analysis of 26 oncogenes of the receptor tyrosine kinase family in channel catfish after bacterial infection and hypoxic stress. (auburn.edu)
  • Expression of these oncogenic bacterial genes induces tumour formation in a broad range of plant hosts [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • biology
  • 1 Not only is the interface between coagulation and vessel wall biology not as simple as it was once thought, the boundaries between these two systems can now hardly be defined at all. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to take thrombin out of the narrow context of its role in the coagulation cascade and in platelet function (these aspects of thrombin function have been reviewed elsewhere 2 3 ) and to focus on the roles played by thrombin and its vascular receptors in SMC biology and vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • correlates
  • Previous studies have shown that renal function in type 2 diabetes correlates better with tubular changes than with glomerular pathology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • family
  • Thrombin also exerts direct effects on vascular cells, such as smooth muscle cells, via interactions with members of the protease-activated receptor family. (ahajournals.org)
  • transmembrane
  • NK1 receptor, as well as the other tachykinin receptors, is made of seven hydrophobic transmembrane (TM) domains with three extracellular and three intracellular loops, an amino-terminus and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). (asmscience.org)
  • therapeutic
  • 6,7 However, the benefit of ex vivo-expanded EPCs to the damaged organs along with the number of EPCs recruited to the damaged tissues varies considerably in the previous studies, 8-10 suggesting that a better understanding of the mediators and receptors responsible for the process of EPC trafficking and recruitment would be crucial to enhancing EPC-mediated therapeutic effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathological
  • Tubular cells are are not only affected secondary to glomerular injury but are also primary targets for pathological influences in diabetes ( 1 - 4 , 8 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)