• subsequent
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • focal
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • hemorrhage
  • This study explores whether CBF enhancement with HS in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with improved cerebral tissue oxygenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- HS augments CBF in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and significantly improves cerebral oxygenation for 4 hours postinfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several previous studies reported metabolic derangements and an accumulation of metabolic products in the early phase of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which may contribute to secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space - the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraocular hemorrhage (bleeding into the eyeball) may occur in response to the raised pressure: subhyaloid hemorrhage (bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous body of the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on fundoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stroke may affect pathways connecting to distant brain regions and therefore may also alter the function of remote parts of the cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such hyperexcitability may contribute to increased activation of contralateral brain areas and to functional reorganization after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • While not all patients who have experienced a stroke will develop a severe edema, those who do have a very poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These alterations may involve resting blood flow, brain metabolism, and spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Likewise, cerebral metabolism was found to be decreased in the contralateral hemisphere of patients for several weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrate for the first time a reduction of PDH activity following SAH, independent of supply of substrates and may be an independent factor contributing to a derangement of oxidative metabolism, failure of oxygen utilization, and secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypertension
  • Adding to this, Combination Therapy in Hypertension will cover current control rates of blood pressure worldwide, the benefits of monotherapy and combination therapy, examine the effectiveness, risk of adverse effects, compliance, and cost of the available therapies and will also include information on relevant outcome studies. (stanford.edu)
  • Intracranial hypertension, commonly abbreviated IH, IICP or raised ICP, is elevation of the pressure in the cranium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • In the present study we addressed the question of whether in brain areas contralateral to a photochemically induced cortical infarction alteration of excitability can be observed as an indication of the effects of diaschisis. (ahajournals.org)
  • decrease
  • An increase in the volume of any of the contents within the intracranial vault must be met with a decrease in the volume of another or the intracranial pressure will increase V (vault)= V (CSF) + V (brain) + V (blood) + V (other) First described over 200 years ago. (slideplayer.com)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemispheres
  • The largest and main portion of the brain, the cerebrum is made up of an outer coating, or cerebral cortex , consisting of gray matter , several cell layers deep, covering the cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The longitudinal fissure runs from the brow to the back of the head, and deep within it is a bed of matted white fibers, the corpus callosum , which connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrostatic
  • Osmotic and hydrostatic gradients will also cause interstitial edema, increasing the extracellular space as water shifts from blood vessels and/or ventricles. (mussenhealth.us)
  • oxygen
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • We report two patients with peripheral SCA aneurysms who presented with cerebellar ischemic events without SAH. (ajnr.org)
  • Signs
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • elevation
  • remote ischemic conditioning reduced infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients when used in the ambulance or emergency department as an adjunct therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or when used with thrombolytic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The brain is a mass of soft, spongy, pinkish gray nerve tissue that weighs about 1.2 kg in a human being. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • rises
  • A waves may come and go, spiking from temporary rises in thoracic pressure or from any condition that increases ICP beyond the brain's compliance limits. (slideplayer.com)
  • vicinity
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that a neocortical infarction leads to hyperexcitability not only in its direct vicinity but also in the contralateral hemisphere. (ahajournals.org)
  • blood
  • 16,17 A 20% to 50% increase in CBF in ischemic regions was seen without compromising blood flow to other areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cushing's triad involves an increased systolic blood pressure, a widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal respiratory pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • 1993) Discrimination between different types of white matter edema with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. (mussenhealth.us)