• Subsequent
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • metabolism
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • These alterations may involve resting blood flow, brain metabolism, and spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Likewise, cerebral metabolism was found to be decreased in the contralateral hemisphere of patients for several weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 In addition, a contralateral decrease of protein metabolism was found when investigated 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrate for the first time a reduction of PDH activity following SAH, independent of supply of substrates and may be an independent factor contributing to a derangement of oxidative metabolism, failure of oxygen utilization, and secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • middle cerebr
  • 10 In contrast, the metabolic effects persisted for only 24 hours in a study that involved middle cerebral artery occlusion 11 and less than 5 days after photochemical cortical infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 16 17 In agreement with this, Hossmann et al 18 found an increase of somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes in rat brain in the first 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • decrease
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in the volume of any of the contents within the intracranial vault must be met with a decrease in the volume of another or the intracranial pressure will increase V (vault)= V (CSF) + V (brain) + V (blood) + V (other) First described over 200 years ago. (slideplayer.com)
  • focal
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • In the present study we addressed the question of whether in brain areas contralateral to a photochemically induced cortical infarction alteration of excitability can be observed as an indication of the effects of diaschisis. (ahajournals.org)
  • hemispheres
  • The largest and main portion of the brain, the cerebrum is made up of an outer coating, or cerebral cortex , consisting of gray matter , several cell layers deep, covering the cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The longitudinal fissure runs from the brow to the back of the head, and deep within it is a bed of matted white fibers, the corpus callosum , which connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrostatic
  • Osmotic and hydrostatic gradients will also cause interstitial edema, increasing the extracellular space as water shifts from blood vessels and/or ventricles. (mussenhealth.us)
  • severe
  • While not all patients who have experienced a stroke will develop a severe edema, those who do have a very poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • mannitol
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • The stroke may affect pathways connecting to distant brain regions and therefore may also alter the function of remote parts of the cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such hyperexcitability may contribute to increased activation of contralateral brain areas and to functional reorganization after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Signs
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • injuries
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • tissue
  • The brain is a mass of soft, spongy, pinkish gray nerve tissue that weighs about 1.2 kg in a human being. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • rises
  • A waves may come and go, spiking from temporary rises in thoracic pressure or from any condition that increases ICP beyond the brain's compliance limits. (slideplayer.com)
  • vicinity
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that a neocortical infarction leads to hyperexcitability not only in its direct vicinity but also in the contralateral hemisphere. (ahajournals.org)
  • blood
  • 16,17 A 20% to 50% increase in CBF in ischemic regions was seen without compromising blood flow to other areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cushing's triad involves an increased systolic blood pressure, a widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal respiratory pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact role of high blood pressure is somewhat unclear, but since it does seem linked to the formation of aneurysms, it may be considered an indirect risk factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)