• Neurons
  • Immunocytochemical methods were used to localize tachykinin-like immunoreactivity within neurons of the monkey cerebral cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • The smaller, pale cells are present in the middle layers of cortex (layers IV and/or V). Colocalization studies indicate that virtually all the small tachykinin-immunoreactive neurons also display GABA immunoreactivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • described neurons in the ventral portion of macaque lateral premotor cortex (PMA) that are responsive to both visual and somatic sensory stimuli and also have stable responses when gaze shifts ( Graziano and Gross, 1998 ), indicating that these neurons code in an extraretinal coordinate system. (jneurosci.org)
  • found similar results for ventral PMA while monkeys moved, but gaze sensitivity did not occur for the sampled neurons in primary motor cortex (MI). (jneurosci.org)
  • A single microinjection of FGF2 into cerebral ventricles of rat embryos at E15.5 increased the volume and total number of neurons in the adult cerebral cortex by 18% and 87%, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • At the cellular and circuit level, the cerebral cortex is characterized by two primary organizational features: across its surface it is divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and it is subdivided into several layers that organize the input and output connectivity of resident neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the work of Korbinian Brodmann (1909) the neurons of the cerebral cortex are grouped into six main layers, from outside (pial surface) to inside (white matter): Layer I, the molecular layer, contains few scattered neurons and consists mainly of extensions of apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal neurons and horizontally oriented axons, as well as glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Layer V, the internal pyramidal layer, contains large pyramidal neurons which give rise to axons leaving the cortex and running down to subcortical structures (such as the basal ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpopulations of these neurons from the septum and pallial-subpallial border express the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 and migrate to the medial, dorsolateral and piriform cortex and though genetically different from the other subpopulations (Dbx1 negative), all have the same morphological and electrophysiological properties, despite the different origins of CR cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • macaque
  • We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. (isi.edu)
  • In fact immunohistochemical studies performed at advanced developmental stages in human and macaque cortex visualize cells more similar to the cells Cajal described. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • However, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in humans, it has now been demonstrated that painful heat causes significant activation of the contralateral anterior cingulate, secondary somatosensory, and primary somatosensory cortices. (sciencemag.org)
  • brain
  • Researchers have made a map of the human brain that shows a dense network of connections at the top of the cerebral cortex , suggesting that electrical signals travel through this hub on their way to more specialized regions. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The gene, called Lhx2, tells stem cells in the developing brain to form the cerebral cortex, which controls functions such as language, decision-making and vision, according to a University of California, Irvine, study published in the Jan. 18 issue of Science . (drugs.com)
  • Washington, October 9 (ANI): Experts at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have uncovered abnormalities in the cortex, the outer surface of the brain, among cocaine addicts that seem to correlate with dysfunction in areas responsible for attention and for reward-based decision-making. (thaindian.com)
  • Located at approximately mid-brain and at the very back of the temporal lobe is the motor cortex, which is the area of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movements (Dubuc, 2008). (brainmass.com)
  • The primary motor cortex of the brain contributes to voluntary movement through generating signals to the opposite side of the body, letting the muscles know that it is time to move (Brain Connection, 2009). (brainmass.com)
  • In the human brain the majority of the cerebral cortex is not visible from the outside, but buried in the sulci. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in feelings, it is not necessary for feelings to occur, suggesting that brain stem structures play a basic role in the feeling process. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has continued to investigate the neural basis of feelings and demonstrated that although the insular cortex is a major substrate for this process it is not exclusive, suggesting that brain stem nuclei are critical platforms as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In 1971 it was described that it was very difficult to find a CR cell in the adult cortex, because of the constant number of these cells and the fact that as the brain grows, the distance between these cells increases, required the observation of a great number of preparations to find one of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • laminar
  • The immunocytochemically stained beaded processes and punctate profiles from plexuses that vary in density and laminar distribution among different areas of monkey cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • signals
  • These data suggest the existence of large-scale cortical networks related to finger actions and indicate that skeletomotor processing in the cerebral cortex is consistently modified by gaze direction signals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cells
  • While it was once thought that the input to layer I came from the cortex itself, it is now realized that layer I across the cerebral cortex mantle receives substantial input from ''matrix or M-type thalamus cells (in contrast to ''core or C-type that go to layer IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocampal place cells interact extensively with head direction cells, whose activity acts as an inertial compass, and conjecturally with grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • From there, Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells experience migration through the marginal zone, originating the layer I of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, the discovery of heterogeneous transcription factors and new sites of origin suggested that there were distinct subpopulations of Cajal-Retzius cells in different territories of the developing cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • These results indicate that DISC1 is involved in cerebral cortex development, and suggest that loss of DISC1 function may underlie neurodevelopmental dysfunction in schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • areas
  • The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. (isi.edu)
  • Similar to the situation in monkey, multiple arm movement-related areas exist in human cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • left
  • While the cortex of some frontal regions is typically thicker in the right hemisphere than the left, the researchers found that relationship to be reversed for the addicts. (thaindian.com)
  • Railroad construction foreman who survived an explosion which shot a tamping rod through his left frontal cortex. (sophia.org)
  • activity
  • Yoshiaki Tagawa and Tomoo Hirano, "Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex," Neural Plasticity , vol. 2012, Article ID 797295, 10 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the direct influence of gaze on movement-related activity in human cortex has not been investigated. (jneurosci.org)
  • cell
  • The cerebral cortex is entirely made of gray matter, contrasting with the underlying white matter, which consists mainly of axons traveling to and from the cortex, their myelinated sheaths, and the cell bodies of oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)