• neurons
  • The human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet of neurons the thickness of which varies between 1 and 4.5 mm, with an overall average of approximately 2.5 mm ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • At the cellular and circuit level, the cerebral cortex is characterized by two primary organizational features: across its surface it is divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and it is subdivided into several layers that organize the input and output connectivity of resident neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the work of Korbinian Brodmann (1909) the neurons of the cerebral cortex are grouped into six main layers, from outside (pial surface) to inside (white matter): Layer I, the molecular layer, contains few scattered neurons and consists mainly of extensions of apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal neurons and horizontally oriented axons, as well as glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Layer V, the internal pyramidal layer, contains large pyramidal neurons which give rise to axons leaving the cortex and running down to subcortical structures (such as the basal ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpopulations of these neurons from the septum and pallial-subpallial border express the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 and migrate to the medial, dorsolateral and piriform cortex and though genetically different from the other subpopulations (Dbx1 negative), all have the same morphological and electrophysiological properties, despite the different origins of CR cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult Cortex
  • citation needed] In 1971 it was described that it was very difficult to find a CR cell in the adult cortex, because of the constant number of these cells and the fact that as the brain grows, the distance between these cells increases, required the observation of a great number of preparations to find one of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • macaque
  • We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. (isi.edu)
  • In fact immunohistochemical studies performed at advanced developmental stages in human and macaque cortex visualize cells more similar to the cells Cajal described. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal cell
  • The cerebral cortex is the most anterior (rostral) brain region and consists of an outer zone of neural tissue called gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staining cross-sections of the cortex to reveal the position of neuronal cell bodies and the intracortical axon tracts allowed neuroanatomists in the early 20th century to produce a detailed description of the laminar structure of the cortex in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatomotor
  • The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. (isi.edu)
  • pyramidal
  • a) Shows four major classes of brain cell found in the cerebral cortex: pyramidal cells (P), spiny stellate cells (S), basket cells (B) and chandelier cells (C). (b) In Alzheimer disease, patients lose cortical grey matter (labelled in green). (els.net)
  • Cortical
  • Thompson, Paul M, and Toga, Arthur W(Jul 2003) Cerebral Cortex Diseases and Cortical Localization. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, the highly folded nature of the cortex is problematic for manual techniques, frequently resulting in measurement errors in regions in which the cortical surface is not perpendicular to any of the cardinal axes. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we present an automated method for accurately measuring the thickness of the cerebral cortex across the entire brain and for generating cross-subject statistics in a coordinate system based on cortical anatomy. (pnas.org)
  • One of the clearest examples of cortical layering is the line of Gennari in the primary visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • frontal lobe
  • In the primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe, layer V contains Betz cells, whose axons travel through the internal capsule, the brain stem and the spinal cord forming the corticospinal tract, which is the main pathway for voluntary motor control. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Consequently, either depletion of endogenous DISC1 or expression of mutDISC1 impairs neurite outgrowth in vitro and proper development of the cerebral cortex in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • neuroscience
  • The book goes beyond separate connectional neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric, and computational neuroscience approaches, by combining evidence from all these areas to formulate hypotheses about how and what the cerebral cortex computes. (oup.com)
  • abnormalities
  • Washington, October 9 (ANI): Experts at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have uncovered abnormalities in the cortex, the outer surface of the brain, among cocaine addicts that seem to correlate with dysfunction in areas responsible for attention and for reward-based decision-making. (thaindian.com)
  • thalamus
  • The line of Gennari is composed of axons bringing visual information from the thalamus into layer four of the visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it was once thought that the input to layer I came from the cortex itself, it is now realized that layer I across the cerebral cortex mantle receives substantial input from ''matrix or M-type thalamus cells (in contrast to ''core or C-type that go to layer IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • The cerebral cortex, or outer cell layer of the brain, is divided into a mosaic of discrete areas with different functions: specific regions control vision, sensory and motor function, hearing, and language. (els.net)
  • hemisphere
  • While the cortex of some frontal regions is typically thicker in the right hemisphere than the left, the researchers found that relationship to be reversed for the addicts. (thaindian.com)
  • brain
  • Researchers have made a map of the human brain that shows a dense network of connections at the top of the cerebral cortex , suggesting that electrical signals travel through this hub on their way to more specialized regions. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The gene, called Lhx2, tells stem cells in the developing brain to form the cerebral cortex, which controls functions such as language, decision-making and vision, according to a University of California, Irvine, study published in the Jan. 18 issue of Science . (drugs.com)
  • Of all portions of the brain the cerebral cortex possesses the most direct interest to the. (picsearch.com)
  • In the human brain the majority of the cerebral cortex is not visible from the outside, but buried in the sulci. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in feelings, it is not necessary for feelings to occur, suggesting that brain stem structures play a basic role in the feeling process. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has continued to investigate the neural basis of feelings and demonstrated that although the insular cortex is a major substrate for this process it is not exclusive, suggesting that brain stem nuclei are critical platforms as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The project focused on a region of the cerebral cortex in which the nerve cells are so well known that they can be traced to individual whiskers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hippocampal place cells interact extensively with head direction cells, whose activity acts as an inertial compass, and conjecturally with grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • From there, Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells experience migration through the marginal zone, originating the layer I of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, the discovery of heterogeneous transcription factors and new sites of origin suggested that there were distinct subpopulations of Cajal-Retzius cells in different territories of the developing cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • A schizophrenia-associated mutation of DISC1 perturbs cerebral cortex development. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that DISC1 is involved in cerebral cortex development, and suggest that loss of DISC1 function may underlie neurodevelopmental dysfunction in schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • The thickness of the cortex is of great interest in both normal development as well as a wide variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (pnas.org)
  • cell
  • The cerebral cortex is entirely made of gray matter, contrasting with the underlying white matter, which consists mainly of axons traveling to and from the cortex, their myelinated sheaths, and the cell bodies of oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide
  • The aim of this book is to provide insight into the principles of operation of the cerebral cortex. (oup.com)
  • The book focusses on the principles of operation of the cerebral cortex, because at this time it is possible to propose and describe many principles, and many are likely to stand the test of time, and provide a foundation for further developments, even if some need to be changed. (oup.com)
  • However, many of the principles described will provide the foundations for more complete theories of the operation of the cerebral cortex. (oup.com)
  • This book is intended to provide a foundation for future understanding, and it is hoped that future work will develop and add to these principles of operation of the cerebral cortex. (oup.com)
  • Accurate and automated methods for measuring the thickness of human cerebral cortex could provide powerful tools for diagnosing and studying a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (pnas.org)
  • networks
  • Includes comprehensive appendices that allow the reader to develop an understanding of how networks in the cerebral cortex operate, and how information theory can be used to quantify neuronal encoding. (oup.com)
  • Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. (isi.edu)
  • activity
  • Yoshiaki Tagawa and Tomoo Hirano, "Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex," Neural Plasticity , vol. 2012, Article ID 797295, 10 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)