• Alloys
  • Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, and silica and carbon materials, used in building space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanotechnology
  • This course will focus on the creation of better tissue engineering through concepts in nanotechnology, i.e. the use of materials with constituent components less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. (techconnectworld.com)
  • A full professor at the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Professor Zhang is active in international journals, also serving as editor-in-chief for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters (United States) and principal editor for Journal of Materials Research (United States). (chemtec.org)
  • calcium
  • The shorter the bonding time the greater the rate of ion exchange leading to the formation of calcium phosphate on the surface and crystallization of the material. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Numerous materials have been devised, as well as various forms of calcium phosphate, to act as supports, substitutes, or interfaces for repairing or replacing the naturally occurring structures. (google.com)
  • Calcium phosphate-based ceramics constitute, at present, the preferred bone substitute in orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium phosphate refers to numerous materials consisting of calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43−), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74−) and occasionally oxide and hydroxide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxylapatite is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are composed. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • an anchor coupled to the body for anchoring the dental implant in a patient's jaw. (google.com)
  • The choice of luting agent is also dependent on clinical factors, which includes the patient's occlusion, design of tooth preparation, if adequate moisture control is achievable, type of core material, type of supporting tooth structure, tooth location etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, the durability of restoration attached to the tooth surface using lutes depends on several factors, for instance strength of materials used, operator's skills, tooth type and patient's behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • developments
  • The military requirements of World War II encouraged developments, which created a need for high-performance materials and helped speed the development of ceramic science and engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • They are often used and/or adjusted for a medical application, and thus comprise whole or part of a living structure or biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. (alliedacademies.com)
  • Professor Best co-directs the Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials (CCMM), within the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy (MSM), University of Cambridge. (iom3.org)
  • The global demand on medical ceramics and ceramic components was about U.S. $9.8 billion in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development and use of medical and dental materials are highly interdisciplinary endeavors which require expertise in chemistry, materials science, medicine and/or dentistry, mechanics and design engineering. (springer.com)
  • The second part discusses common types of materials that are known to generate electrical activity and lays the foundation for these materials for use in medical devices. (worldcat.org)
  • This includes dental replacement and bone joining or replacement for medical and clinical application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curable materials are widely used for medical, printing, and photoresist technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental amalgams were first documented in a Tang Dynasty medical text written by Su Kung(苏恭)in 659, and appeared in Germany in 1528. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of a dental amalgam first appears in the Tang Dynasty medical text Hsin Hsiu Pen Tsao(《新修本草》) written by Su Kung(苏恭)in 659, manufactured from tin and silver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The College of Korean Medicine and the Graduate School of Medicine have integrated the two traditions within the Kyung Hee Medical Center and active collaboration occurs between the college and the biomedical engineering department on acupuncture therapy, chronic medical conditions, palsy, and geriatric diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical center is divided into the General Hospital, Dental Hospital, Korean Medicine Hospital, East-West Medical Center, and the Medical Science Research Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surfaces
  • Many nanomaterial surfaces exemplify high (bio and cyto) compatibility such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), boron nitride nanotube (BNNTs), and other nanostructured materials, by promoting protein adsorption and enhancing subsequent cellular adhesion and tissue growth more than on conventional implant surfaces such as titanium, ceramics, and biopolymers. (hindawi.com)
  • particles
  • Nanomaterial is short for nanostructure material, which includes a natural, incidental, or manufactured material containing particles, in an unbound state or as an aggregate or as an agglomerate and where, for 50% or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1 nm-100 nm. (hindawi.com)
  • The process involves conversion of monomers into a colloidal solution (sol) that acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this chemical procedure, the "sol" (or solution) gradually evolves towards the formation of a gel-like diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic structure or morphology of the solid phase can range anywhere from discrete colloidal particles to continuous chain-like polymer networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental amalgam is produced by mixing liquid mercury with an alloy made of silver, tin, and copper solid particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of the alloy particles are controlled by the ISO Standard (ISO 1559) for dental amalgam alloy in order to control properties of set amalgam such as corrosion and setting expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to differentiate between dental amalgam and the amalgam alloy that is commercially produced and marketed as small filings, spheroid particles, or a combination of these, suitable for mixing with liquid mercury to produce the dental amalgam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ice crystals will redistribute the suspended ceramic particles as they grow within the slurry, effectively templating the ceramic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting green body contains anisotropic macropores in an replica of the sublimated ice crystals and micropores found between the ceramic particles in the walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1971
  • He has contributed to dental materials standardization, both in Canada and internationally, since 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hench published his first paper on the subject in 1971 in the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, and his lab continued to work on the project for the next 10 years with continued funding from the U.S. Army. (wikipedia.org)
  • Science
  • She is Editor of Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. (iom3.org)
  • The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study, within either the Science or Engineering schools, hence the naming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state physics, and chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials science is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis - investigating materials, products, structures or components which fail or do not function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and (likely) ceramics and earlier from the use of fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of materials science in the United States was catalyzed in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which funded a series of university-hosted laboratories in the early 1960s "to expand the national program of basic research and training in the materials sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prominent change in materials science during the last two decades is active usage of computer simulation methods to find new compounds, predict various properties, and as a result design new materials at a much greater rate than previous years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis of materials science involves studying the structure of materials, and relating them to their properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Divided into four parts, this book first introduces the reader to a general overview of electrically active materials in biology and biomedical science and describes important concepts and pioneering discoveries. (worldcat.org)
  • Sam Zhang is editor-in-chief of the CRC Press Advances in Materials Science and Engineering series, which includes this handbook. (chemtec.org)
  • In materials science, the sol-gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials science engineering is grouped with ceramics engineering to this day. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Joint replacements are commonly coated with bioceramic materials to reduce wear and inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glasses are non-crystalline amorphous solids that are commonly composed of silica-based materials with other minor additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • dentistry
  • Dr. Banas's lab is also collaborating with College of Dentistry colleagues to investigate whether oral streptococci other than S. mutans are involved in the early stages of dental decay. (uiowa.edu)
  • Other collaborations, both within and outside the College of Dentistry, foster work to identify novel agents to specifically target cariogenic bacterial species, to coat dental materials with antimicrobials, to examine the microflora associated with localized aggressive periodontitis, and to investigate potential cariogenic properties associated with multiple bacterial species common to dental plaque. (uiowa.edu)
  • Jones is a past president of the Canadian Association for Dental Research, the Dental Materials Group, of the International Association for Dental Research, and served as Chair of the Canadian Dental Association Dental Materials and Devices Committee, the Canadian Dental Association Technical Committee on Dentistry and the Canadian Advisory Committee to the International Organization for Standardization. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has also received the following awards in recognition of his work: Honorary Member of Canadian Academy of Restorative Dentistry and Prosthodontics, 1987 Award of Merit, Canadian Dental Association, 1991 Honorary Doctorate Degree from Umeå University in Sweden in 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • Written by specialists in their respective fields, it has been specifically targeted at a readership of professionals, graduate students and researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering, physics, chemistry biology and clinical medicine. (worldcat.org)
  • 1960s
  • Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, new types of ceramics were developed in response to advances in atomic energy, electronics, communications, and space travel. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • Materials scientists emphasize understanding how the history of a material (its processing) influences its structure, and thus the material's properties and performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The understanding of processing-structure-properties relationships is called the § materials paradigm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. (wikipedia.org)
  • W. Jones and H.J. Wilson, "Some Properties of Dental Ceramics", J Oral Rehab. (wikipedia.org)
  • C.G. Plant and Derek W. Jones "The Damaging Effect of Restorative Materials II: Pulpal Effects Related to Physical and Chemical Properties", Brit.Dent.J., 140:406, 1976 °Derek W. Jones, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • A photopolymer or light-activated resin is a polymer that changes its properties when exposed to light, often in the ultraviolet or visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in structural and chemical properties can be induced internally by chromophores that the polymer subunit already possesses, or externally by addition of photosensitive molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term includes the purification of raw materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • acrylic
  • Although PMMA is often called simply "acrylic", acrylic can also refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrical
  • The material can be used in inner ear ossicles, ocular prostheses, electrical insulation for pacemakers, catheter orifices and in numerous prototypes of implantable systems such as cardiac pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Jones was awarded the International Wilmer Souder Distinguished Scientist Award by the International Association for Dental Research in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • While working as an assistant professor at the University of Florida, Dr. Hench decided to attend the U.S. Army Materials Research Conference held in Sagamore, New York, where he planned to talk about radiation resistant electronic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • After listening to Dr. Hench's description of his research, the Colonel asked, "If you can make a material that will survive exposure to high energy radiation can you make a material that will survive exposure to the human body? (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of ceramic superconductors in 1986 has spurred intense research to develop superconducting ceramic parts for electronic devices, electric motors, and transportation equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • coatings
  • Written in a versatile, contemporary style that will benefit both novice and expert alike, Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook, Two-Volume Set covers the state of the art in the development and implementation of advanced thin films and coatings in the biological field. (chemtec.org)
  • The same material can be used as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, and has many other uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture toughness
  • Fracture toughness is required to alter the crack propagation in ceramics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reported that the high fracture toughness material improved clinical performance and reliability as compare to low fracture toughness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fracture Toughness and Dynamic Modulus of a Tetrasilicic-Micaglass-Ceramic (K2O-MgF2-MgO-SiO2)", J.Can.Ceram.Soc.57:39-46, 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystals
  • Molecular crystals, liquid crystals, colloids, micelles, emulsions, phase-separated polymers, thin films and self-assembled monolayers all represent examples of the types of highly ordered structures which are obtained using these techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once solidification has ended, the frozen, templated ceramic is placed into a freeze-dryer to remove the ice crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • tooth
  • Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • inks
  • The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • A number of methods are available for determining the tensile strength of materials, such as the bending flexural test, the biaxial flexural strength test and the weibull approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • David graduated with a degree in physics from the University of Bristol in 1986 joining Smith & Nephew (S&N) as a materials scientist in the same year. (iom3.org)
  • glasses
  • In 1969, L. L. Hench and others discovered that various kinds of glasses and ceramics could bond to living bone Hench was inspired by the idea on his way to a conference on materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this material is known to be brittle, it is still used extensively to enhance the growth of bone since new forms of bioactive glasses are based on borate and borosilicate compositions. (wikipedia.org)