• glycosylation
  • The aforementioned sugar molecule remains the means by which the cell monitors protein folding, as the misfolding protein becomes characteristically devoid of glucose residues, targeting it for identification and re-glycosylation by the enzyme UGGT (UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase)1. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • By whole genome sequencing, we identified a causal gene in the mutant as SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVITY2 (SSI2), which encodes stearoyl‐acyl carrier protein desaturase that converts stearic acids to oleic acids in the chloroplasts. (deepdyve.com)
  • mRNA
  • During cellular differentiation, mRNA transcription and translation require precise coordination. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several UPR genes, among them ERN1, PERK, and CREB3L2 were downregulated in OA compared to normal chondrocytes at both the mRNA and protein levels, but the ER stress response triggered by thapsigargin or tunicamycin treatment was similar in normal and OA chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GRP78
  • If this fails to restore the normal folding process, exposed hydrophobic residues of the misfolded protein are bound by the protein glucose regulate protein 78 (Grp78), a heat shock protein 70kDa family member2 that prevents the protein from further transit and secretion3. (wikipedia.org)
  • maintains
  • It maintains specific transmembrane receptor proteins involved in initiating of the downstream signalling of the UPR in an inactive state by binding to their luminal domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This polyprotein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is processed by virus and host's encoded proteases to form the structural proteins (capsid protein C and envelope protein E) and non-structural proteins (NS), which participate in replication, polyprotein processing and virion assembly. (frontiersin.org)
  • Favoured by the highly oxidizing environment of the ER, protein disulfide isomerases facilitate formation of disulfide bonds, which confer structural stability to the protein in order for it to withstand adverse conditions such as extremes of pH and degradative enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Since lymphocytes must be positioned correctly to interact with other cells, the pattern of chemokine receptors and the type and distribution of chemokines in tissues critically influence immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • chaperone
  • The chaperone EDEM guides the retrotranslocation of the misfolded protein back into the cytosol in transient complexes with PDI and Grp784. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucial Hsp70 Co-chaperone Complex Unlocks Metazoan Protein Disaggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Protein production in cartilage was determined by immunohistochemistry, gene silencing by specific siRNAs, and gene regulation by treating chondrocytes with cytokines and growth factors associated with cartilage pathobiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diversity of polyubiquitin-C means that ubiquitylation contributes to the regulation of many cellular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In response to Ag and follicular T cell help, B cells form germinal centers that generate high-affinity long-lived plasma cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The importance of STAT3 during plasma cell differentiation is further demonstrated by the selective loss of T-dependent IgG responses in mice that have Stat3 -deficient B cells ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • however, the cells were not compromised in type I IFN production or responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The sgRNA expression vector design will depend largely on the experiment performed but requires the following central components: Promoter Restriction sites Primer Binding Sites sgRNA Guide Barcode Reporter gene: Fluorescent gene: vectors are often constructed to include a gene encoding a fluorescent protein, such that successfully transduced cells can be visually and quantitatively assessed by their expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In Arabidopsis, BiP3 has been used as a UPR marker gene whose expression is strongly induced in response to ER stress. (deepdyve.com)
  • Polyubiquitin-C is a protein encoded by the UBC gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • UBC gene transcription is induced during stress and provides extra ubiquitin necessary to remove damaged/unfolded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of a single UBC allele has no apparent phenotype, while homozygous deletion of UBC gene leads to mid-gestation embryonic lethality due to a defect in fetal liver development, as well as a delay in cell-cycle progression and increased susceptibility to cellular stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • In contrast to the induction of miR-21 observed in response to STAT3 activation in other systems, we demonstrate that miR-21 is repressed during IL-21-driven plasma cell differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • activation
  • We demonstrate in this study that, during an IL-21-driven cellular response, BLIMP-1 can override STAT3-dependent promoter activation by exerting direct repressive control over a shared target promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Emerging findings revealed for the first time that these genes play a role in cartilage biology in conditions where an acute ER stress response is not triggered and OA is not characterized by an overall basal activation of the ER stress response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OS9-deficiency results in activation of the unfolded protein response and reduces salt tolerance, highlighting the role of OS9 during ER stress. (deepdyve.com)
  • cell
  • The proteins destined to be secreted or sorted to other cell organelles carry an N-terminal signal sequence that will interact with a signal recognition particle (SRP). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • CHAPTER 1: Comparative genomic and protein sequence analyses of a complex system controlling bacterial chemotaxis. (bookdepository.com)
  • Once the sequence has "docked", the protein continues translation, with the resultant strand being fed through the polypeptide translocator directly into the ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • translation
  • Protein folding commences as soon as the polypeptide enters to the luminal environment, even as translation of the remaining polypeptide continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Actually mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, but not oxygen consumption is required for hypoxic HIF-1alpha protein stabilization. (springer.com)
  • These pauses provide an opportunity for an individual protein domain to have the necessary time to become folded before the production of following domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • The newly synthesized peptide chain exits the ribosome into the cellular environment through the narrow ribosome exit channel (width: 10Å to 20Å, length 80Å). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsp70 surrounds an unfolded peptide chain, thereby preventing aggregation and promoting folding. (wikipedia.org)