• DHAP
  • The enzyme first uses Asp71 to specifically abstract the pro-S hydrogen from the C-3 of DHAP to form an ene-diol(ate)-enzyme intermediate, unlike the abstraction of C-3 pro-R hydrogen in TIM by Glu165. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 ( Hk2 ) and phosphofructokinase 1 ( Pfk1 ), were significantly reduced in the iMS Bmal1 −/− muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • carbon
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • Escherichia coli is able to utilize a variety of electron and carbon donors, such as glucose or glycerol, and electron acceptors, such as oxygen or nitrate. (frontiersin.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second base deprotonates the hydroxyl group, leading to the collapse of the en-diol(ate) to form the 2-hydroxy 2-propenal enol intermediate along with dissocation of inorganic phosophate (-OPO3) through the cleavage of a C-O bond rather than an O-P bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The nucleophilic glutamate 165 residue of TPI deprotonates the substrate, and the electrophilic histidine 95 residue donates a proton to form the enediol intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the precisely placed glutamate and histidine residues to form the enediol, a ten- or eleven-amino acid chain of TPI acts as a loop to stabilize the intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isovaleryl-CoA undergoes dehydrogenation , carboxylation and hydration to form another CoA-derivative intermediate before it is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • MG is able to induce cellular damage, cross-linking of proteins, and glycation [ 11 ] playing an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • product
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • previously
  • As previously mentioned, glycolysis was then fully elucidated in the first half of the last century largely due to the work of researchers such as Gerty and Carl Cori, Carl Neuberg, Arthur Harden, William Young, Jacob Parnas, Otto Warburg, Hans von Euler-Chelpin, Gustav Embden and Otto Meyerhof. (tuscany-diet.net)