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  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crude
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • byproduct
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second base deprotonates the hydroxyl group, leading to the collapse of the en-diol(ate) to form the 2-hydroxy 2-propenal enol intermediate along with dissocation of inorganic phosophate (-OPO3) through the cleavage of a C-O bond rather than an O-P bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrates
  • When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • We raised the chromosomal gene copy number of the genes glpK (encoding glycerol kinase), tktA (encoding transketolase), and glpX (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) individually. (biomedcentral.com)
  • form
  • The nucleophilic glutamate 165 residue of TPI deprotonates the substrate, and the electrophilic histidine 95 residue donates a proton to form the enediol intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the precisely placed glutamate and histidine residues to form the enediol, a ten- or eleven-amino acid chain of TPI acts as a loop to stabilize the intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • MG is able to induce cellular damage, cross-linking of proteins, and glycation [ 11 ] playing an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHAP
  • The enzyme first uses Asp71 to specifically abstract the pro-S hydrogen from the C-3 of DHAP to form an ene-diol(ate)-enzyme intermediate, unlike the abstraction of C-3 pro-R hydrogen in TIM by Glu165. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 ( Hk2 ) and phosphofructokinase 1 ( Pfk1 ), were significantly reduced in the iMS Bmal1 −/− muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crude
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose
  • We raised the chromosomal gene copy number of the genes glpK (encoding glycerol kinase), tktA (encoding transketolase), and glpX (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) individually. (biomedcentral.com)
  • byproduct
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • A second base deprotonates the hydroxyl group, leading to the collapse of the en-diol(ate) to form the 2-hydroxy 2-propenal enol intermediate along with dissocation of inorganic phosophate (-OPO3) through the cleavage of a C-O bond rather than an O-P bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Isovaleryl-CoA undergoes dehydrogenation , carboxylation and hydration to form another CoA-derivative intermediate before it is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleophilic glutamate 165 residue of TPI deprotonates the substrate, and the electrophilic histidine 95 residue donates a proton to form the enediol intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the precisely placed glutamate and histidine residues to form the enediol, a ten- or eleven-amino acid chain of TPI acts as a loop to stabilize the intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • Although achiral, glycerol is prochiral with respect to reactions of one of the two primary alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)