• oxidative
  • They further hypothesized that iron from the erythrocytes accumulates in the kidney cells, where it triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species, the first step in oxidative damage. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidative stress can also lead to cellular protein modification and damage and can be initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of vascular NADPH oxidase, and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( 3 , 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High plasma glucose concentrations in the postprandial periods can further increase the levels of glycation and oxidative damage to cellular and plasma proteins in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human cells require iron in order to obtain energy as ATP from a multi-step process known as cellular respiration, more specifically from oxidative phosphorylation at the mitochondrial cristae. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycation end products
  • 1,2 Its ability to recognize multiple classes of ligands, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100/calgranulins, amphoterin, amyloid-β peptide and β-sheet fibrils, and MAC-1, 3-8 suggests that the repertoire of RAGE-dependent effects in the tissues may be diverse. (ahajournals.org)
  • proliferation
  • Anemic pretreatment did not alter the normal pattern of cold-induced mitochondrial proliferation in skeletal muscle, suggesting erythrocyte age was not an important influence on seasonal remodeling of muscle. (biologists.org)
  • we considered the possibility that each aspect of cold-induced muscle remodeling (cardiac hypertrophy, skeletal muscle angiogenesis, mitochondrial proliferation) could be attributed to changes in hemodynamics, such as the ability of erythrocytes to penetrate the peripheral vasculature. (biologists.org)
  • However, Gpx1−/− mice develop cataracts at an early age and exhibit defects in muscle satellite cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • perturbation
  • Elucidation of the molecular nature of these changes and the underlying mechanisms will lead to insight in the processes that govern aging- and degeneration-associated perturbation of membrane integrity. (springer.com)
  • 11 These considerations highlight the concept that once set in motion, diabetes-associated hyperglycemia and oxidant stress magnify production of a wide array of biochemical species that accumulate to stimulate cellular activation and sustain tissue perturbation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 These considerations highlight the concept that multiple forces are in play in diabetes to augment generation of tissue injurious biochemical species that signal chronic cellular perturbation. (ahajournals.org)
  • immune
  • Activation of the central nervous system by cytokines significantly modulates cellular immune responses, which is independent of humoral, blood-mediated mechanisms ( 10 , 30 , 31 ). (physiology.org)
  • The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ursolic acid enhances the cellular immune system and pancreatic beta-cell function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • anion
  • Bjerrum PJ, Wieth JO, Minakami S (1983) Selective phenyllyoxalation of functionally essential arginyl residues in the erythrocyte anion transport protein. (springer.com)
  • increases
  • In this study the researchers hypothesized that lead exposure increases the number of PS-tagged erythrocytes, which are then consumed by the proximal tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. (nih.gov)
  • cancers
  • Fanconi anaemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder, the main features of which are aplastic anaemia in childhood, multiple congenital abnormalities, susceptibility to leukemia and other cancers, and cellular hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA cross-linking agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Bennett V (1979) Immunoreactive forms of human erythrocyte ankyrin areresent in diverse cells. (springer.com)
  • A new study explores the role that aging red blood cells may play in lead-related kidney toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • They took into account deposition of iron-presumably from iron-rich red blood cells (erythrocytes)-in kidneys of individuals with renal disorders. (nih.gov)
  • They also considered the kidney's role in clearing erythrocytes from circulation as the cells become old or damaged. (nih.gov)
  • During a process called erythrophagocytosis, aging erythrocytes are enveloped and broken down by other cells. (nih.gov)
  • Aged and damaged red blood cells begin to shift PS to the outer surface. (nih.gov)
  • They showed that, in the absence of erythrocytes, the viability of lead-exposed HK-2 cells was not significantly different from the viability of unexposed HK-2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • And when lead-exposed erythrocytes were co-cultured with unexposed HK-2 cells, the HK-2 cells not only phagocytized the erythrocytes, but also showed increased production of reactive oxygen species, diminished viability, and greater expression of genes associated with kidney damage. (nih.gov)
  • When aged cells containing little 2,3-diphosphoglycerate were incubated in the presence of inosine and pyruvate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate formation could be demonstrated. (pnas.org)
  • These results show that cellular metabolism can be recorded directly in intact cells by 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. (pnas.org)
  • Erythrocytes are stored in the spleen, which acts as a reservoir for the blood system and discharges the cells into the blood as required. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dysfunction of the key cells responsible for vascular function, including endothelial cells, pericytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells, can be induced by increased cellular concentrations of glucose during hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clusterin was first identified in ram rete testis fluid where it showed signs of clustering with rat sertoli cells and erythrocytes, hence its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freezing process, conversely, limits the aging of the cells, allowing the storage of the blood for up to 10 years with a 10% to 15% loss of RBCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its intracellular localization in different mammalian cells is different to that of its analog Cathepsin D. Cathepsin E associates with the membrane tissue in the intracellular canaliculi of gastric parietal cells, bile canaliculi of hepatic cells, cells of the rinal proximal tubule in the kidney, epithelial cells in the intestine, trachea and bronchi, osteoclasts and even in erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thalassemic erythrocytes adhere to parasitized red cells much less readily than do their normal counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • They replicate by invading the hosts' cells, and usurping the cellular machinery to replicate themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, intracellular labile iron concentrations are typically smaller than 1 micromolar, less than 5 percent of total cellular iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • The stability of erythrocytes was evaluated by the half-transition points, H50 and D50, obtained from the curves of hemolysis induced by hypotonic shock and ethanol action, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two other genes have been identified, AMPD2 and AMPD3, for the liver- and erythrocyte-specific isoforms, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • maintains
  • In spite of this constant destruction and production of erythrocytes, the body maintains a fairly constant number, between 4 and 5 million per mm 3 of blood in women and 5 to 6 million per mm 3 in men. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • kinase
  • A new research report shows that the widely prescribed diabetes medication metformin works on AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) by directly inhibiting AMP deaminase, thereby increasing cellular AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Cytosolic Ca2+ was estimated from Fluo-3 fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, cell membrane scrambling from annexin V binding and cation channel activity with whole-cell patch-clamp in human erythrocytes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Guthrie N, Crandall IE, Marini S, et al (1995) Monoclonal antibodies that react with human band 3 residues 542-555 recognize different conformations of this protein in uninfected and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Goldstein S. Human genetic disorders that feature premature onset and accelerated progression of biological aging. (springer.com)
  • Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • In a normal, healthy erythrocyte, PS is an internal cellular component, with no direct contact with the cell's outer environment. (nih.gov)
  • After erythropoiesis had returned hematocrit to normal, treated and control fish were subjected to a seasonal cold acclimation regime to assess the impact of erythrocyte age on skeletal muscle remodeling. (biologists.org)
  • Erythrocytes also are important in the maintenance of a normal acid-base balance , and, since they help determine the viscosity of the blood, they also influence its specific gravity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • process
  • While these efforts certainly have yielded a wealth of descriptive information and some fundamental changes in our perception of the aging process, definitive knowledge of the cause or causes of aging remains elusive. (springer.com)
  • For example, it is not known if all cell populations in the body are vulnerable to aging, or if the nature of the aging process is similar in all cell populations in the body. (springer.com)
  • Werner's syndrome: a review of its symptomology, natural history, pathology features, genetics and relationship to the natural aging process. (springer.com)
  • The process of invading the host cell, hijacking the cellular machinery, replication and final release is a complicated set of steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Spermine is a powerful regulator of erythrocyte cation channel cytosolic Ca2+ activity and, thus, cell survival. (deepdyve.com)
  • Accelerated red cell membrane aging in Down's syndrome. (springer.com)
  • an alternative notion is that the manifestations of aging are the summation of subtle decrements of function in most or all of the cell populations in the body. (springer.com)
  • Martin GM, Ogburn CE, Sprague CA. Effects of age on cell division capacity. (springer.com)
  • Overexpression of the secretory CLU isoform protects the cell from apoptosis induced by cellular stress, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or androgen/estrogen depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • Furthermore, in diabetes, distinct mechanisms may be engaged to further fuel the cycle of AGE generation and oxidant stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • vascular
  • Also, the role of aging at the cellular level in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases, such as arteriosclerotic vascular disease and many carcinomas, remain, for the most part, speculative. (springer.com)
  • level
  • In this chapter, the current status of cellular aging will be discussed at a level that will provide geriatricians with a foundation of knowledge to assist them in following future developments in the field of basic gerontology. (springer.com)
  • The combination of drugs consistently releases EPO due to increased transcription at the cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Erythrocytes of MS patients were less stable against lysis by both chaotropes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The use of statin by MS patients was associated with lower levels of LDL and total cholesterol, as expected, and with higher stability of erythrocytes against ethanol compared to the values of untreated MS patients. (deepdyve.com)
  • signal
  • The signal that an erythrocyte needs to be removed from circulation comes from a compound called phosphatidylserine (PS). (nih.gov)