• vitro
  • Materials and methods: Mononuclear cells from cord blood samples of different newborns containing high titer anti-G-CSF Abs were infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro, and EBV-immortalized B-cell lines were isolated and characterized for specific anti-G-CSF Ab production. (unipi.it)
  • Conclusion: The secreted Abs did not affect the in vitro generation of granulocyte colonies by human normal adult haemopoietic progenitor cells in soft agar clonogenic assays, suggesting that these Abs were not neutralizing. (unipi.it)
  • It was initially identified as a B cell growth factor and inducer of plasma cell differentiation in vitro and plays an important role in antibody production and class switching in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • IL-21 production by CD4 + T cells is required for IL-6 to promote B cell antibody production in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Thymidine (Tdr) and its analogues 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdr) and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdr) inhibited the development of antibody-producing cells (PFC) in cultures of explants of rabbit spleen stimulated with sheep red cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first in vitro differentiation and growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells has been carried out using conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microantibodies can stop viruses such as HIV from infecting cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody inactivates HIV in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Introduction: Naturally occurring antibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were detected with high frequency in serum samples obtained from umbilical cord blood of newborns (12 of 65 samples screened) and maternal peripheral blood serum samples from women at the end of gestation (seven of 56 cases tested). (unipi.it)
  • Here, we report the development of a serum-free CHO DG44 cell line, stably producing a CR9114-like antibody with a potential to become a useful influenza virus research tool. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Additionally, many (commonly available) cell lines used for transient transfection are serum-dependent, resulting in contamination of produced mAbs by bovine IgGs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we decided to take advantage of a biotechnology-relevant production cell line, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44, to establish a serum-free, stable, CR9114-like (CR9114L, a generic version of CR9114) antibody-producing cell line for a steady supply of this mAb with low batch to batch variation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Whilst the exact pathophysiology of the disease is still debated, empirical evaluation of the origin of anti-NMDA antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leads to the consideration of two possible mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum NMDA-receptor antibodies are consistently found at higher concentrations than cerebrospinal fluid antibodies, on average ten times higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • To confirm, analysis for anti-retinal antibodies through Western blotting of serum collected from the patient is done. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Having discussed with colleagues the immunological nature of the "Aschoff nodule" (an intracardiac, endomyocardial collection of myocytes and inflammatory cells) in rheumatic fever, Albert mulled over the nature of the antigens and antibodies that were involved in its formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This basic laboratory paradigm was later applied to many antigens and antibodies, launching the clinical disciplines of diagnostic immunofluorescence microscopy for bacteriology and immunology, immunocytology, and immunohistochemistry in anatomic pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • They were effective in this respect, even at concentrations too low to inhibit cell division. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EP4 also interacts with Prostaglandin E receptor 4-associated protein (EPRAP) to inhibit phosphorylation of the proteasome protein, p105, thereby suppressing a cells ability to activate nuclear factor kappa B, a transcription factor that controls genes coding for cytokines and other elements that regulate inflammation, cell growth, and cell survival (see NF-κB#Structure). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, these antibodies inhibit the activation of higher-affinity naive B cells that would be able to make more effective antibodies to the second virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treatment responses were compared in 2LMP, a TRA-8 sensitive subclone of the MDA-MB-231 cell line, LCC6, a subclone of the MDA-MB-435 cell line with intermediate sensitivity, and BT474 resistant cells, via protein expression changes detected by Western blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 7 . The method of claim 2 , further comprising administering a protein from a cell, embryo, fetus, or mammal of the same genus or species as said donor source to said recipient mammal during the normal period of immune system development of said recipient mammal. (google.es)
  • 17. A method for producing a monoclonal antibody according to claim 9, wherein said hapten-carrier conjugate comprises a protein carrier, a linker covalently bonded to the carrier, and a chemical moiety covalently bonded to the linker, wherein said chemical moiety has an affinity for the metal ion. (google.com)
  • As a cytotoxic protein, LT-α causes the destruction of cancerous cell lines, activates signaling pathways, and effectively kills transformed tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synergy between an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and an antibody-cytokine fusion protein eradicates spontaneous tumor metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • passive antibody exposes the body to foreign protein and although monoclonal antibodies can be humanized they can still invoke an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emory University
  • If you're developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcare's Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program. (emory.edu)
  • responses
  • Emory immunologists have found that these cells represent an archive of the immune system's responses to childhood infections. (emory.edu)
  • Although some of the molecular mechanisms used by IL-6 to mediate these different responses are known, it is still unclear how these various effects on CD4 + T cells are orchestrated. (rupress.org)
  • Researchers found reduced antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in individuals who had been vaccinated against the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) within the previous three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are regulators of immune responses, particularly those against parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • The CLP is responsible for the production of: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and lymphoid dendritic cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • In the pro-B cells heavy chain (HC) immunoglobulin (Ig) rearrangement begins which is the beginning of antibody production. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Major advantages of perfusion are high cell numbers and high total production in a relatively small size bioreactor. (diva-portal.org)
  • Production of mAb by recombinant expression using transient transfections of cells can lead to a batch to batch variability and the mAb yield is influenced by the passage number and quality of the cultured cells, transfection efficiency and the toxicity of transfection reagents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, administration of IL-6 with inactive influenza virus enhances virus-specific antibody production, and importantly, this effect is dependent on IL-21. (rupress.org)
  • This strongly suggests the antibody production is systemic rather than in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrathecal production (production of antibodies in the intrathecal space) is also a possible mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this happens, the altered virus preferentially reactivates previously activated high-affinity memory B cells and spur antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the production of these cytokines are thought to increase vascular permeability and exacerbate the damage of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mammalian testis mast cells regulate testosterone production. (wikipedia.org)
  • paradigm
  • He also received the Novartis medal in 2002 and delivered the Novartis medal lecture, entitled "Antibodies: a Paradigm for the Evolution of Molecular Recognition" on 9 April 2002 at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • in 2012 in a study describing broadly neutralizing human antibodies against influenza B virus strains [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • According to Thomas Francis, who originally described the idea, and cited by Richard Krause: "The antibody of childhood is largely a response to dominant antigen of the virus causing the first type A influenza infection of the lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • During the pro-B and pre-B stages not only is HC and LC Ig rearrangement occur, but each stage is tested to make sure that it is a functional rearrangement (to insure the generation of a fully functional antibody). (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Sequencing of the human and other model organism genomes has produced increasingly large volumes of data relevant to immunology research and at the same time huge amounts of functional and clinical data are being reported in the scientific literature and stored in clinical records. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microantibody is an artificial short chain of amino acids copied from a fully functional natural antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against self molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenstr?ms macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • It is seen that LT-β receptors facilitate the upregulation of adhesion molecules and recruit lymphocytes to tumor cells to combat tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgE molecules, like all antibodies, are specific to one particular antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that binding of two or more IgE molecules (cross-linking) is required to activate the mast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of whole, natural antibodies as medicines presents many problems: they can only be produced by live cells and this process is difficult to control on an industrial scale, they are large molecules and following administration by injection, they do not diffuse easily from the blood to the tissues and other sites of infections where they are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only relatively small regions on antibody molecules are involved in the recognition and inactivation of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microantibodies are smaller, synthetic molecules that mimic these regions but do not have the larger regions on antibodies that induce an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The notion of labeling an antibody molecule with a visible label was perfectly obvious in such a context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of antibody structure was rudimentary, a method for attaching a fluorescent molecule to antibodies did not exist, and even the very synthesis of such chemical tags was in its scientific infancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • Likewise, the involvement of corticotropin releasing hormone on mast cells in acute stress has been shown to facilitate BBB penetration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) In experimental models of testicular inflammation, mast cells were present in 10-fold greater numbers and showed signs of activation, and (2) Treatment with drugs which stabilize mast cell activation has proved beneficial in treating some types of male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood-brain barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mast cells were once thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells were first described by Paul Ehrlich in his 1878 doctoral thesis on the basis of their unique staining characteristics and large granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are very similar to basophil granulocytes (a class of white blood cells) in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • These similarities have led many to speculate that mast cells are basophils that have "homed in" on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE already coated upon the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The complex then dissociate into its Gαs and Gβγ components which act to regulate cell signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of signaling pathways such as NF-κB ultimately leads to various cellular fates, including cell proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of cell death is mediated by the presence of IFN-γ and can involve apoptotic or necrotic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • suspension
  • Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell suspension must first be prepared. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • I like to call this group of cells the 'historical record' of infection or vaccination," Lee says. (emory.edu)
  • The imprint established by the original virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that during the secondary infection by a different strain of dengue virus, the CTLs prefer to release cytokines instead of causing lysis of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Cells producing rosettes which were resistant to lysis in the presence of complement, and were thus presumably producing 7S antibody, showed a distribution similar to that found generally with rosette-forming cells, approximately 80-90% in the lymphocytic category. (rupress.org)
  • Other mechanisms Thus, aside from the IgM monoclonal antibodies, could be mixed up in pathogenic process. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The immune response mounted in response to the antigen chelate produces antibodies that are capable of binding both a substrate and a metal ion, thus achieving a metal cofactor assisted reaction. (google.com)
  • These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain cells, and thus present a window in which a breakdown in immunological tolerance can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of LT-β on cell surfaces will diminish the ability of LT-α to form LT-α1-β2, thus decreasing its effective ability as a cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1954 Discovery that sperm autoantibodies contribute to infertility, 1977 Billingham recognized that the testis is site of immune privilege Immune cells of the human testis are not as well characterized as those from rodents, due to the rarity of normal human testes available for experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are present in rat and human testes, where they constitute approximately 10 to 20% of the immune cells present, as well as mouse and ram testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • In addition to the generation of all of these lineages the HSC, CMP, and CLP all undergo self-renewal to provide a stable stem cell population for continual renewal of all of the leukocyte (and erythrocyte) cell populations throughout the life of the host. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their interaction with Fc-receptors. (mdpi.com)
  • In view of what is known about the mechanisms of action of Tdr and its analogues to interfere with DNA-dependent events in cells, these results supported the idea that DNA synthesis, unrelated to the needs for cell division, was required for the development of antibody-producing capacity by PFC in these cultures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cell line is a cholesterol-dependent cell line that was generated from a subline of NSI/1 which produced only the light chain but no heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • It struck me that this theory [of immunological hypersensitivity as the etiology of the Aschoff nodule] had never been tested and indeed could not be tested without the demonstration of antibody or antigen, preferably both, in the local lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin class switching, an immunological mechanism that changes the type of antibody produced by B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapy
  • Furthermore, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, drugs used to eliminate dysfunctional immune cells, have been shown to be successful second-line treatments in patients where first-line immunotherapy has failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is currently developing a potential cancer immunotherapy called OncoVAX, where a patient's own tumor cells are used as the vaccine, adjuvanted by BCG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma immunotherapy by targeted IL-2 depends on CD4(+) T-cell help mediated by CD40/CD40L interaction [In Process Citation]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, LT-α effects depend on the type of organ it acts upon, type of cancer cells, cellular environment, gender, and time of effect during an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • Plaque-forming cells of mouse and rabbit were also collected by micropipet. (rupress.org)
  • Cells producing plaques facilitated by antisera vs. IgG of the mouse or rabbit (7S) showed the same distribution between cell categories and the same fine gradations as the direct (19S) PFC. (rupress.org)
  • My review will be focused primarily on mouse B cell development (although there are great similarities with humans), as that has been the primary focus of my work as well as the host for monoclonal antibody development here at MBS. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylars" by B Rihova, H Tlaskalova et al. (jax.org)
  • Detection of mouse cells producing antibodies against the azophenylarsonic group by haemolytic plaque assay. (jax.org)
  • tumor cells
  • OncoVAX is an autologous cancer vaccine, that is, manufactured using the patient's own tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product involves the surgical excision of the tumour and its sterilization and gamma-irradiation in order to render the tumor cells non-dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient is then administered two injections of these tumor cells mixed with the TICE strain of BCG via intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study in 412 patients, which compared ASI+resection vs resection alone, used a treatment regimen of only three weekly intradermal vaccine injections of 107 irradiated autologous tumor cells where the first two injections also contained 107 BCG organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, LT-α interactions with LT-β receptors can increase anti-tumor effects through direct destruction of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Of 162 such cells, fine gradations were also found throughout the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories, but in this case the great majority were in the plasmacytic group, and more plasma cells showed amorphous nuclear chromatin. (rupress.org)
  • In separate experiments, volunteers who were vaccinated against tetanus did have some plasma cells producing anti-tetanus antibodies within three weeks in several subsets, but over time tetanus-specific plasma cells were found in subset D. (emory.edu)
  • Memory cell may refer to: Memory cell (computing), a building block of computer data storage Memory cells (motor cortex), found in the primary motor cortex (M1), a region located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are not normally found in the testis, even during inflammatory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • However, in 2015, a new class of highly potent, neutralizing antibodies that is effective against all four virus serotypes has been isolated, bringing hope for the development of a universal dengue vaccine. (wikipedia.org)