• induces
  • IL-13 induces several changes in the gut that create an environment hostile to the parasite, including enhanced contractions and glycoprotein hyper-secretion from gut epithelial cells, that ultimately lead to detachment of the organism from the gut wall and their removal. (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-13 induces many features of allergic lung disease , including airway hyperresponsiveness, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion, which all contribute to airway obstruction . (wikidoc.org)
  • IL-13 also induces secretion of chemokines that are required for recruitment of allergic effector cells to the lung. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phosphorylation of STAT4 and subsequently STAT1 by IL-12 and the IFNs mediates Th1 development, whereas phosphorylation of STAT6 by IL-4 induces Th2 development. (wiley.com)
  • IL-9 also induces B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 ( Bcl-3 ) transcription by STAT1 and STAT3 in T cells and mast cells. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Interleukin 33 (IL-33) induces IL-9 expression and secretion in T cells, which was confirmed by the results obtained in mice by using Human in vitrosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 family is a group of 11 cytokines, which induces a complex network of proinflammatory cytokines and via expression of integrins on leukocytes and endothelial cells, regulates and initiates inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL2 is a lymphokine that induces the proliferation of responsive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Prior exposure of BALB/c mice to the attachment (G) or fusion (F) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) increases illness severity during intranasal RSV challenge, due to Th2-driven lung eosinophilia and exuberant Th1-driven pulmonary infiltration, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • T1/ST2 was present on a subset of CD4 + cells from mice with eosinophilic lung disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interestingly, deletion of IL-13 from mice does not markedly affect either Th2 cell development or antigen-specific IgE responses induced by potent allergens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corneal and conjunctival explants from dry eye or control mice were cocultured with DCs for 24 hours before CD4 + T cells were added for an additional 4 to 7 days. (arvojournals.org)
  • This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mice deficient for Id2 show largely normal development of T and B cells but lack all ILC subsets, suggesting the existence of a common Id2-expressing progenitor to ILC subsets [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin-9 has also shown to inhibit melanoma growth in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the sterols and sterolins are thought to be due to an increase in circulating insulin levels which is attributable to a stimula-tion of insulin secretion from pancreatic B-cells. (naturalsolutionsradio.com)
  • TH9 cells lack any specific biomarker and thus they are defined by their high secretion of interleukin‑9. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of various molecules into the lumen reinforces the barrier function on the extra-epithelial side, while a variety of immune cells provide additional protection below the epithelial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • They activate macrophage and serve as mediators of cell-mediated immune responses, such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and promote tumoricidal activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • ILCs represent a relatively small population in the gut, but accumulating evidence suggests that these cells could play a decisive role in orchestrating both protective and detrimental immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • both animal models and patient studies have shown a link between a lack of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) T helper (Th) cell responses and viral persistence. (wiley.com)
  • Besides the role of IL-9 during immune responses, its growth factor and antiapoptotic activities on multiple transformed cells suggest its potential role in tumorigenesis . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generation of responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells play a large role in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are intimately involved in cell-mediated immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (slicksurface.com)
  • Markers expressed by various subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Acute allograft rejection is initiated by alloreactive T-cells primed in secondary lymphoid organs and recruited to the graft. (kjim.org)
  • So, it was named IL-9 based on its biological effects on both myeloid and lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucus secreted by goblet cells of the intestine, acts as the first line of defense, hence increases in goblet cell number are a major observable change during H. polygyrus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus consists of a highly glycosylated hydrated gel formed by mucin molecules that are secreted by goblet cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus prevents large particles from contacting the epithelial cell layer while allowing small molecules to pass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus also facilitates passage of the luminal contents along the length of the intestines, protects the epithelial cells from digestive enzymes, and prevents the direct contact of microorganisms with the epithelial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit melanoma
  • The role of TH9 cells is not absolutely clear yet but so far it seems that they main physiological role is defense against helminthis infections and it was also shown that TH9 cells are able to inhibit melanoma cells growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Tr1 cells use multiple suppressive mechanisms, IL-10 and TGF-beta as secreted cytokines, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 as surface molecules. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although it is not yet well understood, IgE may play an important role in the immune system's recognition of cancer, in which the stimulation of a strong cytotoxic response against cells displaying only small amounts of early cancer markers would be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • We used these polar models of viral illness to study the recruitment of T1/ST2 cells to the lung and to test the effects of anti-T1/ST2 treatment in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Accordingly, blocking the suppressor activity of Tr1 cells or increasing Th2 cell frequency enhances allergen-specific Th2 cell activation ex vivo. (diva-portal.org)
  • The further investigation could be done to conclude another probability, that, the in vivo overexpression of IL-9 might show the unique symptoms related to eosinophilia which was recently reported for Interleukin 5 positive cases of HD. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Resting murine Th2 cells constitutively express the multidrug resistance protein transmembrane pump, whereas expression on Th1 and Th2 cells is equal after antigenic stimulation 16 17 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is secreted as a single glycosylated polypeptide, and cleavage of a signal sequence is required for its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sealing of the space between adjacent cells is mediated by junctional complexes formed by protein connections elaborated by each individual cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • This process is thought to be mediated predominantly by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, expressed on both endothelial cells and leukocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Foxp3
  • STAT6 repress the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Foxp3 in TH9 cells, that normally block IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA-3 in TH9 cells development represses transcriptional factor FOXP3, which would other wise let to other T helper cell subpopulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules activate major Th cell intracellular pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. (slicksurface.com)
  • In KT, the IL-17 mRNA level is elevated in proximal tubular epithelial cells from allograft tissue with subclinical rejection [ 14 ]. (kjim.org)
  • It consists of the layer of epithelial cells lining the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialised secretory epithelial cells called Paneth cells secrete abundant quantities human α-defensins into the intestinal lumen of healthy individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is produced by plasma cells in the lamina propria and transported into the lumen by intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT6
  • STAT6, IRF4, GATA3 are absolutely required for TH9 cell development and other such as PU.1, BATF, NF-κB, NFAT1, STAT5, AP-1 contribute to TH9 sub-population commitment and to IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive immune
  • The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • 1,2 The most prominent findings of immune dysfunction are the high level of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in peripheral blood and increased IgE production by B cells. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • We analyzed the expression of interleukin-(IL)-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the spleens of rats suffering from liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism, and investigated the cause of peripheral cytopenias. (omicsonline.org)
  • In AHB and ACHBLF, peripheral blood IL-17A + CD4 + T cell frequency increased significantly compared with healthy controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to treat the nude mouse model carrying the burned fetal skin. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Single allergen-specific T cells constitute a very small fraction of the whole CD4(+) T cell repertoire and can be isolated from the peripheral blood of humans according to their cytokine profile. (diva-portal.org)
  • Peripheral B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)