• 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • 2018
  • The ISSCR 2018 Annual Meeting went "down under" to Melbourne, Australia where 3,000 stem cell scientists, clinicians, and professionals from 52 countries gathered to share their latest research, network with colleagues, and explore the latest technologies driving the field forward. (isscr.org)
  • researchers
  • Nevertheless, researchers caution that, in many respects, it's still early days for CAR T cells and other forms of ACT, including questions about whether they will ever be effective against solid tumors like breast and colorectal cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In just the last few years, progress with CAR T cells and other ACT approaches has greatly accelerated, with researchers developing a better understanding of how these therapies work in patients and translating that knowledge into improvements in how they are developed and tested. (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • To their surprise, researchers found that disrupting mTORC1 led to metabolic changes that favored development of unconventional T cells at the expense of conventional T cells. (stjude.org)
  • Researchers also reported expression of signature genes associated with γδ T cells was enhanced in mice when RAPTOR was deleted from the mTORC1 complex. (stjude.org)
  • Despite repeated incidents like this one, it took the researchers a while to conquer their disbelief, according to Blakeslee's article, "Cells That Read Minds. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 system to delete the portion of Chromosome 15 that is present in HAP1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Since too much free-floating iron is toxic, when cells need iron they construct a special protein signal on their surfaces. (washington.edu)
  • Like a mentor helping medical students choose between specialties, a protein complex helps shape the destiny of developing T cells, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have reported. (stjude.org)
  • The protein complex is mTORC1, which regulates cell growth and metabolism. (stjude.org)
  • Their specialty is signaled partly by protein receptors on the cell surface known as T cell receptors (TCRs) or antigen receptors. (stjude.org)
  • In humans, the vast majority of T cell receptors have an alpha (α) protein chain and a beta (β) chain. (stjude.org)
  • A smaller number of T cells carry receptors made from a gamma (γ) and a delta (δ) protein chain. (stjude.org)
  • Deleting a key component of mTORC1, a protein called RAPTOR, disabled mTORC1 and altered the metabolic balance in developing T cells. (stjude.org)
  • Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of A431 cells with phorbol esters induces expression of interleukin 1-related protein IL1H. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used in insect cell culture for recombinant protein production using baculovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J.gamma1 subline contains no detectable phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-γ1) protein and therefore has profound defects in T cell receptor (TCR) calcium mobilization, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) activation (an important transcription factor in T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • The ISSCR advocates worldwide for ethical stem cell research and its translation to the clinic. (isscr.org)
  • Find the resources and connections you need to further drive your career and skills in the ever-changing and exciting field of stem cell research. (isscr.org)
  • Whether you are a job seeker or employer, the ISSCR Job Board is the best place to find and post jobs or CVs within the stem cell science community. (isscr.org)
  • When you join the ISSCR, you become part of the world's largest and most renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. (isscr.org)
  • A recent public forum in Melbourne, Australia, "Stem Cell Research - Now and in the Future," allowed scientists and experts to share with the public the potential of this rapidly advancing research. (isscr.org)
  • In this blog post, three Australian stem cell scientists who attended the session describe their personal reflections on public engagement. (isscr.org)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is an independent nonprofit organization and the voice of the stem cell research community. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR was founded in 2002 to foster the exchange of information on stem cell research and now claims more than 4,100 members worldwide. (isscr.org)
  • Stem Cell Reports is the official journal of the ISSCR and is published by Cell Press. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR provides a platform for professional and public education and the promotion of rigorous scientific and ethical standards in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. (isscr.org)
  • Also visit our affiliated journals, Cell Stem Cell and Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology , included in Professional Resources. (isscr.org)
  • Another pathway involved in embryogenesis, the Hedgehog pathway also regulates normal stem cell activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (nautil.us)
  • Kit (CD117) is the receptor of Stem Cell Factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sca-1 is a murine hematopoietic stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • Lin is a series of lineage marker antigens that identify mature murine blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the discovery of interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper (Th17) cells as a distinct lineage of T helper cells it became clear that these cells play an important role in the host defense and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • If all goes as planned, the engineered cells further multiply in the patient's body and, with guidance from their engineered receptor, recognize and kill cancer cells that harbor the antigen on their surfaces. (cancer.gov)
  • More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (wikipedia.org)
  • J.RT3-T3.5 cells have a mutation in the T cell receptor beta chain locus precluding expression of this chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • They do not express surface CD3 or produce the T cell receptor alpha/beta heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are deficient in the TCR complex, these cells are a useful tool for transfection studies using T cell receptor alpha and beta chain genes and are widely used in labs in which T cell receptor gene transfer technologies are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, OK cells have been used extensively to study functional interactions between the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and the sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is activated by certain aromatic compounds, is specifically expressed in Treg17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1962
  • The PtK2 cell line was established by Kristen Walen and Spencer Brown in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells come from a cell line established in 1962 by two scientists then at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine, George Todaro and Howard Green. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • SV40
  • COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells can be transformed with SV40 and some other polyomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • Dr. June has led a series of CAR T cell clinical trials, largely in patients with leukemia. (cancer.gov)
  • The cells are sensitive to sarcoma virus and leukemia virus focus formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell signaling, and the expression of various chemokine receptors susceptible to viral entry, particularly HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jurkat cell line (originally called JM) was established in the late 1970s from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old boy with T cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat J6 cells have been found to produce a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) (referred to as XMRV) that could potentially affect experimental outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • IL-1, a family of cytokines, are involved in response to injury and infection, with IL-1 β playing a key role in cancer cell growth and the stimulation of CSCs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • kidney
  • The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - The more than 200 different types of human cells have the same DNA but express different ensembles of genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Different derivatives of the Jurkat cell line that have been mutated to lack certain genes can now be obtained from cell culture banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitumor
  • In a phase Ib study, dual therapy with axitinib and pembrolizumab was well tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in treatment-naïve patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (washington.edu)
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (washington.edu)
  • Chromosomal abnormalities are common in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of cell is most commonly found in cancer cells and may arise from a variety of causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (rupress.org)
  • When they examined gene expression profiles in the differentiated cells, they saw changes in many gene sets regulated by p53, also known as tumor suppressor p53. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1995). "Heterologous expression of rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase in simian COS cells and Escherichia coli" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a steady state, TGF-beta and AhR ligands induce low expression of IL-22 along with high expression of AhR, c-MAF, IL-10, and IL-21 that might play a protective role in cell regeneration and host microbiome homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • largely
  • Until recently, the use of CAR T-cell therapy has been restricted to small clinical trials, largely in patients with advanced blood cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • The fate of binucleated cells depends largely on the type of cell they originated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • As the leaf grows, the pavement cells will also grow, divide, and synthesize new vacuoles, plasma membrane parts, and cell wall components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage furrow regression: Cells divide and almost complete division but then the cleavage furrow begins to regress and the cells merge. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • T cells depend on the T cell receptors to recognize targets and respond to changing conditions. (stjude.org)
  • Curcumin's selective cytotoxicity, on the other hand, targets the most dangerous cells - the cancer stem cells - which leaving unharmed the normal cells, as we will now learn more about below. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • pathogens
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • Treg17 cells regulate the function of Th17 cells that are important role in the host defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens and participate in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • A thick external cell wall influences the direction of growth by impeding expansion towards the outside of the cell and instead promote expansion parallel to the epidermis layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines: User Guide (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The spontaneously immortalized cells with stable growth rate were established after 20 to 30 generations in culture, and then named '3T3' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells are often used in the cultivation of keratinocytes, with the 3T3 cells secreting growth factors favourable to these kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are characterized primarily by uninhibited growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These receptors are "synthetic molecules, they don't exist naturally," explained Carl June, M.D., of the University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, during a recent presentation on CAR T cells at the National Institutes of Health campus. (cancer.gov)
  • They express different cell surface receptors. (stjude.org)
  • vitro
  • Since their recent discovery, HAP1 cells cultured in vitro have been established as a dependable screening tool for targeted genetics screens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regulatory Th17 cells are generated by TGF-beta plus IL-6 in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • A431 cells are a model human cell line (epidermoid carcinoma) used in biomedical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAP1 cells are a cell line used for biomedical and genetic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAP1 cells are a near-haploid cell line derived from the KBM-7 cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • After its discovery, subsequent experiments have resulted in the HAP1 cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAP1 cells have been used to create a new completely haploid cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this technique, experimenters were able to cultivate the first fully haploid human cell line which they termed eHAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a stable B cell line used to express antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are a suspension cell line and are best cultured in Eagle's minimal essential medium with 10% Fetal bovine serum, 0.01 units/ml of penicillin and 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin incubated in 37 °C + 5% CO2 + 90% relative humidity with a cell density of 5x105 cell per 15 ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cell line is usually used to express antibodies since they can result in antibody titers up to 1 mg under optimum conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The JCaM1.6 cell line is deficient in Lck kinase activity due to the deletion of part of the lck gene (exon 7) from the Lck transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like porcine LLC-PK1 cells, this cell line has the limitation of lacking several enzymes specific to the proximal tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treg17 cells with regulatory phenotype with in vivo immune-suppressive properties in the gut have also been identified as rTh17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversion of pathogenic Th17 cells in vivo at the conclusion of an inflammatory disease process by TGF-β results in the generation of Treg17 like cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • adoptive
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In the next few years," he said, "I think we're going to see dramatic progress and push the boundaries of what many people thought was possible with these adoptive cell transfer-based treatments. (cancer.gov)
  • CD4+ T cells polarized with IL-23 and IL-6 are pathogenic upon adoptive transfer in type 1 diabetes while cells polarized with TGF-beta and IL-6 are not pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • specialize
  • Corresponding author Hongbo Chi, Ph.D., and colleagues identified the mechanism that determines how T cells specialize during their development. (stjude.org)
  • found
  • The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate 025 trial. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • St. Jude immunologists found mTORC1 acts in response to cues from in and around developing T cells and intersects with metabolic activity, to influence whether the cells become conventional or unconventional T cells. (stjude.org)
  • They belong to the family of unconventional T cells that are found in the gut, skin and other barrier tissues. (stjude.org)
  • It was also found that unlike place cells, the speed cells are independent of visual cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Opalski cell is a large (up to 35 μm in diameter) altered glial cell, originated from degenerating astrocytes, with small, eccentric, pyknotic, densely staining nuclei (single or multiple) displaced to the periphery, and fine granular cytoplasm, found in the cortical and subcortical regions (basal ganglia and thalamus) of the brains of people with Wilson disease and acquired hepatolenticular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)