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  • embryos
  • In sea urchin embryos, gastrulation entails bending the sheet of cells that form the surface of the embryo inward at a predetermined site to generate a pocket that will become the digestive system. (elifesciences.org)
  • Frog embryos are remarkably large because each of their cells is packed with yolk to support development until the animals are able to feed. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, Wen and Winklbauer show that the cell behaviours that drive these movements are similar to the behaviours of cells in single-layered embryos, and indeed the behaviour of single-celled organisms such as amoebae. (elifesciences.org)
  • Legislation currently being discussed would allow funding for research on new stem cell lines derived from surplus embryos from fertility clinics. (bioedonline.org)
  • Embryos develop from a fertilized egg, which is a single cell formed by the union of the nuclei from a sperm and an egg. (bioedonline.org)
  • Paramount among these is the robustness of early embryos and their amenability to microinjection and microsurgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • American scientists report that they have bred the first-ever monkeys grown from cells taken from different embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors
  • Benign brain tumors, composed of harmless cells, have clearly defined borders, can usually be completely removed, and are unlikely to recur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Approximately 25% of all cancer patients develop secondary or metastatic brain tumors when cancer cells spread from another part of the body to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These include germ cell tumors, granulomas of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and hypothalamic astrocytomas, as these lesions usually demonstrate at least partial uptake of contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • Research in this area also covers rare genetic diseases, particularly glycogenosis type II, storage diseases (Gaucher, Niemann Pick and other sphyngolipidoses) mitochondrial diseases and genetic immunodeficiencies such as IPEX syndrome, aiming at clarifying molecular mechanisms and develop innovative approaches to treatment such as enzyme replacement, use of nanotechnologies for genetic correction and stem cells transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gruessner's basic-science research has focused on different techniques of donor cell augmentation for tolerance induction after transplantation and on different rejection patterns in single versus combined transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process (transfer of nuclei from cloned cells) is referred to as serial transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany. (nih.gov)
  • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany Division of Molecular Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia gregan@fns.uniba.sk tolic@irb.hr cimini@vt.edu. (nih.gov)
  • The Xenopus model organism is responsible for large amounts of new knowledge on embryonic development and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • neck
  • Treatment focuses on reconstructive surgery in the head and neck area, reconstruction of the breast in cancer patients and extremitypreserving microsurgery. (germany.travel)
  • tissues
  • The fertilized egg is said to be 'totipotent,' meaning that it has the potential to generate all the specialized cells and tissues of the body, as well as the tissues for its (the egg's) development in the uterus. (bioedonline.org)
  • Cancer is a group of diseases that is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth leading to invasion of surrounding tissues that spread to other parts of the body. (healthtap.com)
  • A laboratory test used to look at genes or chromosomes in cells and tissues. (yalecancercenter.org)
  • Pieces of DNA that contain a fluorescent dye are made in the laboratory and added to cells or tissues on a glass slide. (yalecancercenter.org)
  • Considerable information is now available about amphibian limb regeneration and it is known that each cell type regenerates itself, except for connective tissues where there is considerable interconversion between cartilage, dermis and tendons. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Second, it is derived from the Schwann cells of the associated nerve, rather than the actual neurons (neuromas). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the known neuron types, such as pyramidal neurons and Chandelier cells, were described based on their morphological characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • 2007. Interaction between innate immune cells and a bacterial type-three secretion system in mutualistic and pathogenic associations. (uconn.edu)
  • Liver
  • Gruessner was the first transplant surgeon to perform all types of abdominal transplants (kidney, liver, pancreas and intestine) from living donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • In both mammalian PtK1 cells and in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, kinetochores shortened after microtubule severing. (nih.gov)
  • Our study establishes merotelic kinetochores as an experimental model for studying the mechanical response of the kinetochore in live cells and reveals a viscoelastic behavior of the kinetochore that is conserved in yeast and mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • research
  • Further research is now needed to investigate how these cells find their way straight to the interior of the embryo. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the United States, a political debate is raging about whether or not to expand federal funding for embryonic stem cell research. (bioedonline.org)
  • To understand the stem cell debate, it is important to know what stem cells are and the types of research for which they are used. (bioedonline.org)
  • A total of 72 successful orbital spaceflights occurred in 2012, and the year also saw numerous developments in fields such as robotics, 3D printing, stem cell research and genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • This is supported by the task of detecting substances, as most diseases cause a specific type of protein or other molecule to be made in abundance within the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • large amounts
  • Differentiated cells contain large amounts of specific proteins associated with the cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated cells usually produce large amounts of a few proteins that are required for their specific function and this gives them the characteristic appearance that enables them to be recognized under the light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • 2007. Further characterization of a type III secretion system (T3SS) and of a new effector protein from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila-part I. (uconn.edu)
  • transplant
  • While the precise details of surgery will depend on the exact type of transplant, there are many steps which are common to all of these procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frog
  • Furthermore, classic studies of frog gastrulation have found that cells do not leave the surface of the embryo to enter its interior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Wen and Winklbauer now show that endoderm cells in the frog move using the same set of behaviours that cells in other organisms use to break loose from or bend sheets of cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the frog embryo, this movement is coordinated into an organised pattern where cells use the surfaces of their slower or stationary neighbours to propel past each other, and then slow down to return the favour. (elifesciences.org)
  • Prevalence
  • 2009. Prevalence of genes encoding type three secretion system and the effectors AexT and AexU in the Aeromonas veronii group. (uconn.edu)
  • form
  • To form the primitive gut, a group of cells known as the endoderm must move from the surface to the interior in a process called gastrulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Microsurgery is also the main form of treatment offered for congenital malformations of the breast and hand and for reconstructions following tumour resections. (germany.travel)
  • There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: wet and dry, the latter being the more common form of the disease. (tayani.com)
  • surgery
  • In addition to traditional surgery, your healthcare team may recommend one of several different types of surgery as part of your cancer treatment. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Minimally invasive means less cutting and less blood loss, compared with other types of surgery. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave surgery are other types of minimally invasive surgery. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Surgery is offered if there is failure of medical therapy or rapid growth of lesion, with specific options including stereotactic thermocoagulation, gamma knife radiosurgery, and physical resection by transsphenoidal microsurgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • depends
  • Moreover, although cells are separated by wide gaps, they are connected by filiform protrusions, and their migration depends on C-cadherin and the matrix protein fibronectin. (elifesciences.org)
  • It also depends on the type and the stage of the cancer, the outlook (prognosis), other available choices, and your personal preferences. (ahealthyme.com)
  • development
  • Stem cells are present in the earliest stages of the development of an embryo. (bioedonline.org)
  • He was involved in the development of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) techniques and conducted the first prospective study in 1989 that showed the superiority of ultrasound in comparison to peritoneal lavage in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually
  • The DNA within the fertilized egg instructs the cell to divide (usually 24-36 hours after fertilization). (bioedonline.org)
  • specific
  • Specific side effects will vary with the type and location of cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Relational data (graph, tube-connected network): each node in the graph has a specific size and type and is connected to other nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early stages of regional specification do not generate functional differentiated cells, but cell populations committed to develop to a specific region or part of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • It has been considered a gastrulation process unique to amphibians, but we show that at the cell level, endoderm internalisation exhibits characteristics reminiscent of bottle cell formation and ingression, known mechanisms of germ layer internalisation. (elifesciences.org)
  • neuron
  • To achieve its final pattern of connectivity, a neuron must express proteins that regulate cell migration, axonal outgrowth, synapse formation and neurotransmitter expression. (genetics.org)
  • Information, or stimuli, in the form of light enters the retina, where it excites a special type of neuron called a photoreceptor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • These include germ cell tumors, granulomas of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and hypothalamic astrocytomas, as these lesions usually demonstrate at least partial uptake of contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • At least four types of neurons, excited or inhibited by low or high glucose concentrations, can modulate their firing rate in response to variations in glucose concentrations ( 31 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • GLUT2 is present in brain areas involved in the control of food intake, whereas the exact nature of GLUT2-expressing cells remains unclear since GLUT2 has been identified in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 28 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms that guide migrating cells, we have been studying the embryonic migrations of the C. elegans canal-associated neurons (CANs). (genetics.org)
  • DURING nervous system development, neurons migrate, extend growth cones to their targets, synapse with other cells, and express specific neurotransmitters. (genetics.org)
  • Second, it is derived from the Schwann cells of the associated nerve, rather than the actual neurons (neuromas). (wikipedia.org)
  • A local graded potential begins in the photoreceptor, where it excites the cell enough for the impulse to be passed along through a track of neurons to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, neurons, muscle fibers and hepatocytes (liver cells) are well known types of differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • nasal
  • This, combined with his years of experience performing large number of rhinoplasties in Singapore, allowed him to have a distinct and comprehensive appreciation of the whole spectrum of different nasal types from the West to the East, normal and diseased. (65doctor.com)
  • Physical
  • Once brain cells die, they generally do not regenerate and devastating damage may occur, sometimes resulting in physical, cognitive and mental disabilities. (aans.org)
  • Surgery is offered if there is failure of medical therapy or rapid growth of lesion, with specific options including stereotactic thermocoagulation, gamma knife radiosurgery, and physical resection by transsphenoidal microsurgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Cell migration and axonal outgrowth are complicated processes that are likely to require many proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Differentiated cells contain large amounts of specific proteins associated with the cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated cells usually produce large amounts of a few proteins that are required for their specific function and this gives them the characteristic appearance that enables them to be recognized under the light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Benign brain tumors, composed of harmless cells, have clearly defined borders, can usually be completely removed, and are unlikely to recur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Approximately 25% of all cancer patients develop secondary or metastatic brain tumors when cancer cells spread from another part of the body to the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They are classified into the following types: basaloid (4%) warty (6%) mixed warty-basaloid (17%) verrucous (8%) papillary (7%) other SCC mixed (7%) sarcomatoid carcinomas (1%) not otherwise specified (49%) Other types of carcinomas are rare and may include small cell, Merkel cell, clear cell, sebaceous cell or basal cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main types of pituitary adenomas are: PRL-secreting or prolactinomas: These are the most common pituitary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. (jove.com)
  • Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. (jove.com)
  • The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. (jove.com)
  • The early stages of regional specification do not generate functional differentiated cells, but cell populations committed to develop to a specific region or part of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Migratory cells must regulate molecules involved in cell motility, such as cell-surface receptors and signal transduction molecules, to ensure that cells or growth cones migrate at the proper time, in the appropriate direction, and along the correct path. (genetics.org)
  • tissue
  • Recent advances in microsurgery have made it possible to take small arteries and veins along with the tissue from the donor site and reattach them to the recipient site, thus speeding the healing time. (britannica.com)
  • Blood transfusion, considered a type of tissue transplantation, has been one of the most important factors in the development of modern surgery. (britannica.com)
  • tissues
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • fluorescent
  • Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. (jove.com)
  • different
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (jove.com)
  • American scientists report that they have bred the first-ever monkeys grown from cells taken from different embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of Q-switched lasers, and each is effective at removing a different range of the color spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaa3D displays three major types of 3D surface objects: Point cloud: a set of 3D spherical objects, each with a different color, type, size, and other properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Regional specification refers to the processes that create spatial pattern in a ball or sheet of initially similar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • After vasectomy, the testes remain in the scrotum where Leydig cells continue to produce testosterone and other male hormones that continue to be secreted into the blood-stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Here we report a novel mouse model that allows long-term single cell imaging of many organs. (jove.com)
  • certain types
  • Other risk factors include betel quid, certain types of human papillomavirus, radiation exposure, certain workplace exposures, and Epstein-Barr virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Relational data (graph, tube-connected network): each node in the graph has a specific size and type and is connected to other nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Without oxygen and important nutrients, the affected brain cells are either damaged or die within a few minutes. (aans.org)
  • include
  • Examples of mechanoreceptors include baroreceptors which detect changes in blood pressure, Merkel's discs which detect sustained touch and pressure, and hair cells which detect sound stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • least
  • These knives were first used in ophthalmology, but they have proven useful in cosmetic surgery and microsurgery as well as in the biomedical sciences, whenever finest cuts, without reactive metal ions, and least adjacent cell damage are required. (proscitech.com.au)
  • Both of these examples have continuous cell turnover fed by stem cells and, at least in planaria, at least some of the stem cells have been shown to be pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • However, many compounds identified in screens using cell culture models are often found to be toxic or pharmacologically inactive in vivo 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • common
  • Thrombotic (cerebral thrombosis) is the most common type of ischemic stroke. (aans.org)
  • objects
  • In the late 1970s, the endoscopic endonasal approach was used by neurosurgeons to augment microsurgery which allowed them to view objects out of their line of sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. (jove.com)