• ampullae
  • At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to pressure waves reaching the basilar membrane through the transduction of sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair cells of the cristae activate afferent receptors in response to rotational acceleration. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • The hair cells develop from the lateral and medial ridges of the cochlear duct, which together with the tectorial membrane make up the spiral organ of Corti. (medscape.com)
  • cochlea
  • The outer hair cells of the cochlea are improperly innervated and express neuronal markers that are not normally expressed in these cells. (biologists.org)
  • It uses the same kinds of fluids and detection cells (hair cells) as the cochlea uses, and sends information to the brain about the attitude, rotation, and linear motion of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • For instance, common activities, such as taking an elevator and standing on an escalator or moving walkway, result in activation of the vestibular receptor cells of the saccule and utricle, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • Depending on whether the tilt is in the direction of the kinocilium or not, the resulting hair cell polarisation is excitatory (depolarising) or inhibitory (hyperpolarisation), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • inertia
  • When the head changes position, the endolymph in the canals lags behind due to inertia and this acts on the cupula which bends the cilia of the hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inertia of these small particles causes them to stimulate hair cells when the head moves. (wikipedia.org)
  • hair
  • This structure, called the cupula, sits on top of a cluster of sensory cells, called hair cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Like the semicircular canals, the utricle and the saccule have sensory hair cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • These fluids have a unique ionic composition suited to their function in regulating the electrochemical potential of hair cells, which are as we will later see the transducers of the vestibular system. (wikibooks.org)
  • Each utricle has about 30'000 hair cells, and each saccule about 16'000. (wikibooks.org)
  • On the opposite side, hair cells embedded in supporting cells project into this membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • Inside the utricle and saccule are hair cells similar to those in the organ of Corti. (blausen.com)
  • Depending on the direction of flow, endolymph movement either stimulates or inhibits neuronal output from hair cells lining the canal. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Inside each canal is a gel-like structure called the cupula, which sits on a cluster of sensory hair cells. (chicagotribune.com)
  • This causes the cupula to flex, which bends the hair cells, creating a nerve signal that tells the brain which way your head has turned. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The utricle and the saccule also have sensory hair cells that alert your brain when you have changed your position. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The vestibular system uses hair cells, as does the auditory system, but it excites them in different ways. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In the inner ear, the cochlear hair cells in GC-B KO mice were nevertheless similar to those from wild type mice, justified by the typical expression of functionally relevant marker proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, efferent cholinergic feedback to inner and outer hair cells was reduced in GC-B KO mice, linked to very likely reduced rapid efferent feedback. (frontiersin.org)
  • At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hair cells are specialized sense cells with tiny hairlike projections. (crosswalk.com)
  • Each duct widens and forms a pouch called the ampulla which has hair cells that are attached to nerve fibers. (crosswalk.com)
  • This displacement of the hair bundles generates a receptor potential in the hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gfi1 protein is expressed in a more restricted pattern in specialized sensory cells of the PNS, including the eye, presumptive Merkel cells, the lung and hair cells of the inner ear. (biologists.org)
  • They have a unique inner ear phenotype in that the vestibular and ccchlear hair cells are differentially affected. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, Gfi1 mutant mice lose all cochlear hair cells just prior to and soon after birth through apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Hence, Gfi1 is expressed in the developing nervous system, is required for inner ear hair cell differentiation, and its loss causes programmed cell death. (biologists.org)
  • The movement of fluid pushes on a structure called the cupula, which contains hair cells that transduce the mechanical movement to electrical signals The canals are arranged in such a way that each canal on the left side has an almost parallel counterpart on the right side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the cochlear duct is shortened, the organ of Corti exhibits supernumerary outer hair cells, mirror image duplications of tunnel of Corti and inner hair cells, as well as ectopic expression of patches of vestibular-like hair cells in Kolliker's organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these are hair cells, pillar cells, Boettcher's cells, Claudius' cells and Deiters' cells (phalangeal cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hair cells are the primary auditory receptor cells and they are also known as auditory sensory cells, acoustic hair cells, auditory cells or cells of Corti. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organ of Corti is lined with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located within the membranous labyrinthine walls of the vestibular system are approximately 67,000 hair cells in total. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the nerve along which the sensory cells (the hair cells) of the inner ear transmit information to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each ampulla contains an ampulla crest, the crista ampullaris which consists of a thick gelatinous cap called a cupula and many hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the ampulla is a mound of hair cells and supporting cells called crista ampullaris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair cells send signals down sensory nerve fibers, which are interpreted by the brain as motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pushes the hair cell processes down and prevents them from moving side to side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the macula are hair cells, each having a hair bundle on the apical aspect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures that enable the saccule to gather this vestibular information are the hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2 by 3 mm patch of hair cells and supporting cells are called a macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to an increase in the density of saccular hair cells, partly resulting from reduced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase the hair cells make also increase the sensitivity to male mating calls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinocilia are found on the apical surface of hair cells and are involved in both the morphogenesis of the hair bundle and mechanotransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrations (either by movement or sound waves) cause displacement of the hair bundle, resulting in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the hair cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The depolarization of the hair cells in both instances causes signal transduction via neurotransmitter release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each hair cell has a single, microtubular kinocilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before morphogenesis of the hair bundle, the kinocilium is found in the center of the apical surface of the hair cell surrounded by 20-300 microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • During hair bundle morphogenesis, the kinocilium moves to the cell periphery dictating hair bundle orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During movement of the body, the hair cell is depolarized when the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The depolarization of the hair cell causes neurotransmitter to be released and an increase in firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sterocilia tilt away from the kinocilium, the hair cell is hyperpolarized, decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter released, which decreases the firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike mammals, the kinocilium does not regress and remains as part of the hair bundle after maturation of hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair cells in fish and some frogs are used to detect water movements around their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hair cells are embedded in a jelly-like protrusion called cupula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hair cells therefore can not be seen and do not appear on the surface of skin of fish and frogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the semicircular canals occurs when movement of the endolymph inside the canals causes movement of the crista ampullaris and the hair cells within them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each canal has a widened base, called an ampulla, that houses specialized sensory hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid in these canals surrounds the hair cells, and moves across them as the head moves to gather information about the movement and position of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the head is moved, the force moves the hair cells forward, which sends signals to afferent fibers and on to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve fibers attached to these hair cells carry signals to the vestibular nuclei in the brain, which are then used to gain information about the body's position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger diameter afferent fibers carry information from both type I and type II hair cells, and regular afferent fibers carry signals from type II hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinocilium is the only sensory aspect of the hair cell and is what causes hair cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bottom layer is made of sensory hair cells which are embedded in the bottom of a gelatinous layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each hair cells consists of 40 to 70 steriocilia and a kinocilium, which lies in the middle of the steriocilia and is the most important receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hair cells convert this pattern of stimulation to nerve signals, and the brain is thus advised of changes in your linear velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cristae
  • Morphological and immunohistochemical studies in several species have indicated that these dark cell areas also form a single layer resting on top of pigmented cells at the base of the cristae ampullaris in the semi-circular canals and around the utricular macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • The ductus utriculosaccularis comes off of the anterior wall of the utricle and opens into the ductus endolymphaticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • depolarization
  • This pattern of depolarization should not be confused with the more common depolarization which involves the influx of Na+ into the cell while K+ channels stay closed. (wikipedia.org)
  • auditory
  • It arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa, which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown, like songbirds, females in some species of fish show seasonal variation in auditory processing and the sensitivity of the saccule of females peaks during the breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • As mentioned in dark cell structure, the basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells are highly folded, allowing the enclosure of the numerous large mitochondria, and they contain high levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in both alpha and beta isoforms, transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)