• ampullae
  • At the base of each canal, the bony region of the canal is enlarged which opens into the utricle and has a dilated sac at one end called the osseous ampullae. (wikipedia.org)
  • otolithic
  • Overlying the hair cells and their hair bundles is a gelatinous layer and above that layer is the otolithic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporting cells interdigitate between hair cells and secrete the otolithic membrane, a thick, gelatinous layer of glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both are made of the same sensory tissue containing hair cells, which is covered by a gelatinous layer and the otolithic membrane on top. (wikipedia.org)
  • The otolithic membrane adds weight to the tops of the hair cells and increases their inertia. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • It consists of an anterior chamber and the cochlear duct, which subserves hearing and connects by way of the round saccule with the peripheral vestibular apparatus. (medscape.com)
  • Each ampulla contains an ampulla crest, the crista ampullaris which consists of a thick gelatinous cap called a cupula and many hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each hair cells consists of 40 to 70 steriocilia and a kinocilium, which lies in the middle of the steriocilia and is the most important receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • afferent
  • When the head is moved, the force moves the hair cells forward, which sends signals to afferent fibers and on to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signals from these cells are also transmitted along afferent fibers and on to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger diameter afferent fibers carry information from both type I and type II hair cells, and regular afferent fibers carry signals from type II hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • This causes the cupula to flex, which bends the hair cells, creating a nerve signal that tells the brain which way your head has turned. (chicagotribune.com)
  • These cells attach to nerve fibers. (crosswalk.com)
  • Each duct widens and forms a pouch called the ampulla which has hair cells that are attached to nerve fibers. (crosswalk.com)
  • Consisting of the utricle and saccule, the vestibular system also contains hair cells that send information about the position of the head to the brain along a portion of the acoustic nerve. (reference.com)
  • Hair cells send signals down sensory nerve fibers, which are interpreted by the brain as motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The depolarization of the hair cell causes neurotransmitter to be released and an increase in firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sterocilia tilt away from the kinocilium, the hair cell is hyperpolarized, decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter released, which decreases the firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve fibers attached to these hair cells carry signals to the vestibular nuclei in the brain, which are then used to gain information about the body's position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hair cells convert this pattern of stimulation to nerve signals, and the brain is thus advised of changes in your linear velocity. (wikipedia.org)
  • auditory
  • It arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa, which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown, like songbirds, females in some species of fish show seasonal variation in auditory processing and the sensitivity of the saccule of females peaks during the breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • As mentioned in dark cell structure, the basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells are highly folded, allowing the enclosure of the numerous large mitochondria, and they contain high levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in both alpha and beta isoforms, transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • saccular hair cells
  • As in frog saccular hair cells, adaptation shifted the current-deflection ( I ( X )) relation along the deflection axis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Experiments in frog saccular hair cells have suggested an adaptation mechanism in which an active motor element in the stereocilium moves the upper attachment point of the tip link to adjust its tension (Fig. 1 B ) ( Howard and Hudspeth, 1987 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This is due to an increase in the density of saccular hair cells, partly resulting from reduced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • The influx of calcium then triggers the cell to release vesicles containing excitatory neurotransmitters into a synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • hair cell
  • This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • This pushes the hair cell processes down and prevents them from moving side to side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrations (either by movement or sound waves) cause displacement of the hair bundle, resulting in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the hair cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each hair cell has a single, microtubular kinocilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before morphogenesis of the hair bundle, the kinocilium is found in the center of the apical surface of the hair cell surrounded by 20-300 microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • During movement of the body, the hair cell is depolarized when the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinocilium is the only sensory aspect of the hair cell and is what causes hair cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)