• ectoderm
  • The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm) and a "vegetal pole" (future endoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the blastocoel prevents the vegetal cells destined to become endoderm from coming in contact with those cells in the ectoderm fated to give rise to the skin and nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotentia, "ability for many [things]") refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1850 and 1855, Robert Remak had further refined the germ cell layer concept, and introduced into English were the terms "mesoderm" by Huxley in 1871 and "ectoderm" and "endoderm" by Lankester in 1873. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of involution occurs simultaneously with the process of epiboly, a cell movement associated with the covering of the embryo by the ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • from the Latin cingere "to form a belt around") is a cytosolic protein encoded by the CGN gene in humans localized at tight junctions (TJs) of vertebrate epithelial and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cingulin has been involved in regulation of RhoA signaling and gene expression in cultured cells and KO mice, nothing is known about the specific role of cingulin in human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomena of gene gradients during development is dismissed as an epiphenomena resulting from the passage of the biomechanical wave initiating changes in gene expression in individual cells as the wave passes through a cell sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Dziadek MA (1981) Use of glycine as a non-enzymic procedure for separation of mouse embryonic tissues and dissociation of cells. (springer.com)
  • Trophectoderm cells form extraembryonic tissues, which act in a supporting role for the embryo proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, gives a rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, and kidneys or nephrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues later in development (note: this happens after each nucleus becomes wrapped with its own cell membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all vertebrates, these progenitor cells differentiate into all adult tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • epiblast
  • Here we discuss recent discoveries that implicate FGF/Erk signaling in the control of pluripotency and lineage specification in several different stem cell states, including the separation of pluripotent epiblast and primitive endoderm in the blastocyst, the lineage priming of embryonic stem (ES) cells, and in the stabilization of the metastable state of mouse epiblast and human ES cells. (biologists.org)
  • The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm, which is composed of cuboidal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner cell mass initially has two layers: the hypoblast and epiblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoderm
  • On the deep surface of the inner cell mass, a layer of flattened cells, called the endoderm, is differentiated and quickly assumes the form of a small sac, called the yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. (wikipedia.org)
  • inner cell
  • This is termed as the inner cell mass (ICM). (expertsmind.com)
  • In mice, about 12 internal cells comprise the new inner cell mass and 20 - 24 cells comprise the surrounding trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since segregation of pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass from the remainder of the blastocyst is integral to mammalian development, considerable research has been performed to elucidate the corresponding cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In amniotes, the cells of the morula are at first closely aggregated, but soon they become arranged into an outer or peripheral layer, the trophoblast, which does not contribute to the formation of the embryo proper, and an inner cell mass, from which the embryo is developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid collects between the trophoblast and the greater part of the inner cell-mass, and thus the morula is converted into a vesicle, called the blastodermic vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These internal cells are called the inner cell mass (ICM) and will go on to become the actual embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst is made up of cells from the inner cell mass and the blastocoel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells, however, will remain trapped in the interior and will become the inner cell mass (ICM), and are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells on the inside of the ball contract instead due to the mechanical force of being on the inside and they become determined to be the inner cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Ilgren EB (1981b) On the control of the trophoblastic giant-cell transformation in the mouse: homotypic cellular interaction and polyploidy. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we found that Tcfap2c promotes cellular proliferation via direct repression of p21 transcription during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. (biologists.org)
  • Research in 2011 has shown that cells may differentiate not into a fully totipotent cell, but instead into a "complex cellular variation" of totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryogenesis
  • Required for normal lung alveolar septum formation during embryogenesis, normal development of the gastrointestinal tract, normal development of Leydig cells and spermatogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • In this review, we discuss recently emerging evidence that FGF signaling plays an important role in regulating pluripotency and lineage segregation in both the early mouse embryo and in pluripotent mammalian stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • The trophectoderm epithelium is the first differentiated cell layer to arise during mammalian development. (biologists.org)
  • differentiate
  • Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell, they are used in the development of medical treatments for a wide range of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They proposed that there is a mechanically sensitive bistable organelle made of microtubules and microfilaments in the apical ends of cells within cell sheets that are about to differentiate (that are competent) and these cells are under mechanical tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovum
  • Study(1) : A fertilized ovum repeats cell divesion cycles to increase the number of cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Many sperm are released with the possibility of just one sperm cell managing to adhere to and enter the thick protective shell-like layer surrounding the ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Before gastrulation, the cells of the trophoblast become differentiated into two strata: The outer stratum forms a syncytium (i.e., a layer of protoplasm studded with nuclei, but showing no evidence of subdivision into cells), termed the syncytiotrophoblast, while the inner layer, the cytotrophoblast or "Layer of Langhans", consists of well-defined cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • The existence of multiple and possibly interconvertible pluripotent stem cell states controlled by the extrinsic signaling environment could have significant implications not only for early developmental biology, but also for the field of reprogramming and induced pluripotency. (biologists.org)
  • It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • This means that with each successive subdivision, there is roughly half the cytoplasm in each daughter cell than before that division, and thus the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • TGF alpha is a mitogenic polypeptide that is able to bind to the EGF receptor/EGFR and to act synergistically with TGF beta to promote anchorage-independent cell proliferation in soft agar. (genecards.org)
  • Growth factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell migration, survival and chemotaxis. (genecards.org)
  • apical
  • This property is mediated primarily by the action of tight junction (TJ) complexes, ion gradient pumps and H 2 O channels that assemble on the apical and basolateral membranes of the outer cell layer. (biologists.org)
  • Depending on where the cell is within a sheet, the tension will be resolved by either the apical end contracting or the apical end expanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • implantation
  • Because the cells have only a small amount of yolk, they require immediate implantation onto the uterine wall in order to receive nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • Understanding how extrinsic signals such as FGF regulate different stem cell states will be crucial to harvest the clinical promise of induced pluripotent and embryo-derived stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • Essential stem cell methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some evidence suggests that adult stem cell plasticity may exist, increasing the number of cell types a given adult stem cell can become. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some stem cell researchers are working to develop techniques of isolating stem cells that are as potent as embryonic stem cells, but do not require a human embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Cingulin was originally discovered at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK) by Dr. Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was specifically localized at tight junctions (zonulae occludentes). (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • This becomes known as the amnion, which is one of the four extraembyonic membranes and the cells it comprises are referred to as amnioblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thought of how the yolk sac membranes are formed begins with an increase in production of hypoblast cells, succeeded by different patterns of migration. (wikipedia.org)