• tissues
  • Dziadek MA (1981) Use of glycine as a non-enzymic procedure for separation of mouse embryonic tissues and dissociation of cells. (springer.com)
  • Trophectoderm cells form extraembryonic tissues, which act in a supporting role for the embryo proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity: immune cells and tissues, and AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EC cells injected into mouse blastocysts can contribute to either the normal tissues of the resulting chimera ( Brinster, 1974 ) or, in some cases, to tumors ( Rossant and McBurney, 1982 ). (biologists.org)
  • The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, gives a rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, and kidneys or nephrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues later in development (note: this happens after each nucleus becomes wrapped with its own cell membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • By manipulating the cell signals during the blastula stage of development, various tissues can be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotentia, "ability for many [things]") refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In all vertebrates, these progenitor cells differentiate into all adult tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Acts by mediating gene expression of YAP1 and WWTR1/TAZ, thereby regulating cell proliferation, migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction. (genecards.org)
  • from the Latin cingere "to form a belt around") is a cytosolic protein encoded by the CGN gene in humans localized at tight junctions (TJs) of vertebrate epithelial and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cingulin has been involved in regulation of RhoA signaling and gene expression in cultured cells and KO mice, nothing is known about the specific role of cingulin in human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of several gene families are important for blastocyst formation, including claudins, zonal occludins (TJ proteins), occludins, jam proteins, cell polarity proteins, Na/K-ATPases and aquaporins. (biologists.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenomena of gene gradients during development is dismissed as an epiphenomena resulting from the passage of the biomechanical wave initiating changes in gene expression in individual cells as the wave passes through a cell sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • Following fertilization in the oviduct, the mammalian embryo undergoes a relatively slow round of cleavages to produce an eight cell morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryogenesis starts with the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum) by a sperm cell, (spermatozoon). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertilization of the egg cell (ovum), usually takes place in one of the Fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these totipotent cells begin to specialize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a few days after fertilization, cells on the outer part of the morula become bound tightly together with the formation of desmosomes and gap junctions, becoming nearly indistinguishable. (wikipedia.org)
  • A relatively short time after fertilization, the cortical cytoplasm (located just beneath the cell membrane) rotates by 30 degrees. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoderm
  • The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm) and a "vegetal pole" (future endoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the deep surface of the inner cell mass, a layer of flattened cells, called the endoderm, is differentiated and quickly assumes the form of a small sac, called the yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm, which is composed of cuboidal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the blastocoel prevents the vegetal cells destined to become endoderm from coming in contact with those cells in the ectoderm fated to give rise to the skin and nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1850 and 1855, Robert Remak had further refined the germ cell layer concept, and introduced into English were the terms "mesoderm" by Huxley in 1871 and "ectoderm" and "endoderm" by Lankester in 1873. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Ilgren EB (1981b) On the control of the trophoblastic giant-cell transformation in the mouse: homotypic cellular interaction and polyploidy. (springer.com)
  • Since segregation of pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass from the remainder of the blastocyst is integral to mammalian development, considerable research has been performed to elucidate the corresponding cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we found that Tcfap2c promotes cellular proliferation via direct repression of p21 transcription during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. (biologists.org)
  • Research in 2011 has shown that cells may differentiate not into a fully totipotent cell, but instead into a "complex cellular variation" of totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryogenesis
  • Required for normal lung alveolar septum formation during embryogenesis, normal development of the gastrointestinal tract, normal development of Leydig cells and spermatogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • However, differences between ES cells and primitive ectoderm cells have caused developmental biologists to question whether ES cells really have an in vivo equivalent, or whether their properties merely reflect their tissue culture environment. (biologists.org)
  • It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • TGF alpha is a mitogenic polypeptide that is able to bind to the EGF receptor/EGFR and to act synergistically with TGF beta to promote anchorage-independent cell proliferation in soft agar. (genecards.org)
  • differentiate
  • Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell, they are used in the development of medical treatments for a wide range of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They proposed that there is a mechanically sensitive bistable organelle made of microtubules and microfilaments in the apical ends of cells within cell sheets that are about to differentiate (that are competent) and these cells are under mechanical tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovum
  • Study(1) : A fertilized ovum repeats cell divesion cycles to increase the number of cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Many sperm are released with the possibility of just one sperm cell managing to adhere to and enter the thick protective shell-like layer surrounding the ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Before gastrulation, the cells of the trophoblast become differentiated into two strata: The outer stratum forms a syncytium (i.e., a layer of protoplasm studded with nuclei, but showing no evidence of subdivision into cells), termed the syncytiotrophoblast, while the inner layer, the cytotrophoblast or "Layer of Langhans", consists of well-defined cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • This means that with each successive subdivision, there is roughly half the cytoplasm in each daughter cell than before that division, and thus the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Moreover, embryonic stem cells can be generated from Cdx2-null mice, demonstrating that Cdx2 is not essential for ICM specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells where one or both cingulin alleles were targeted by homologous recombination show apparently normal tight junctions, but changes in the expression of a large number of genes, including tight junction protein genes (claudin-2, claudin-6, claudin-7 and occludin) and transcription factors (including GATA4). (wikipedia.org)
  • A germ cell origin of embryonic stem cells? (biologists.org)
  • A few years after the initial derivation of mouse ES cells, it was suggested that they be called `embryo-derived stem cells', a more precise term that would distinguish between these new pluripotent cell lines and cells within the embryo ( Rossant and Papaioannou, 1984 ). (biologists.org)
  • However, this term was never adopted, and the extent to which these pluripotent stem cell lines represent any specific embryonic cell type or reflect their artificial tissue culture environment is still an open issue today - two decades later. (biologists.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are a field which, though controversial, have tremendous potential for treating disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2013, a team from the Spanish national Cancer Research Centre was able for the first time to make adult cells from mice retreat to the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, thereby achieving totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell pluripotency is a continuum, ranging from the completely pluripotent cell that can form every cell of the embryo proper, e.g., embryonic stem cells and iPSCs (see below), to the incompletely or partially pluripotent cell that can form cells of all three germ layers but that may not exhibit all the characteristics of completely pluripotent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential stem cell methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly, this controversy focuses on embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many less controversial sources of acquiring stem cells include using cells from the umbilical cord, breast milk, and bone marrow, which are not pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many decades, stem cells have played an important role in medical research, beginning in 1868 when Ernst Haeckel first used the phrase to describe the fertilized egg which eventually gestates into an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further work by Alexander Maximow and Leroy Stevens introduced the concept that stem cells are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, James Thomson and Jeffrey Jones derived the first human embryonic stem cells, with even greater potential for drug discovery and therapeutic transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet further treatments using stem cells could potentially be developed due to their ability to repair extensive tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great levels of success and potential have been realized from research using adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early 2009, the FDA approved the first human clinical trials using embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some evidence suggests that adult stem cell plasticity may exist, increasing the number of cell types a given adult stem cell can become. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the debates surrounding human embryonic stem cells concern issues such as what restrictions should be made on studies using these types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other recent discoveries may extinguish the need for embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some stem cell researchers are working to develop techniques of isolating stem cells that are as potent as embryonic stem cells, but do not require a human embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy (see stem cell controversy), there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Eventually, conditions were developed that allowed the culture of EC cells in vitro, establishing them as an in vitro model of mammalian development ( Kahan and Ephrussi, 1970 ). (biologists.org)
  • apical
  • This property is mediated primarily by the action of tight junction (TJ) complexes, ion gradient pumps and H 2 O channels that assemble on the apical and basolateral membranes of the outer cell layer. (biologists.org)
  • Depending on where the cell is within a sheet, the tension will be resolved by either the apical end contracting or the apical end expanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Cingulin was originally discovered at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK) by Dr. Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was specifically localized at tight junctions (zonulae occludentes). (wikipedia.org)