• Receptors
  • In this role, A2AR functions similarly to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, namely to suppress immunologic response and prevent associated tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abundant extracellular adenosine can then bind to the A2A receptor resulting in a Gs-protein coupled response, resulting in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP, which functions primarily through protein kinase A to upregulate inhibitory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and inhibitory receptors (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens
  • Memory-Like Antigen-Specific Human NK Cells from TB Pleural Fluids Produced IL-22 in Response to IL-15 or Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens. (nih.gov)
  • It must work together with specific circulating immunocytes to adapt to the presence of benign antigens in a fashion which will dampen the normal inflammatory response to antigens which is an integral part of digestion taking place in the upper bowel. (nowleap.com)
  • Because this study measured immune system T cells that were specific to the varicella-zoster virus, the association may extend to T cells specific for antigens of other pathogens that cause disease in older adults, such as influenza. (science20.com)
  • Cytokines
  • In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs.The result demonstrated that CD45RO+ but not CD45RO- NK cells produced significantly higher level of IL-22.Consistently, BCG specific IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs expressed CD45ROhighNKG2Dhighgranzyme Bhigh. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the possible mechanism of the response by CD45RO+ NK cells from PFCs under the stimulation with BCG or cytokines, we evaluated the expression of NK cell activation molecule-NKG2D. (nih.gov)
  • vaccine
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant, which has been shown to induce T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of Functional Antibody and Memory B-cell Responses to PH1N1 Monovalent Vaccine in HIV-infected Children and Youth PloS One. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 25785995 We investigated immune determinants of antibody responses and B-cell memory to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected children. (jove.com)
  • Determinants of Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women: Analysis of B and T Cell Responses to Pandemic H1N1 Monovalent Vaccine PloS One. (jove.com)
  • To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. (jove.com)
  • pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1) antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. (jove.com)
  • In March 2009, an inactivated Vero cell culture-derived vaccine (IXIARO [JE-VC]) was licensed for use in persons aged ≥17 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine boosts cell-mediated immunity to the virus and can decrease the incidence and severity of the condition. (science20.com)
  • Depressed patients not being treated with antidepressants showed a weaker immune response to the varicella-zoster virus - and thus were less able to respond to the shingles vaccine - than patients who were not depressed and patients who suffered from depression but werereceiving treatment with antidepressants. (science20.com)
  • When the depression was being treated, responses to the vaccine were normalized, even when the depression treatment had not been effective in lessening the symptoms of depression. (science20.com)
  • Efforts are also needed to identify and diagnose depressed elderly patients who might benefit from either a more potent vaccine or a multi-dose vaccination schedule. (science20.com)
  • While we know that psychological stress is associated with a weakened immune response to influenza vaccines in older adults, few studies have examined the association between depression and infectious disease risk, or disease-relevant immunologic endpoints, such as vaccine responses," he said. (science20.com)
  • Atopic
  • Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)-positive skin-homing CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly elevated levels of activation markers compared with CLA(-) CD8(+) T cells in individuals (n = 27) with cutaneous atopic disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, skin-homing CD8(+) T cells from individuals with severe disease produced significantly less IL-10 than those derived from mildly affected atopic subjects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dose-related reduction in allergen-specific T cells associates with clinical response of atopic dermatitis to methotrexate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • metastatic
  • Allied to these, we have studied their effects on the molecular pathways associated with metastasis.Anchorage-independent growth, used as a coarse indicator of transformation, was significantly reduced, as were migratory capacity and invasive competence.These results provide evidence that in addition to their immunomodulatory effects, thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide can impair the metastatic capacity of tumours, and that this mechanism may involve alterations to cell signalling functionality. (nih.gov)
  • As part of a continuing research effort, we have investigated the effects of these agents on the metastatic capacity of murine colorectal cancer cell lines both in vivo and in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicate that thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide significantly inhibit the metastatic capability of colorectal carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide evidence that in addition to their immunomodulatory effects, thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide can impair the metastatic capacity of tumours, and that this mechanism may involve alterations to cell signalling functionality. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of IMiDs on the metastatic capabilities of CT26 and CMT93 cells was also examined by assessing the ability of cells to migrate across a permeable membrane towards 10% FBS in a 16 h period. (nih.gov)
  • Entering the 21st century, scientific evidence supporting general relevance of focal infections remained slim, yet evolved understandings of disease mechanisms had established a third possible mechanism-altogether, metastasis of infection, metastatic toxic injury, and, as recently revealed, metastatic immunologic injury-that might occur simultaneously and even interact. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • While there have been several clinical trials of combined therapy none has shown positive enough effects to merit the consideration as a viable treatment for MS. Regarding neuroprotective and regenerative treatments such as stem cell therapy, while their research is considered of high importance at the moment they are only a promise of future therapeutic approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • for more details Currently there are no clinically established laboratory investigations available to predict prognosis or therapeutic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of IL-2 after cell transfer enhanced therapeutic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulants in therapeutic doses, such as those given to patients with ADHD, increases ability to focus, vigor, sociability, libido and may elevate mood. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Adrenaline is a catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to acute stress. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In 2016, CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells were used to treat patients with relapsed and refractory CD19+ B cell malignancies, including B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpyrifos exposure may lead to acute toxicity at higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long-term exposure to low doses, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underly these potentially fatal outcomes of acute stimulant toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • This study examines the effect of 2 different amounts of rIL-2 on CD4 cell count and the amount of HIV in the blood (viral burden). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study examines the effect of two different rIL-2 doses on HIV viral burden and CD4+ cell count and provides additional information on optimal dosing, safety, and antiviral activity of rIL-2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • antibody
  • The LPS NO response was suppressed to 43% of the control value by adrenaline (10(-8) M) and an irrelevant control antibody had no effect on the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of NO, but anti-IL-10 treatment restored the NO response to levels similar to those observed with LPS alone. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In 2010 administration of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) against B cell antigen CD19 was shown to mediate regression of an advanced B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Dose, timing, schedule, and the choice of targeted epitope alter the efficacy of anti-CD22 immunotherapy in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts. (nih.gov)
  • Early treatment (low tumor volume, non-established tumors) was at least as effective as the same dose and schedule of HB22.7 given to mice with small established tumors, Fig. 2. (nih.gov)
  • Mice treated with A2AR antagonists, such as ZM241385 (listed above) or caffeine, show significantly delayed tumor growth due to T-cells resistant to inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • CT also inhibited the production of IL-12 p70 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not IL-10, IL-6, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, by stimulated monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Free (released) nickel that is able to penetrate the skin is taken up by scavenger (dendritic cells) and then presented to the immune system T-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigenic epitope is collected by dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the skin, and undergo maturation and migration to regional lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Previous studies have shown that adrenaline suppresses the nitric oxide (NO) response of murine macrophages (M phi s) stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Attempts to use T cells to treat transplanted murine tumors required cultivating and manipulating T cells in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Tumors less than 200 mm(3) had a higher response rate than did larger tumors. (nih.gov)
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • optimal
  • This study provided data as to an optimal dose, route, schedule and interval between doses of HB22.7. (nih.gov)
  • toxicity
  • HB22.7 doses greater than 1.4 mg/week did not further increase efficacy (or toxicity). (nih.gov)
  • People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be computed from one's height and weight using this calculator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • With each subsequent exposure to nickel these T cells become stimulated and duplicate (clone) themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon re-exposure these now primed T cells will be activated and massively recruited to the skin, resulting in the elicitation phase and the clinical presentation of Ni-ACD. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAS presents with an array of symptoms ranging from respiratory to generalized skin rash to gastrointestinal symptoms Interestingly, a meta review evaluating SNAS found that 1% of patients sensitized to nickel reacted to the nickel content of a 'normal' diet, and with increasing doses of nickel more individuals reacted SNAS is a multilayered immunologic response demonstrating variance between individuals and doses of nickel exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • We show here with peripheral blood monocytes from normal volunteers and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis by using IL-1R antagonist to block autoinduction and IL-1alpha stimulation to simulate autoinduction that approximately 40% of IL-1beta released from LPS-stimulated cells is attributable to autoinduction and that GLA reduces autoinduction of IL-1beta while leaving the initial IL-1beta response to LPS intact. (umassmed.edu)
  • CD45RO+ or CD45RO- NK cells were sorted, co-cultured with autologous monocytes and stimulated with BCG for the production of IL-22. (nih.gov)
  • IL-12 p70 production by stimulated human monocytes was inhibited by CT in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Under such stimulation conditions, T cells are activated to express CD40L, which stimulates CD40-dependent production of IL-12 by both monocytes and DCs. (nih.gov)
  • antigen
  • Thus in a T-helper 2 dominated disease, tissue-specific CD8(+) T cells show altered CCR7 expression and cytokine production, which may contribute to continued lymph node homing, antigen presentation and disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In 2006 administration of normal circulating lymphocytes transduced with a retrovirus encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the MART-1 melanoma-melanocyte antigen, mediated tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction is the critical phase (immunological event) when skin contact to nickel results in antigen presentation to the T cells, and T cell duplication (cloning) occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In autologous cancer immunotherapy, T cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and returned to the same patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • Despite such an activated phenotype, CLA(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CCR7 than a CLA(-) T cell subset. (ox.ac.uk)
  • More importantly, the subset of specific IL-22-producing NK cells were distinct from IFN-γ-producing NK cells in PFCs. (nih.gov)
  • proliferation
  • B) CT treatment also inhibited anti-CD3-mediated cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • In turn, IL-12 drives IFN-γ production by circulating NK and T cells, and augments CD3-mediated proliferation of T cells. (nih.gov)
  • receptor
  • IRF3 and IRF7 are activated in response to a variety of viruses or after engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 by double-stranded RNA and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. (umassmed.edu)
  • CT inhibited the production of IFN-gamma by anti-CD3-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell, due in part to suppression of IL-12 production, but also to the inhibition of expression of the beta1 and beta2 chains of the IL-12 receptor on T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Animals
  • The Initial acquisition of microbiota in animals from mammalians to marine sponges is at birth, and may even occur through the germ cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • To further evaluate the phenotype of BCG-specific NK cells from PFCs on the basis of their ability to produce IL-22, we analyzed the expression of CD45RO as a marker for memory, NKG2D as NK cell activation molecule, granzyme B as a cytotoxic-related marker, CD69 and CD25 as activation molecules on IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs after stimulation with BCG. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative metagenomic studies yielded the surprising result that individual cattle possess markedly different community structures, predicted phenotype, and metabolic potentials, even though they were fed identical diets, were housed together, and were apparently functionally identical in their utilization of plant cell wall resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • interferon
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of IRF5 enabled type I interferon production in response to TLR7 signaling, whereas knockdown of IRF5 by small interfering RNA reduced type I interferon induction in response to the TLR7 ligand, R-848. (umassmed.edu)
  • pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ) and granzyme B (GrB) T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. (jove.com)
  • Finally, we also observed that the M phi-activating cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), attenuated the inhibitory effect of adrenaline on the LPS NO response. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that exogenous TNF-alpha, at a dose range of 1.9-50 ng per ml, also restored the nitrite response to LPS in the presence of adrenaline. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • patients
  • The purpose of this study is to examine how rIL-2 affects HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts over 300 cells/mm3 who are on anti-HIV drug therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But in a two-year study, the authors measured immune responses to the shingles vaccination among 40 people aged 60 or older who suffered from a major depressive disorder and compared these responses to similar levels in 52 control patients matched by age and gender. (science20.com)
  • Larger studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between untreated depression and the risk of shingles, the study noted, along with further research to establish what mechanisms are responsible for patients' reduced immune response. (science20.com)
  • Most patients require high doses for months to years before tapering. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, researchers announced the first use of donor cells (rather than the patients' own cells) to defeat leukemia in two infants for whom other treatments had failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments
  • Experiments with cells in which transcription and protein synthesis were blocked suggest that GLA induces a protein that reduces pro-IL-1beta mRNA stability. (umassmed.edu)
  • The representative histogram of the phenotypes of NK cells were shown from three separate experiments with similar results. (nih.gov)
  • immunological
  • This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Adrenaline suppressed both NO and TNF-alpha with concomitant up-regulation of the IL-10 response above that seen with LPS alone. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • study
  • The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe to give multiple doses of CPI-1189 to HIV-infected, otherwise healthy, males. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this randomized, double-blind study, 48 HIV-infected, otherwise healthy, male volunteers receive either multiple-dose CPI-1189 or placebo by mouth for 15 consecutive days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volunteers enter the study site the night before dosing on Days 1 and 15 and remain at the study site for 72 hours following dosing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • stimulation
  • The results in Fig 6A and 6B demonstrated that IL-15, IL-12 or IL-15 plus IL-12 stimulation significantly enhanced the expression of NKG2D on NK cells compared with medium. (nih.gov)