• Receptors
  • This finding has led scientists to develop the Environmental Obesogens / Diabesity Hypothesis: Pre-natal, early life and young life exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) activate fat receptors and stimulate fat cells, which predispose individuals to obesity and/or related metabolic disorders (diabesity). (mondovista.com)
  • In this role, A2AR functions similarly to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, namely to suppress immunologic response and prevent associated tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abundant extracellular adenosine can then bind to the A2A receptor resulting in a Gs-protein coupled response, resulting in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP, which functions primarily through protein kinase A to upregulate inhibitory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and inhibitory receptors (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines
  • In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs.The result demonstrated that CD45RO+ but not CD45RO- NK cells produced significantly higher level of IL-22.Consistently, BCG specific IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs expressed CD45ROhighNKG2Dhighgranzyme Bhigh. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the possible mechanism of the response by CD45RO+ NK cells from PFCs under the stimulation with BCG or cytokines, we evaluated the expression of NK cell activation molecule-NKG2D. (nih.gov)
  • metastatic
  • Allied to these, we have studied their effects on the molecular pathways associated with metastasis.Anchorage-independent growth, used as a coarse indicator of transformation, was significantly reduced, as were migratory capacity and invasive competence.These results provide evidence that in addition to their immunomodulatory effects, thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide can impair the metastatic capacity of tumours, and that this mechanism may involve alterations to cell signalling functionality. (nih.gov)
  • As part of a continuing research effort, we have investigated the effects of these agents on the metastatic capacity of murine colorectal cancer cell lines both in vivo and in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicate that thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide significantly inhibit the metastatic capability of colorectal carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide evidence that in addition to their immunomodulatory effects, thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide can impair the metastatic capacity of tumours, and that this mechanism may involve alterations to cell signalling functionality. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of IMiDs on the metastatic capabilities of CT26 and CMT93 cells was also examined by assessing the ability of cells to migrate across a permeable membrane towards 10% FBS in a 16 h period. (nih.gov)
  • Entering the 21st century, scientific evidence supporting general relevance of focal infections remained slim, yet evolved understandings of disease mechanisms had established a third possible mechanism-altogether, metastasis of infection, metastatic toxic injury, and, as recently revealed, metastatic immunologic injury-that might occur simultaneously and even interact. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • While there have been several clinical trials of combined therapy none has shown positive enough effects to merit the consideration as a viable treatment for MS. Regarding neuroprotective and regenerative treatments such as stem cell therapy, while their research is considered of high importance at the moment they are only a promise of future therapeutic approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • for more details Currently there are no clinically established laboratory investigations available to predict prognosis or therapeutic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of IL-2 after cell transfer enhanced therapeutic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulants in therapeutic doses, such as those given to patients with ADHD, increases ability to focus, vigor, sociability, libido and may elevate mood. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Ability of pollen cytoplasmic granules to induce biased allergic responses in a rat model. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD22-blocking mAbs induce apoptosis in neoplastic B-cells and are functionally distinguishable from other anti-CD22 mAbs. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant, which has been shown to induce T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of IL-1 to induce IL-2 receptor expression in the absence of T cell mitogen is the basis of this assay. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Viral
  • This study examines the effect of 2 different amounts of rIL-2 on CD4 cell count and the amount of HIV in the blood (viral burden). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study examines the effect of two different rIL-2 doses on HIV viral burden and CD4+ cell count and provides additional information on optimal dosing, safety, and antiviral activity of rIL-2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • mice
  • Dose, timing, schedule, and the choice of targeted epitope alter the efficacy of anti-CD22 immunotherapy in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts. (nih.gov)
  • Early treatment (low tumor volume, non-established tumors) was at least as effective as the same dose and schedule of HB22.7 given to mice with small established tumors, Fig. 2. (nih.gov)
  • Mice treated with A2AR antagonists, such as ZM241385 (listed above) or caffeine, show significantly delayed tumor growth due to T-cells resistant to inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • In 2016, CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells were used to treat patients with relapsed and refractory CD19+ B cell malignancies, including B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpyrifos exposure may lead to acute toxicity at higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long-term exposure to low doses, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underly these potentially fatal outcomes of acute stimulant toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative metagenomic studies yielded the surprising result that individual cattle possess markedly different community structures, predicted phenotype, and metabolic potentials, even though they were fed identical diets, were housed together, and were apparently functionally identical in their utilization of plant cell wall resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • CT also inhibited the production of IL-12 p70 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not IL-10, IL-6, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, by stimulated monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Free (released) nickel that is able to penetrate the skin is taken up by scavenger (dendritic cells) and then presented to the immune system T-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigenic epitope is collected by dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the skin, and undergo maturation and migration to regional lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. (wikipedia.org)
  • If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are most commonly derived from the immune system with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, this electrical charge guided the particles towards the patient's dendritic immune cells that specify immune system targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Tumors less than 200 mm(3) had a higher response rate than did larger tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Attempts to use T cells to treat transplanted murine tumors required cultivating and manipulating T cells in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • optimal
  • This study provided data as to an optimal dose, route, schedule and interval between doses of HB22.7. (nih.gov)
  • toxicity
  • HB22.7 doses greater than 1.4 mg/week did not further increase efficacy (or toxicity). (nih.gov)
  • People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be computed from one's height and weight using this calculator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • With each subsequent exposure to nickel these T cells become stimulated and duplicate (clone) themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon re-exposure these now primed T cells will be activated and massively recruited to the skin, resulting in the elicitation phase and the clinical presentation of Ni-ACD. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAS presents with an array of symptoms ranging from respiratory to generalized skin rash to gastrointestinal symptoms Interestingly, a meta review evaluating SNAS found that 1% of patients sensitized to nickel reacted to the nickel content of a 'normal' diet, and with increasing doses of nickel more individuals reacted SNAS is a multilayered immunologic response demonstrating variance between individuals and doses of nickel exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • We show here with peripheral blood monocytes from normal volunteers and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis by using IL-1R antagonist to block autoinduction and IL-1alpha stimulation to simulate autoinduction that approximately 40% of IL-1beta released from LPS-stimulated cells is attributable to autoinduction and that GLA reduces autoinduction of IL-1beta while leaving the initial IL-1beta response to LPS intact. (umassmed.edu)
  • CD45RO+ or CD45RO- NK cells were sorted, co-cultured with autologous monocytes and stimulated with BCG for the production of IL-22. (nih.gov)
  • IL-12 p70 production by stimulated human monocytes was inhibited by CT in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Under such stimulation conditions, T cells are activated to express CD40L, which stimulates CD40-dependent production of IL-12 by both monocytes and DCs. (nih.gov)
  • antigen
  • Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)-positive skin-homing CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly elevated levels of activation markers compared with CLA(-) CD8(+) T cells in individuals (n = 27) with cutaneous atopic disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus in a T-helper 2 dominated disease, tissue-specific CD8(+) T cells show altered CCR7 expression and cytokine production, which may contribute to continued lymph node homing, antigen presentation and disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In 2006 administration of normal circulating lymphocytes transduced with a retrovirus encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the MART-1 melanoma-melanocyte antigen, mediated tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 administration of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) against B cell antigen CD19 was shown to mediate regression of an advanced B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction is the critical phase (immunological event) when skin contact to nickel results in antigen presentation to the T cells, and T cell duplication (cloning) occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple-dose
  • In this randomized, double-blind study, 48 HIV-infected, otherwise healthy, male volunteers receive either multiple-dose CPI-1189 or placebo by mouth for 15 consecutive days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • tissues
  • In addition, A2A receptor can negatively regulate overreactive immune cells, thereby protecting tissues from collateral inflammatory damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • Despite such an activated phenotype, CLA(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CCR7 than a CLA(-) T cell subset. (ox.ac.uk)
  • More importantly, the subset of specific IL-22-producing NK cells were distinct from IFN-γ-producing NK cells in PFCs. (nih.gov)
  • proliferation
  • B) CT treatment also inhibited anti-CD3-mediated cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • In turn, IL-12 drives IFN-γ production by circulating NK and T cells, and augments CD3-mediated proliferation of T cells. (nih.gov)
  • receptor
  • IRF3 and IRF7 are activated in response to a variety of viruses or after engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 by double-stranded RNA and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. (umassmed.edu)
  • CT inhibited the production of IFN-gamma by anti-CD3-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell, due in part to suppression of IL-12 production, but also to the inhibition of expression of the beta1 and beta2 chains of the IL-12 receptor on T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Animals
  • The Initial acquisition of microbiota in animals from mammalians to marine sponges is at birth, and may even occur through the germ cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • To further evaluate the phenotype of BCG-specific NK cells from PFCs on the basis of their ability to produce IL-22, we analyzed the expression of CD45RO as a marker for memory, NKG2D as NK cell activation molecule, granzyme B as a cytotoxic-related marker, CD69 and CD25 as activation molecules on IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs after stimulation with BCG. (nih.gov)
  • interferon
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of IRF5 enabled type I interferon production in response to TLR7 signaling, whereas knockdown of IRF5 by small interfering RNA reduced type I interferon induction in response to the TLR7 ligand, R-848. (umassmed.edu)
  • patients
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose of CI-1012 in late-stage HIV-1-infected patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of anti-HIV drugs combined with low-dose chemotherapy (consisting of cyclophosphamide [CTX]) in HIV-positive patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In Arm B, patients receive NFV plus d4T plus 3TC plus 3 escalating doses of CTX at 6-week intervals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • During this time, patients undergo blood tests and lymph node biopsies to measure HIV DNA and RNA levels and to characterize the T cell population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most patients require high doses for months to years before tapering. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In autologous cancer immunotherapy, T cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and returned to the same patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • CTX administration has been shown to eliminate a large number of lymphoid tissue T cells and macrophages, appearing to actively target chronically HIV-infected cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As lymphoid organs are repopulated following initial depletion with CTX, HAART may protect repopulating cells from becoming HIV-infected, resulting in a net additional removal of the HIV-infected lymphoid reservoir. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • vaccine
  • In March 2009, an inactivated Vero cell culture-derived vaccine (IXIARO [JE-VC]) was licensed for use in persons aged ≥17 years. (cdc.gov)
  • study
  • The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe to give multiple doses of CPI-1189 to HIV-infected, otherwise healthy, males. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Volunteers enter the study site the night before dosing on Days 1 and 15 and remain at the study site for 72 hours following dosing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study examines whether this combination therapy can reduce the number of HIV-infected cells hidden in the lymph nodes and blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Experiments
  • Experiments with cells in which transcription and protein synthesis were blocked suggest that GLA induces a protein that reduces pro-IL-1beta mRNA stability. (umassmed.edu)
  • The representative histogram of the phenotypes of NK cells were shown from three separate experiments with similar results. (nih.gov)
  • safety
  • Doses are escalated based on safety assessments: As soon as a dose meets the criteria for 'tolerated' or 'not tolerated', doses are escalated or terminated, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, skin-homing CD8(+) T cells from individuals with severe disease produced significantly less IL-10 than those derived from mildly affected atopic subjects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • given
  • In 2009, a woman given T cells engineered to recognize colon cancer went into respiratory distress and died. (wikipedia.org)