Loading...


  • lectins
  • Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins serve many different biological functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some lectins are found on the surface of mammalian liver cells that specifically recognize galactose residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the glycolipids and glycoproteins on an individual's red blood cells can be identified by lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011) A recent study used the term eastern blotting to describe detection of glycoproteins with lectins such as concanavalin A There is clearly no single accepted definition of the term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen
  • Mitogen‐induced T‐cell CD69 expression is a less sensitive measure of T‐cell function than [(3)H]‐thymidine uptake. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The discovery in 1975 that culture supernatants of mitogen-activated leukocyte populations contained a lymphocyte-specific growth factor [T-cell growth factor (TCGF) = interleukin 2 (IL-2)] 1 provided the cornerstone for the development of cellular immunology in the last decade. (springer.com)
  • Similar to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), it is a selective T cell mitogen relative to its effects on B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dispase
  • Phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase blocking reduced structural abnormalities of the rat retina in concanavalin model of PVR and reduced the frequency of membrane formation by 43% in the dispase model of PVR and by 31% in the concanavalin one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispase is often used to digest adhering primary cells in culture, since this treatment turned out to be milder than trypsin digestion (Sinclair et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Furthermore, it was found that CB causes the disorganization of the 50Å microfilaments of mouse epithelial cells which causes the cells to lose their shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGFβ2 is the most predominant isoform in the eye and is secreted as a latent inactive peptide into the vitreous by epithelial cells of the ciliary body and the lens epithelium and is also produced by the RPE cells and the Muller cells of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The molecular-weight and unit-cell capabilities of neutron protein crystallography are tested via the example of cubic concanavalin A. Analyses of neutron quasi-Laue data from this crystal suggest improvements to the apparatus options for data collection. (iucr.org)
  • Scientific studies suggest that certain types of lactalbumin (whey protein) can significantly improve immune responsiveness and increase levels of glutathione systemically in animals and possesses antiviral (against viruses), anti-apoptotic (impede cell death) and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved from https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/files/3215/Dissertation+M.+Badr.pdf Stirpe, F., Olsnes, S. & Pihl, A. Gelonin, a new inhibitor of protein synthesis, nontoxic to intact cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically a tandem repeat of two DUF1608 domains are contained in a single MSTP protein chain and these proteins self-assemble into the protective proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) structure that encompasses the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later work confirmed the circular permutation between the pair and showed that concanavalin A is permuted post-translationally through cleavage and an unusual protein ligation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • The suppressive effects of MSC-derived exosomes and the MSCs in this injury model were evaluated by the level of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), histopathological examinations, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and the population alteration of regulatory T cells (Treg) among non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • During this process the retinal cell layers come in contact with vitreous cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood-brain barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mast cells were once thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells were first described by Paul Ehrlich in his 1878 doctoral thesis on the basis of their unique staining characteristics and large granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are very similar to basophil granulocytes (a class of white blood cells) in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • These similarities have led many to speculate that mast cells are basophils that have "homed in" on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first in vitro differentiation and growth of a pure population of mouse mast cells has been carried out using conditioned medium derived from concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE already coated upon the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators that act upon platelets, endothelium, uterine and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It inhibits the degranulation of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Kapustina M, Elston TC, Jacobson K. Compression and dilation of the membrane-cortex layer generates rapid changes in cell shape. (cellmigration.org)
  • Gelonin lacks carbohydrate-binding domain, which are comprised as Beta-chains, so it is unable to cross the plasma membrane, making it highly effective in cell free systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here enucleated recipient cells are treated with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B makes the cytoplasm of the oocytes more fluid and makes it possible to aspirate the nuclear genome of the oocyte within a small vesicle of plasma membrane into a micro-needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, and other EM studies, confirmed that the cell envelope structure of the Methanosarcinales is composed of a cytoplasmic membrane (CM) with an additional barrier (the S-layer) external to the CM. Under conditions of low osmolarity the S-layer is extensively decorated with a polysaccharide, termed methanochondroitin, and the cells tend to grow in multicellular aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • ConA
  • Natural killer (NK) T-cells and macrophages are also closely associated with the progression of liver injury caused by ConA [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Apoptosis or programmed cell death is associated with liver injury caused by ConA [ 15 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • one subset of human suppressor T-cells as well is sensitive to ConA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated that transformed cells and trypsin-treated normal cells do not agglutinate at 4 °C, thereby initiate suggesting that there is a temperature-sensitive step involved in ConA-mediated agglutination. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the study by Lei and Chang, ConA was found to be sequestered more by hepatic tumor cells, in preference to surrounding normal hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • the eradication of the tumor in the murine in-situ hepatoma model in this study was additionally attributed to the mitogenic/lymphoproliferative action of ConA that may have activated a CD8+ T-cell-mediated, as well as NK- and NK-T cell-mediated, immune response in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Taurocholate induces biliary differentiation of liver progenitor cells causing hepatic stellate cell chemotaxis in the Ductular Reaction: Role in pediatric cystic fibrosis liver disease. (amedeo.com)
  • Later, it was discovered that T cell-derived interleukin 3 was the component present in the conditioned media that was required for mast cell differentiation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The number of cells entering DNA synthesis was determined by pulse labeling with tritiated thymidine at various times. (jimmunol.org)
  • i.e., glucose-1-phosphate + UTP ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-glucose + pyrophosphate UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme found in all three domains (bacteria, eukarya, and archaea) as it is a key player in glycogenesis and cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Vasil'ev A.V., Ren Li Khva, Orekhov A.N., Tertov V.V., Tutel'ian V.A., The effect of glucagon and concanavalin A on cholesterol accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages and human aorta intima cells, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1989, vol: 35(5), 90-93. (msk.ru)
  • The two membranes differ in composition in that the ERM is composed of RPE cells, glial cells, macrophages and fibrocytes, while the SRM is rich in RPE cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • whereas overexpression of PML results in programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils leave the bone marrow already mature, whereas the mast cell circulates in an immature form, only maturing once in a tissue site. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • Cathepsin H-Mediated Degradation of HDAC4 for Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Hepatic Stellate Cells: Implications of Epigenetic Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Fibrosis through Stabilization of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases. (amedeo.com)
  • expression
  • CD69 expression as an index of T‐cell function: Assay standardization, validation and use in monitoring immune recovery. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Although the development of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, which suppress interleukin (IL)-2 expression and T cell-mediated immune responses, was a breakthrough, their adverse effects are still a major problem in the long-term follow-up of transplant recipients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inflammation
  • When activated, a mast cell can either selectively release (piecemeal degranulation) or rapidly release (anaphylactic degranulation) "mediators", or compounds that induce inflammation, from storage granules into the local microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • galactose
  • Bacteria with defective UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase are unable to incorporate galactose into their cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-tumor
  • 2011 Sep 15;129(6):1519-31 Cheng Z, Wang K, Wei J, Lu X, Liu B"Proteomic analysis of anti-tumor effects by tetrandrine treatment in HepG2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver cells
  • Phenotypical change of non-parenchymal liver cells was also evaluated by flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, it was found that CB has an inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by chang-strain human liver cells and in CB-treated cells alterations in the appearance and location of microfilaments were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • Variations in the total cell concentration or the ratio of parental to F 1 cells in mixed leukocyte cultures produced no change in the percentage of reactive cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • undergo
  • Another group found that CB inhibits the ability of HeLa cells to undergo cytokinesis by decomposition of the contractile ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • STICCS Reveals Matrix-Dependent Adhesion Slipping and Gripping in Migrating Cells. (cellmigration.org)
  • During this process the RPE cell layer-neural retinal adhesion and RPE-ECM (extracellular matrix) adhesions are lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • The RPE cells migrate out into the vitreous, proliferate excessively and lay down ECM on both side sides of the detached retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Overexpression of MUC13, a Poor Prognostic Predictor, Promotes Cell Growth by Activating Wnt Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (amedeo.com)
  • Antibody
  • Rabbit antibody was developed against a P34 culture supernatant fraction with T-cell promoting activity and used to screen the P34 cDNA library. (usda.gov)
  • regulation
  • Bravo-Cordero JJ, Sharma VP, Roh-Johnson M, Chen X, Eddy R, Condeelis J, Hodgson L. Spatial regulation of RhoC activity defines protrusion formation in migrating cells. (cellmigration.org)
  • stimulation
  • The present study was conducted to determine whether the stress of physical work further affects the expression of splenic lymphocyte phenotypes following in vitro stimulation by the T-cell mitogen, Con A, and also by interleukin-1 (IL1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We then compared the results observed in patients with those obtained after treating human primary bladder microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) with either direct stimulation with VEGF-A or VEGF-C or by co-culturing (trans-well assay) MEC with bladder cancer cell lines varying in VEGF-A and VEGF-C production based on tumor grade. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 112(9) :1747-55 (1982) The effect of graded amounts of dietary laetalbumin (L) and casein (C) hydrolyzates on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN and DBA/2 strain mice has been investigated by measuring both the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide after stimulation with Mycobacteriurn bovis, strain BCG. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) affinity and avidity changes have been assumed to mediate adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 for T-cell conjugation to dendritic cells (DC). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form glutathione (GSH), which is a critical molecule in resisting oxidative stress and maintaining the reducing environment of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • the latter effect was dependent on the presence of adherent cells.In vivo, significant enhancement of lymphocyte reactivity to T-mitogens and increase of CD4+ helper-inducer T lymphocytes were observed 3 d after a subcutaneous application of Olimunostim to mice with cellular immune deficiency. (naver.com)
  • The presence of interleukin 4 during in vitro priming determines the lymphokine-producing potential of CD4+ T cells from T cell receptor transgenic mice. (naver.com)
  • In addition, encephalitogenic T cell clones from C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice reactive to MBP had been successfully isolated and propagated. (jove.com)
  • Ten days post cell transfer, recipient mice are challenged with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-emulsified MBP in four sites in the flanks. (jove.com)
  • There was a significantly greater increase in the percentage of Thy1.2+ and, especially of, Lyt-2+ cells in stimulated splenic lymphocytes from untrained mice given an exhaustive exercise session compared with controls and with trained mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RNK.mLy-49D effectors were also able to specifically lyse Concanavalin A blasts isolated from H-2(d) mice (BALB/c, B10.D2, and DBA/2) but not from H-2(b) or H-2(k) mice. (nih.gov)
  • RNK.mLy-49D transfectants were tested as effector cells for lysis of Con A blast targets prepared from mice that were congenic resistant at the H-2 locus. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Differential Effect Of Dietary Protein Type On The B-Cell And T-Cell Immune Responses In Mice Bounous G., Kongshavn P.A. J Nutr. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nov;115(11) :1403-8 (1985) The effect of 20 g/100 g diet of lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S) and wheat (W) protein on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, delayed-type hypersensitivity, and splenic cell mitogen responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A did not differ among mice fed the various diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetrandrine has also been shown to inhibit entry of Ebola virus into host cells in vitro and showed therapeutic efficacy against Ebola in preliminary studies on mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • lectins
  • Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long before a deeper understanding of their numerous biological functions, the plant lectins, also known as phytohemagglutinins, were noted for their particular high specificity for foreign glycoconjugates (e.g. those of fungi, invertebrates, and animals) and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lectins serve many different biological functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some lectins are found on the surface of mammalian liver cells that specifically recognize galactose residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the glycolipids and glycoproteins on an individual's red blood cells can be identified by lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011) A recent study used the term eastern blotting to describe detection of glycoproteins with lectins such as concanavalin A There is clearly no single accepted definition of the term. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Both a monoclonal antibody and antisera specific for determinants unique to individual cloned helper T cell lines can substitute for antigen and antigen-presenting cells in the. (naver.com)
  • The experimental protocol involves using a cellular adoptive transfer system in which MBP-primed (200 μg/mouse) C57BL/6 donor lymph node cells are isolated and cultured for five days with the antigen to expand the pool of MBP-specific T cells. (jove.com)
  • These experiments show that the activating receptor Ly-49D specifically interacts with the MHC I antigen, H-2Dd, demonstrating the existence of alloactivating receptors on murine NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Immune modulation exerted by thymic humoral factor (THF-gamma 2), on T-cell subsets and IL-2 production of umbilical cord blood lymphocytes. (naver.com)
  • Perceived stress and coping method were assessed in 173 healthy older adults and related to the number and percentage of CD3C, CD4C, and CD8C T lymphocytes as well as the proliferative response of peripheral blood leukocytes to phytohemagluttinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). Both active and avoidance coping significantly interacted with perceived stress on proliferative responses to both mitogens. (centeronbehavioralmedicine.com)
  • dendritic cells
  • سلول های دندریتیک (Dendritic cells) یا به طور اختصار DC از انواع سلول های عرضه کنندهٔ آنتی ژن و همچنین به عنوان سلول های فرعی در دستگاه ایمنی هستند. (daneshyari.com)
  • murine
  • As proof-of-concept, human HeLa and murine B16 cancer cells were transfected with a HSP70-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) plasmid and polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated AuNRs. (jove.com)
  • cytokines
  • Many cytokines play a central role in the formation of complex networks and cross-regulation to induce, augment, and regulate inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [ 1 ]. (kjim.org)
  • Cellular
  • The first lectin to be purified on a large scale and available on a commercial basis was concanavalin A, which is now the most-used lectin for characterization and purification of sugar-containing molecules and cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • It inhibits the degranulation of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood-brain barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mast cells were once thought to be tissue resident basophils, it has been shown that the two cells develop from different hematopoietic lineages and thus cannot be the same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells were first described by Paul Ehrlich in his 1878 doctoral thesis on the basis of their unique staining characteristics and large granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are very similar to basophil granulocytes (a class of white blood cells) in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Here we investigate how signal encoding and protein coordination are achieved in individual cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Retrieved from https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/files/3215/Dissertation+M.+Badr.pdf Stirpe, F., Olsnes, S. & Pihl, A. Gelonin, a new inhibitor of protein synthesis, nontoxic to intact cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Michigan determined that BanLec bound to the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, which is high in sugar content, inhibiting viral entry into human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific studies suggest that certain types of lactalbumin (whey protein) can significantly improve immune responsiveness and increase levels of glutathione systemically in animals and possesses antiviral (against viruses), anti-apoptotic (impede cell death) and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically a tandem repeat of two DUF1608 domains are contained in a single MSTP protein chain and these proteins self-assemble into the protective proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) structure that encompasses the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is found on thymocytes and mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Research on membrane structure and function, cell growth and development processes, and mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis is particularly likely to benefit from a visual determination of the position and movements of cell constituents. (springer.com)
  • binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gelonin lacks carbohydrate-binding domain, which are comprised as Beta-chains, so it is unable to cross the plasma membrane, making it highly effective in cell free systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here enucleated recipient cells are treated with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B makes the cytoplasm of the oocytes more fluid and makes it possible to aspirate the nuclear genome of the oocyte within a small vesicle of plasma membrane into a micro-needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, and other EM studies, confirmed that the cell envelope structure of the Methanosarcinales is composed of a cytoplasmic membrane (CM) with an additional barrier (the S-layer) external to the CM. Under conditions of low osmolarity the S-layer is extensively decorated with a polysaccharide, termed methanochondroitin, and the cells tend to grow in multicellular aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • degranulation
  • When activated, a mast cell can either selectively release (piecemeal degranulation) or rapidly release (anaphylactic degranulation) "mediators", or compounds that induce inflammation, from storage granules into the local microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • These results suggest that FM regulation of localization bursts may be a general control strategy utilized by the cell to coordinate multi-gene responses to external signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HeLa
  • Another group found that CB inhibits the ability of HeLa cells to undergo cytokinesis by decomposition of the contractile ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Phenotypic and functional separation of memory and effector human CD8+ T cells. (naver.com)
  • panels E and F). Assays were performed after preincubation of effector cells with media alone (□), anti-Ly-49D mAb (12A8) (♦), or control mAb (2C7) (○) before addition of targets. (nih.gov)
  • galactose
  • Bacteria with defective UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase are unable to incorporate galactose into their cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-tumor
  • 2011 Sep 15;129(6):1519-31 Cheng Z, Wang K, Wei J, Lu X, Liu B"Proteomic analysis of anti-tumor effects by tetrandrine treatment in HepG2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Crz1 exhibited short bursts of nuclear localization (~2 minutes) that occurred stochastically in individual cells and propagated to the expression of downstream genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Upon the addition of calcium, individual cells exhibited a rapid, synchronized burst of Crz1 nuclear localization, similar to behavior observed by the yeast osmosensor Hog1 7 , 8 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • tissues
  • Even though the efficacy of intrinsic effects of elevated body temperature in tissues to cells is still being studied, it has been disclosed that the survival rate of cells is reduced by heating at 39-42 °C, and it is amplified remarkably by heating at ≥ 42.5 °C for ≥ 1 h. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • Primary
  • Dispase is often used to digest adhering primary cells in culture, since this treatment turned out to be milder than trypsin digestion (Sinclair et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear bodies (NBs) were first seen as prominent interchromatin structures in the nuclei of malignant or hyperstimulated animal cells identified using anti-sp100 autoantibodies from primary biliary cirrhosis and subsequently the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) factor, but appear also to be elevated in many autoimmune and cancerous diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • ConA exhibits cell agglutinating and mitogenic activities and induces apoptosis [ 4 ]. (kjim.org)
  • interleukin
  • 7. The process according to claim 4, wherein the cell mediator is selected from the group consisting of interleukin-1, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor, macrophageactivation factor lymphotoxin and fibroblast growth factor. (patentgenius.com)
  • phosphorylation
  • Inhibition of Src-kinases by inhibitors PP1 and PP2 did not reduce SLP-76 phosphorylation in S2 cells, suggesting an ITAM and SYK dependent, but Src-kinase independent signaling pathway. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • immune
  • Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • human liver
  • Moreover, it was found that CB has an inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by chang-strain human liver cells and in CB-treated cells alterations in the appearance and location of microfilaments were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of natural killer cells and cytokine production in man by bacterial extracts. (naver.com)
  • It blocks adenosine-induced apoptotic body formation without affecting activation of endogenous ADP-ribosylation in leukemia HL-60 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Nuclear dots (also known as Nuclear bodies, nuclear domains, or PML bodies) are punctate structures found in the nuclei of certain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and has been used as an animal model for study of the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE is characterized by pathologic infiltration of mononuclear cells into the CNS and by clinical manifestation of paralytic disease. (jove.com)
  • synthesis
  • i.e., glucose-1-phosphate + UTP ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-glucose + pyrophosphate UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme found in all three domains (bacteria, eukarya, and archaea) as it is a key player in glycogenesis and cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Chemotherapy also adds little to the overall survival of patients with HCC because of the lower sensitivity of HCC cells, the emergence of drug resistance, and insufficient chemotherapeutic doses due to impaired liver function. (hindawi.com)
  • Glutathione plays a key role in maintaining proper function and preventing oxidative stress in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mast cell is very similar in both appearance and function to the basophil, another type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Reduced glutathione reduces the oxidized form of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which in turn reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a dangerously reactive species within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, for every GSSG and NADPH, two reduced GSH molecules are gained, which can again act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) occupies a critically important position in the T-cell signaling pathway. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • ConA
  • Natural killer (NK) T-cells and macrophages are also closely associated with the progression of liver injury caused by ConA [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • growth
  • T cell growth factor: parameters of production and a quantitative microassay for activity. (naver.com)
  • Consequences for T cell growth. (naver.com)
  • Usually, the starting point is a crude, heterogeneous group of molecules in a whole cell extract, such as a cell lysate, growth medium or blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • It appeared that these cells were created through progressive nuclear addition instead of nuclear division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separate nuclei are bound by a nuclear bridge and in binucleated cells the centrioles are doubled. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • RNK.mLy-49D cells lysed YB2/0.Dd targets more efficiently than untransfected YB2/0 or YB2/0 transfected with Db, Kk, or Kb. (nih.gov)
  • Two-pore channels control Ebola virus host cell entry and are drug targets for disease treatment. (wikipedia.org)