• autonomic nervou
  • Their counterparts are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), receptor ion channels that are also important in the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • post-synaptic
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are also present and distributed throughout the local nervous system, in post-synaptic and pre-synaptic positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • These terms can be used interchangeably but usually paraganglioma refer to a tumor originating from chromaffin cells outside the adrenal gland, which can also be called extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, whereas pheochromocytoma typically refer to a tumor originating from the chromaffin cells within the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • On microscopic inspection, the tumor cells are readily recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual tumor cells are polygonal to oval and are arranged in distinctive cell balls, called Zellballen. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucocorticoids
  • Glucocorticoids also are in affect during times of stress for the sympathoadrenal system, but provide an inhibitory function for the protection of the body from its own immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucocorticoids work to inhibit reactions produced from the immune system during times of stress that could cause damage within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in this layer are responsible for producing glucocorticoids such as cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetylcholine
  • In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes the excitation of the nerves that innervate the skeletal muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, causing an increase in force production by the skeletal muscles along with accelerated heart rate and breathing rate, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that this circuit is not activated by acetylcholine, which is of particular importance because the administration of atropine will not block the vagal stimulation of the G cells, as ACh is not the neurotransmitter for these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptophysin
  • First, we showed that synaptophysin and dynamin interact in chromaffin granule-rich fractions and that this interaction relies on the C terminal of synaptophysin. (jneurosci.org)
  • To get additional insight into this mechanism, we characterized the interaction between synaptophysin and dynamin in chromaffin cells, and, taking advantage of the carbon-fiber amperometry technique, we studied how the disruption of the association between these proteins affects individual exocytotic events. (jneurosci.org)
  • release
  • Thomas C. Südhof laid the foundations for his scientific career studying the synapse early while studying the mechanisms of neurotransmitter dependent hormone release from neuroendocrine cells for his doctoral thesis at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of amperometric measurements of quantal catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • this causes the G cells to secrete gastrin, which in turn stimulates ECL cells to release histamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ECL cells are activated directly by ACh on M1 receptors from direct vagal innervation leading to histamine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Like the observations on adrenergic neurones, non-selective and selective MAO-A inhibitors potentiate the catecholamine-releasing property of tyramine in PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Here we assess the consequences of selective sorting of Syt isoforms in chromaffin cells, particularly with respect to granule dynamics and activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Membrane
  • In this cascade, DAG remains on the cell membrane and activates the signal cascade by activating protein kinase C (PKC). (wikipedia.org)
  • dopamine
  • Catecholamine-secreting cells use several reactions to convert tyrosine serially to L-DOPA and then to dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In obesity, high levels of circulating free fatty acids have been reported to cause a decrease in the amount of carboxypeptidase E protein in pancreatic beta-cells, leading to beta-cell dysfunction (hyperproinsulinemia) and increased beta-cell apoptosis (via an increase in ER-stress). (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies identified associated proteins necessary during this stage, such as phosphatidylinositol transfer protein , and phosphoinositol-4-monophosphatase 5 kinase type Iγ (PIPKγ) , which mediates PI(4,5)P2 restoration in permeable cell incubation in an ATP-dependent way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sustentacular cells are S-100 positive and focally positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Moreover, as synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis has recently been suggested as an important mechanism in fostering a mitotic block in mice and humans by keeping cyclin B expression levels stable 9,10 , this system enabled us to analyze cyclin B proteolysis as one element of a balanced equilibrium 6 . (jove.com)
  • Expression of the two transporters in internal organs seems to differ between species: only VMAT1 is expressed in the rat adrenal medulla cells whereas VMAT2 is the major transporter in the bovine adrenal medulla cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • These results indicate that not only does tPA-promoted excitotoxic cell death proceed through a receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, but that neuronal cell death in the Lurcher mouse is facilitated by extracellular cascades in addition to the already described intracellular pathways. (biologists.org)
  • The progression of apoptotic neuronal death in Lc mice accordingly provides a physiologically relevant model for excitotoxic cell death. (biologists.org)
  • They are then transported along neuronal axons to their axon terminals forming the bulk of the median eminence, where they are stored and released into the hypophyseal portal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerves
  • A link between what we now know as the sympathetic system and the lung was shown in 1887 when Grossman showed that stimulation of cardiac accelerator nerves reversed muscarine-induced airway constriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the brain, reception of a signal for a stressor by the hypothalamus leads to an increase in activity of the sympathoadrenal system, essentially within the nerves that send signals to the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organism's "fight or flight" response. (wikipedia.org)