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  • recombinant
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Cycle
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G 2 / M phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interaction parameters were applied to quantify unexplainable drug-drug interaction effects on cell cycle arrest in S phase and in inducing apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • They also discovered that ONA inhibited pro-tumor activities of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which the researchers say are linked with the suppression of the anti-tumor immune response of host lymphocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In asmuch as they express prolactin receptors, respond to prolactin treatment, and synthesize their own prolactin ( 19 - 22 ), these cells are similar to B and T lymphocytes, whose proliferation has been shown to be stimulated by the hormone ( 23 , 24 ) and inhibited by cannabinoids, anandamide ( 10 ), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glutaminolysis takes place in all proliferating cells, such as lymphocytes, thymocytes, colonocytes, adipocytes and especially in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data, obtained in a new model of mouse lacking the BTG1 gene, indicate that BTG1 is essential for the proliferation and expansion of stem cells in the adult neurogenic niches, i.e. the dentate gyrus and sub ventricular zone (see for review). (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, BTG1 keeps adult neural stem cells in quiescence, preserving the neural stem cells pool from depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence, BTG1 might prevent the depletion of stem cells in the presence of strong neurogenic stimuli or of neural degenerative stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • The Universal Mycoplasma Detection Kit, ATCC 30-1012K , offers a quick and sensitive PCR-based test to detect mycoplasma contaminants in cell culture. (atcc.org)
  • compounds
  • Therefore, we have investigated the possible anti-mitogenic action of anandamide and other cannabimimetic compounds on two epitheloid HBC cell lines, EFM-19 and MCF-7 cells, that have been used widely in the past for studies on the pharmacology and biochemistry of lactogenic hormones ( 19 - 22 , 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • receptor
  • Anandamide suppressed the levels of the long form of the prolactin receptor in both EFM-19 and MCF-7 cells, as well as a typical prolactin-induced response, i.e., the expression of the breast cancer cell susceptibility gene brca1 . (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that anandamide blocks human breast cancer cell proliferation through CB1-like receptor-mediated inhibition of endogenous prolactin action at the level of prolactin receptor. (pnas.org)
  • metabolism
  • LRP1 is also a key signalling protein and, thus, involved in various biological processes, such as lipoprotein metabolism and cell motility, and diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the Ki-67 antigen can be exclusively detected within the cell nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and mitosis), but is absent in resting (quiescent) cells (G0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdh1 plays a pivotal role in controlling cell division at the end of mitosis (telophase) and in the subsequent G1 phase of cell cycle: By recognizing and binding proteins (like mitotic cyclins) which contain a destruction box (D-box) and an additional degradation signal (KEN box), Cdh1 recruits them in a C-box-dependent mechanism to the APC for ubiquination and subsequent proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • One characteristic of budding yeast cells exit from mitosis after chromosome segregation is the removal of the mitotic determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-Cyclins) drops down at the cell exit from mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that APCCdh1-mediated degradation of PIk1 plays an important role in preventing mitosis in cells that have DNA-damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy cells Cdh1 stays inactive from late G1 to early mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • Cdh1-deficient cells can proliferate but accumulate mitotic errors and have difficulties with cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of BTG1, the stem and progenitor cells initially hyper proliferate and then in the longer period lose the ability to proliferate and expand. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • This finding often create alarm and anxiety, because it has to be placed in a differential diagnosis versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given that the focal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia are nowadays easily detectable at ultrasonography of the testis (US), as small non-palpable hypoechoic micro-nodules that can show internal vascularization, their finding create a diagnostic challenge versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • pathway
  • On the other hand, tumor cells over express phosphate dependent glutaminase and NAD(P)-dependent malate decarboxylase, which in combination with the remaining reaction steps of the citric acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate impart the possibility of a new energy producing pathway, the degradation of the amino acid glutamine to glutamate, aspartate, pyruvate CO2, lactate and citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic cyclins
  • The main function of Cdh1 is to suppress the re-accumulation of mitotic cyclins and other cell cycle determinants and therefore stabilising the G1-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • APCCdh1 is thought to prevent premature S-phase entry by degrading mitotic cyclins in G1 and regulate processes unrelated to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In both cases, regular, limited amounts of alcohol inhibited a protein called Notch 1 and prevented the buildup of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels that leads to the narrowing of the arteries and can put you at risk for a heart attack or stroke . (highlighthealth.com)
  • Fucosyl-GM1 expression and amyloid-beta protein accumulation in PC12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antigen KI-67 is a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein (also known as MKI67) is a cellular marker for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Ki-67 in human MCF-7 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein (red), tubulin (green) and DNA (blue) in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdh1 is one of the co- activator proteins of APC/c and therefore contributes to the regulation of protein degradation, by providing substrate specificity to the E3-ligase in a cell cycle regulated manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The device enables real-time analysis of cellular and tissue responses to oxygen tension to define how cells adapt to heterogeneous oxygen conditions found in the physiological setting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • gene
  • The BTG1 gene locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recurrent mutations in this gene have been associated to cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • We found that ONA reduced the extent of ovarian cancer cell proliferation induced by co-culture with human macrophages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Water-soluble fullerene derivatives protect human keratinocytes from UV-induced cell injuries together with the decreases in intracellular ROS generation and DNA damages [ 12 ] and suppress intracellular lipid accumulation [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to study the influence of the fulleride presence on cell proliferation, we chose the cell line rin-mf5 (cell derivatives of the human insular tissue). (hindawi.com)
  • The research, published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology , studied the effects of moderate amounts of alcohol in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and in the carotid arteries of mice . (highlighthealth.com)
  • These results point to inhibition of DYRK1A as a therapeutic strategy to increase human beta-cell proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cell proliferation was arrested by a prolactin mAb and enhanced by exogenous human prolactin, whose mitogenic action was reverted by very low (0.1-0.5 μM) doses of anandamide. (pnas.org)
  • Based on this background, in the present study we have addressed the question of whether anandamide would exert a modulatory effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer (HBC) cells, which has been suggested to depend on prolactin and estrogens ( 19 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • tumors
  • The researchers say their study demonstrates that ONA slows progression of ovarian cancer tumors by interrupting myeloid cells' pro-tumor activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), although uncommon in the general population, are the most frequent non-germ cell testicular neoplasms, and their incidence has been reported increasingly growing, especially in infertile patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For many tumors, it has been discovered associated endothelial cells have significantly increased permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • A stable analogue of anandamide ( R )-methanandamide, another endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 also inhibited EFM-19 cell proliferation, whereas arachidonic acid was much less effective. (pnas.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, ONA is considered useful for the additional treatment of patients with ovarian cancer owing to its suppression of the pro-tumor activation of [tumor-associated macrophages] and direct cytotoxicity against cancer cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These data suggest that IL-6, which is elevated in the serum and joints of patients with RA, might exacerbate disease by inducing IL-7 and thus driving T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • nuclei
  • Cell type-specific affinity purification of nuclei for chromatin profiling in whole animals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Kinome profiling revealed 5-IT to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK) and cell division cycle (CDC)-like (CLK) kinase families. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These cannabimimetic substances displaced the binding of the selective cannabinoid agonist [ 3 H]CP 55,940 to EFM-19 membranes with an order of potency identical to that observed for the inhibition of EFM-19 cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • membrane
  • The UniFilter plate is a special microplate, containing a glass fiber membrane and designed to be compatible with the MicroMate 196 Cell Harvester and TopCount. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are localized primarily in the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LRP1 is alsocontinuously endocytosed from the membrane and recycled back to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • The influence of fulleride particles on the cell proliferative activity was also investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that the proliferative activity of the RINmF5 cells increases (53% versus control) in presence of the C 60 (FeCp 2 ) 2 nanosized particles. (hindawi.com)
  • In breast cancer Ki67 identifies a high proliferative subset of patients with ER-positive breast cancer who derive greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Various approaches are taken to construct synthetic cells in the laboratory, a challenging goal that became experimentally imaginable over the past two decades. (biomedsearch.com)
  • growth
  • After examining the effects of ONA on a preclinical model of EOC in cells, the researchers found that the growth of EOCs slowed down after the team introduced ONA. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A convenient system used to measure cell growth and drug sensitivity in tumor cell lines. (atcc.org)
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of cell development and cell division (reproduction). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Rather, the gp130 mutation caused nonhematopoietic cells to produce excess IL-7-a growth factor that triggers T cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • The latter can work as a growth factor for Leydig cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, there are now multiple studies that illustrate the complexity behind these previous simple conceptions of angiogenesis, indicating that the way cancer cells interact with and co-opt new blood vessel growth varies amongst cancer types and must be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Sertoli cells (SC) in the testis allow for the duplications and development of the cells that give rise to sperm and generally the total number of germ cells produced depends on the number of SC in a testis. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Patients with the testicular dysgenesis syndrome, that comprises a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as infertility, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell neoplasms, often develop alterations in the Leydig cell compartment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cortical
  • Foetal mouse cortical cells were cultured on 2D films and within 3D thermally responsive chitosan/glycerophosphate salt (GP) hydrogels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • shown
  • It was shown that an increased expression of Ets2 can be associated with various cancer types, in the likes of cervical cancer or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • With a grant from BBSRC we will first determine whether SC multiplication can be increased by reducing FSTL3 in mice and in tissue culture cells. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancellous bone also known as trabecular or spongy bone tissue is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • In normal blood vessels, it is known that endothelial cells form regular monolayers with tight junctions without overlap, but TECs create disorganized and loosely connected monolayers, often branching and extending across the lumen to overlap with their neighbors. (wikipedia.org)
  • maximal
  • Anandamide dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and EFM-19 cells with IC 50 values between 0.5 and 1.5 μM and 83-92% maximal inhibition at 5-10 μM. (pnas.org)
  • causal
  • Diversification of cell size is hypothesized to have occurred through a process of evolutionary optimization, but direct demonstrations of causal relationships between cell geometry and fitness are lacking. (biomedsearch.com)
  • recombinant
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Cycle
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G 2 / M phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interaction parameters were applied to quantify unexplainable drug-drug interaction effects on cell cycle arrest in S phase and in inducing apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • survival
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By contrast, MSC cultured on a stiff matrix secreted prosaposin which promoted proliferation and survival of mammary carcinoma cells but inhibited metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In addition, given the risks of using animal serum for tissue engineering, autologous blood may gain favor as a source of growth factors and serum supplements needed for stimulating cells to engineer intervertebral disc tissues. (blogspot.com)
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • Mast cells are found in a dog's skin and other tissues, such as cartilage and bone. (kerryblues.org)
  • Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and contribute to re-endothelialization of injured vessels as well as revascularization of ischemic tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ipilimumab patients expressed increased ICOS+ T cells in tumor tissues and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for years there has been a debate about its accuracy, due to problems in the original assay which caused necrotic cells to be inappropriately labeled as apoptotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • antisense
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Current methods used to measure the activity of antibody and other biologics drugs designed to target immune checkpoint receptors rely on primary human cells and measurement of functional endpoints such as cell proliferation, cell surface marker expression, and cytokine production. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The physiological role of Dock10 is poorly characterised, however a study in lymphocytes has shown that Dock10 expression is upregulated in B-lymphocytes and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cells in response to the cytokine IL-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell-surface receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Mast cells are essentially white blood cells, important immune cells whose ingredients include histamine (a chemical that is released by the immune system as part of an allergic reaction) and heparin (an anticoagulant substance). (kerryblues.org)
  • It forms homodimers and plays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells are responsible for clonal deletion within the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific to other parts of the body to T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • mechanisms
  • If autoreactive cells escape clonal deletion in either the thymus or the bone marrow, there are mechanisms in the periphery involving T regulatory cells to prevent the host from obtaining an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is where the lymphocyte would receive apoptotic signals from antigen-presenting cell (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Regulation of T:B cell interactions by the inducible costimulator molecule: does ICOS "induce" disease? (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR-ABL transcript encodes a tyrosine kinase, which activates mediators of the cell cycle regulation system, leading to a clonal myeloproliferative disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. (jove.com)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Each of these lymphocytes express specificity to a particular epitope, or the part of an antigen to which B cell and T cell receptors recognize and bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because most autoresponsive cells undergo clonal deletion, this allows microorganisms with epitopes similar to host antigen to escape recognition and detection by T and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The response to platelet-rich plasma was greater in the case of anulus fibrosus cells than of nucleus pulposus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • On a stiff matrix, MSC cultured with conditioned media from mammary cancer cells expressed increased levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a marker of CAF, compared to MSC cultured on a soft matrix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells demonstrating high affinity for self cells can undergo clonal deletion within the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such T cells are often removed via clonal deletion, leaving autoreactive B cells unstimulated and unactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells that show a high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes can undergo clonal deletion in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells also have the opportunity to undergo clonal deletion within the thymic medulla if they express high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex, which suggests it is possible for a cell to undergo positive selection within the cortex and then negative selection in the medulla via clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)