• cellular
  • Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Another biological active component of green tea, also inhibited endometrial cancer cell line (Ishikawa cells) proliferation, through cell cycle arrest, interfered with Akt(role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. (blogspot.com)
  • activation of MAPK(role in complex cellular programs like proliferation, differentiation, development, transformation, and apoptosis) signals, and increased apoptosis signals leading to a controlled caspases(mechanisms of apoptosis), Bcl-2(family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death), Bax( involved in p53-mediated apoptosis ) genes and protein expression. (blogspot.com)
  • Macrophage is any of the specialized class of large, phagocytic cells within the tissues , including blood , that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes and that destroy foreign bacteria and other microorganisms as well as cellular debris, and senescent and damaged cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A prolymphocyte is a white blood cell with a certain state of cellular differentiation in lymphocytopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sézary cells are bigger than Lutzner cells, and have an overabundance of cellular folds in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucosal
  • The turned on T and B cells circulate through the thoracic duct in to the blood and finally go back to common mucosal sites, like the lamina propria from the intestine, as matured plasma cells (2, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26). (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • 2000
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • precursors
  • Conti L, Gessani S. GM-CSF in the generation of dendritic cells from human blood monocyte precursors: recent advances. (springer.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because even on B-cell precursors, it can be used to stain a wider range of cells than can the alternative B-cell marker CD20, but the latter is more commonly retained on mature B-cell lymphomas, so that the two are often used together in immunohistochemistry panels. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymus
  • In addition to the elimination of self-reactive T cells in the thymus, tolerance is maintained in the periphery through clonal deletion, induction of anergy, and differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg). (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast to the nTreg generated in the thymus, iTreg are generated in the periphery, and DCs appear to play an essential role in their differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lutzner cells begin developing in bone marrow then travel to the thymus via the secretion of the hormone thymosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the mutated cell is developed, it patiently waits in the thymus until an antigen presents itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation . (wikipedia.org)
  • After the process of affinity maturation in germinal centers, plasma cells have an indeterminate lifespan, ranging from days to months. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.2 Phenotypic Characterization of CD45RARO Populace As indicated in Fig.?1 CD45RARO cells belonged to the CD56+CD16+ subset (Fig.?2A) and mostly express the maturation marker CD57 (Fig.?2B) although CD62L was coexpressed by half of them. (extremebiology.net)
  • Immature dendritic cells phagocytose pathogens and degrade their proteins into small pieces and upon maturation present those fragments at their cell surface using MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production and maturation stages occur before the cell has developed a mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Curcumin, a major chemical constituent of turmeric, inhibited endometrial cancer proliferation through suppresses JAK-STAT(mechanisms of activation and regulation of this essential signaling cascade) signaling via activation of PIAS-3(Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3), thus attenuating STAT-3(signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) is constitutively activated in ovarian and endometrial cancers) phosphorylation and tumor cell growth(10). (blogspot.com)
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • and (b) expression of surface antigens from the MHC I complex in the trophoblast of SCNT-derived concepti, which may lead to rejection of the allograft (37). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. (abcam.com)
  • Biological activity of bacterial surface components: bacterial extracts and defined bacterial cell wall components as immunomodulators. (naver.com)
  • The expression of cell surface markers was determined using flow cytometric analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably we found that triggered NK cells from hematological malignancy patients possess non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. (extremebiology.net)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphology of dendritic cells results in a very large surface-to-volume ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the dendritic cell has a very large surface area compared to the overall cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD79a protein is present on the surface of B-cells throughout their life cycle, and is absent on all other healthy cells, making it a highly reliable marker for B-cells in immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This atypical molecular pattern includes the coexpression of cell surface markers clusters of differentiation 5 (CD5) and 23. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found on the surface of mature B cells and to a lesser extent on some immature B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are probably of mesenchymal rather than hematopoietic origin and do not express MHC class II, but are so named because they are located in lymphoid follicles and have long "dendritic" processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells develop in the bone marrow and continue to mature peripherally in secondary lymphoid organs and (as recently discovered) in the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being produced, the stem cell differentiates into lymphoid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid cells include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells. (abcam.com)
  • Macrophages act in both the nonspecific defense (or innate immunity ) as well as specific defense (or cell-mediated immunity ) of vertebrate animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The immune system involving the actions of macrophages is amazingly complex and harmoniously coordinated, recognizing and removing invading particles and coordinating with the T-cells to provide the necessary protection of the body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Should the macrophages attack healthy body cells, it would be disastrous. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the second line of defense, after foreign substances gain access to the body, phagocytic cells (macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes) can engulf (phagocytose) foreign substances. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages, bone marrow stromal cells, astrocytes, synoviocytes during rheumatoid arthritis, salivary epithelial cells during Sjögren's syndrome, astrocytes in certain glioblastomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic
  • Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance through the induction/activation of regulatory T cells (Treg). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 3 are a heterogenous population of APCs that contribute to innate immunity and initiate adaptive immune responses to Ags associated with infection and inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled cells, as they possess large cytoplasmic 'veils' rather than dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells were first described by Paul Langerhans (hence "Langerhans cells") in the late nineteenth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "dendritic cells" was coined in 1973 by Ralph M. Steinman and Zanvil A. Cohn. (wikipedia.org)
  • For discovering the central role of dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response, Steinman was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells that circulate in blood do not have all the typical features of their counterparts in tissue, i.e. they are less mature and have no dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells constantly sample the surrounding environment for pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells may also phagocytose small quantities of membrane from live own cells, in a process called nibbling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once they have come into contact with a presentable antigen, they become activated into mature dendritic cells and begin to migrate to the lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • However, little is known of the innate immune responses in human fetal small intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74 Int cells) after T. gondii infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells are responsible for part of the normal immune response, and also for the over-aggressive immune response in autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neoplastic T-cells produce cytokines which active the expression of eosinophils and suppress the ability of T-cells to initiate an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of natural killer cells and cytokine production in man by bacterial extracts. (naver.com)
  • HIV-1 replication is controlled at the level of T cell activation and proviral integration. (naver.com)
  • These cells are characterized by high endocytic activity and low T-cell activation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:2010 †Leavenworth JW, †Wang X, Wenander CS, Spee P, Cantor H. Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • predominant
  • Rituximab is used to treat cancers of the white blood system such as leukemias and lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzner cells are more predominant in Mycosis Fungoides, but are also found in Sézary Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stained with FITC-conjugated mouse anti-human myeloperoxidase (MPO). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Similarly, humans with homozygous splice variants in CD79A predicted to result in loss of the transmembrane region and a truncated or absent protein display agammaglobulinemia and no peripheral B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Immature DC treated with VIP or PACAP up-regulate CD86 expression, stimulate T cell proliferation and promote Th2-type responses while inhibiting the Th1-type proinflammatory response ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • bind
  • Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The CD79a cytoplasmic domain further contains a non-ITAM tyrosine distal of the CD79a ITAM (human CD79a Tyr210, mouse CD79a Tyr204) that can bind BLNK and Nck once phosphorylated, and is critical for BCR mediated B cell proliferation and B1 cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin in order to bind to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Acts as a scaffold that presents selectin carbohydrate ligands in a clustered, tissue specific manner to allow for higher avidity interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells during the inflammatory process. (githubusercontent.com)
  • human
  • UMR-106, rat osteosarcoma cells and HTR8/SVneo, human trophoblast cells, were grown in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mM glutamine, 100 Units/ml penicillin and 100 [micro]g/ml streptomycin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phenotypic and functional separation of memory and effector human CD8+ T cells. (naver.com)
  • overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also by means of cell fusion that Harris and Goss devised the first systematic method for determining the order of genes along the human chromosome and the distances between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • CD11c low CD45RB high tolerogenic DCs are present in the spleen and lymph nodes of normal mice, and splenic stromal cells were shown to direct their differentiation ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)