• C57BL
  • The goal of this RFA is to improve the efficiency of germline transmission of C57BL/6 ES lines to an extent that permits the use of C57BL/6 ES cell for high throughput gene targeting and the efficient production of C57BL/6 mice carrying a null mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Applicants for this RFA must have a proven track record of producing or developing existing ES lines, preferably from C57BL/6 mice, and have themselves or their collaborators used such lines to create mutant germline competent ES cells by targeted, gene trap or transposon mutagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • NK cells are identified as CD3 − NK1.1 + cells in C57BL/6, FVB/N, and NZB strains of mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we set out to overcome these limitations by generating a co-isogenic line of Prnp −/− mice in the well-characterized C57BL/6J background using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-based genome editing. (rupress.org)
  • Caspase-3-deficient mice of the 129S1/SvImJ (129) strain show severe brain development defects resulting in brain overgrowth and perinatal lethality, whereas on the C57BL/6J (B6) background, these mice develop normally. (jneurosci.org)
  • Casp3 -/- and Casp9 -/- mice of a mixed 129/Sv-C57BL/6 or 129/O1a-C57BL/6J background are born, albeit at a lower frequency than the expected Mendelian ratio. (jneurosci.org)
  • Most researchers prefer working with a strain of mouse called C57BL/6, commonly referred to as black 6. (genome.gov)
  • We found that CHIR99021, a GSK-3 specific inhibitor, promotes self-renewal of ES cells from recalcitrant C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mouse strains through stabilization of β-catenin and c-Myc protein levels. (plos.org)
  • For instance, ES derivation rates from 129 strain mice are higher than from other strains, such as C57BL/6 (B6), BALB/c, and non-obese diabetic mice. (plos.org)
  • Sle123 female mice (as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 female mice) was associated with increased levels of the p202 protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • The Irf5 −/− mice, which were generated using embryonic stem cells from the 129sv strain on the mixed (C57BL/6 [B× 129) genetic background, show reduced serum levels of type I IFNs and develop an aging-dependent splenomegaly that is associated with an accumulation of CD19 + B220 − B cells ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The antibody stains ~ 90% of NK1.1+ CD3 splenocytes, and ~ 6% of CD8+ spleen cells from C57BL/6 mice. (abcam.com)
  • Initially, EuroPhenome was developed within the EUMORPHIA (European Union Mouse Research for Public Health and Industrial Applications) programme to capture and store pilot phenotyping data obtained on four background strains (C57BL/6J, C3H/HeBFeJ, BALB/cByJ and 129/SvPas). (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 black 6", "C57" or "black 6" (standard abbreviation: B6), is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL/6 mice have a dark brown, nearly black coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • There now exist colonies of mice derived from the original C57BL/6 colony that have been bred in isolation from one another for many hundreds of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013 C57BL/6 mice were flown into space aboard Bion-M No.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inbred strain of C57BL mice was created in 1921 by C. C. Little at the Bussey Institute for Research in Applied Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout mice
  • GIRK3 knockout ( −/− ) mice behaved indistinguishably from wild-type mice in this panel of tests. (wiley.com)
  • and Harvard University in Boston, have developed a new method for creating black 6 ES cells that produce black 6 knockout mice in a majority of cases, a strain of mice preferred by researchers because they have a similar genetic background to humans and can often mimic human health and disease. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers created the first knockout mice in 1989, using genetic engineering techniques to completely disrupt, or "knock out", one or more genes in the laboratory animals. (genome.gov)
  • Knockout mice have proven valuable for studying and modeling a wide range of human conditions, including obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety and aging. (genome.gov)
  • But, despite those advances, researchers faced many limitations in what they could learn from knockout mice because the strain that was easiest to genetically engineer, called the 129 strain, is not the best mouse model for studying human biology. (genome.gov)
  • However, until now, researchers' have had little success with efficiently creating black 6 knockout mice. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers begin the process of making knockout mice by obtaining embryonic stem (ES) cells from early-stage mouse embryos. (genome.gov)
  • To produce knockout mice, researchers then introduce an artificial piece of DNA into the nucleus of an ES cell grown in laboratory conditions. (genome.gov)
  • Historically, scientists have created knockout mice with ES cells derived from the 129 strain of mice because these animals consistently transmitted knockout genes throughout the extensive breeding process needed to create a line of homozygous knockouts. (genome.gov)
  • Aspects of the technology for generating knockout mice, and the mice themselves have been patented in many countries by private companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, observing the characteristics of knockout mice gives researchers information that can be used to better understand how a similar gene may cause or contribute to disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice also offer a biological and scientific context in which drugs and other therapies can be developed and tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millions of knockout mice are used in experiments each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several thousand different strains of knockout mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • However contrary to the animal model claims, human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to have healthy phenotype (no glomerulopathy development), but show physiological differences in their responses to respiratory challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong support for this is taken from studies in which PRNP-knockout mice are resistant to the introduction of PrPSc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice without CRABP1 showed increased neural stem cell proliferation and thus hippocampus neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, learning and memory were improved in knockout mice, as measured by the Morris water maze test and an object recognition task. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, the International Mouse Knockout Consortium (IKMC) ( http://www.knockoutmouse.org/ ) has amassed a large collection of conditional knockout alleles for mouse genes, allowing neuroscientists and other researchers to avoid having to go through the labor intensive process of generating null mutant mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes, located downstream in the TCRγ Cγ1 gene cluster, are expressed by the earliest waves of developing TCRγδ + T cells in the fetal thymus, destined for intraepithelial locations. (rupress.org)
  • Upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 genes are expressed in later waves in the adult and constitute most TCRγδ + T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide a mechanism for specialization of the fetal thymus for the production of T cells expressing specific Vγ genes. (rupress.org)
  • Variabilities in phenotype might be reflective of strain-specific modifier genes that affect the apoptotic program. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although CXCR6 is not known to be involved in Shh signaling, tumors derived from Cxcr6 mutant mice expressed Shh pathway target genes including Gli1, Gli2, Ptc2 , and Sfrp1 , indicating elevated pathway activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, mutation of several genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA repair in mice promotes medulloblastoma formation, and in some of these cases, it seems that tumors lose one or both copies of Ptc1 , resulting in increased Shh pathway activity ( 3 , 17 - 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Humans share many genes with mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, cells that do not integrate any of the genetic material test negative for both genes and therefore die as a result of poisoning with neomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mups are encoded by a cluster of genes, located adjacent to each other on a single stretch of DNA, that varies greatly in number between species: from at least 21 functional genes in mice to none in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the repetitive structure of these central Mup genes means they are likely to be unstable and may vary in number among wild mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through phylogenetic analysis of nucleocapsid genes in different oropouche virus strains, it has been revealed that there are three unique genotypes (I, II, III) that are currently spreading through Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cells respond to loss of axons by extrusion of their myelin sheaths, downregulation of myelin genes, dedifferentiation and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • The neurons and sensory cells of the inner ear are subject to feedback control from the brainstem via the olivocochlear (OC) efferent system ( Fig. 1 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Low levels of caspase-7 expression and activation correlate with lack of DNA fragmentation in 129- Casp3 -/- apoptotic precursor neurons, whereas B6- Casp3 -/- cells, which can fragment their DNA, show higher levels of caspase-7 expression and activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mice reveled a high concentration of the replicating virus in the brain along with inflammation of the meninges and apoptosis of neurons without encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain due to an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Increasing evidence suggests that tumor microenvironment regulate the phenotype and function of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report here that the Casp3- deletion phenotype is strain specific. (jneurosci.org)
  • EUMODIC is undertaking a primary phenotype assessment of up to 500 mouse mutant lines derived from ES cells developed in the EUCOMM project as well as other lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics? (frontiersin.org)
  • A simple search in PubMed using the key words "gene targeting" and "mice" returns close to 30,000 entries (Jan 2016). (frontiersin.org)
  • Undoubtedly, gene targeting with homologous recombination in ES cells has revolutionarized the analysis of gene function, and it had a major impact in biology that was recognized by awarding the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the inventors who laid the foundation of the method, Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, and Oliver Smithies in 2007. (frontiersin.org)
  • We therefore sought to identify the strain-dependent ameliorating gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • Scientists use these mice to learn what the knocked out gene normally does, as well as what happens when its function is disrupted. (genome.gov)
  • That means if a gene is knocked out in an ES cell, the effects can be observed in any tissue in an adult mouse. (genome.gov)
  • After a targeted gene is knocked out, researchers inject the altered ES cells into early-stage mouse embryos. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers screen the pups to find those with some tissues in which a gene is knocked out, along with some normal tissues from the embryos into which the altered ES cells were injected. (genome.gov)
  • Researchers then crossbreed the offspring of such mice to produce lines of mice in which both copies of the gene are knocked out in all tissues - a homozygous knockout. (genome.gov)
  • Here, we characterize Cxcr6 mutant mice, which were generated as a part of the Lexicon Genome5000 program using the pKOS gene-targeting system ( 24 ), and we report that heterozygous or homozygous mutation of Cxcr6 causes a low (3-4%) incidence of medulloblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Prdm1 gene encodes Blimp-1 protein, a master regulator of the B cell differentiation ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, the p53 knockout mouse is named after the p53 gene which codes for a protein that normally suppresses the growth of tumours by arresting cell division and/or inducing apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the new sequence is also given a marker gene, a gene that normal mice don't have and that confers resistance to a certain toxic agent (e.g., neomycin) or that produces an observable change (e.g. colour or fluorescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • By the natural process of homologous recombination some of the electroporated stem cells will incorporate the new sequence with the knocked-out gene into their chromosomes in place of the original gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that were transformed with a vector containing the neomycin resistance gene and the herpes tk+ gene are grown in a solution containing neomycin and Ganciclovir in order to select for the transformations that occurred via homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryonic stem cells that incorporated the knocked-out gene are isolated from the unaltered cells using the marker gene from step 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists", "immortalists" or "longevists" (those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation, stem cells, regenerative medicine, molecular repair, gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, and organ replacement (such as with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespans (agerasia) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Widely recognized methods of extending maximum lifespan in model organisms such as nematodes, fruit flies, and mice include caloric restriction, gene manipulation, and administration of pharmaceuticals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group ectopically expressed the gene by taking advantage of a retroviral vector to insert the cDNA into chick cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeric
  • To investigate the importance of the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain, we generated a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of IL-15Rα and intracellular domain of IL-2Rα (IL-15Rα ext /IL-2Rα int ) and examined its function in 32D cells, in knock-in (KI) mice, and in adoptive-transfer experiments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The chimeric protein exhibited decreased cell-surface expression, and KI mice exhibited diminished NK, NKT, and CD8 + T-cell development and defects in T-cell functional responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, 32D cells expressing the chimeric receptor had less IL-15-induced proliferation than wild-type (WT) transfectants with similar levels of IL-15Rα expression, indicating a signaling role for the IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domain beyond its effect on expression, and demonstrating that the IL-2Rα and IL-15Rα cytoplasmic domains are functionally distinct. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is mediated by the activation of caspases (Casp), a family of cysteine proteases present as proenzymes in all cells and activated by cleavage and reorganization of their subunits after an intracellular or extracellular apoptotic signal ( Nicholson, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • CRABP1 is also involved in cancer cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was observed that CRABP1 regulated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) which in turn activates the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that induces apoptosis of cancer cells and lengthens the cell cycle of embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on this modified state, FOXO4 binding affinity for DNA is altered, allowing for FOXO4 to regulate many cellular pathways including oxidative stress signaling, longevity, insulin signaling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The production of distinct sets of T cell receptor (TCR) γδ + T cells occurs in an ordered fashion in thymic development. (rupress.org)
  • To better characterize cochlear dopaminergic signaling, we studied receptor localization using immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase PCR and assessed histopathology, cochlear responses and olivocochlear function in mice with targeted deletion of each of the five receptor subtypes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both GIRK1 −/− mice and GIRK2 −/− mice displayed marked resistance to the ataxic effects of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen in the rotarod test. (wiley.com)
  • A more recent study described the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation in hematopoietic cell proliferation and subsequent DC differentiation ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Studies with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis-related activation-induced cytokine/receptor activator for NF-κB demonstrated an augmentation of T cell priming through an enhanced DC survival response ( 25 , 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • IL-15Rα is known to " trans -present" IL-15 to an IL-2Rβ/γ c heterodimeric receptor on responding cells to initiate signaling. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CXCR6 (also named BONZO, STRL33, or TYMSTR) is a chemokine receptor that was identified as the principal coreceptor for several strains of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses ( 25 - 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, type I IFN receptor subunit 1-deficient FcγRIIB −/− Yaa mice maintained a substantial level of residual disease ( 3 ), thus raising the possibility of the IFN signaling-independent role for the IRF5 in the development of murine lupus disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • The LDL receptor (LDLR), on liver and other cell membranes, binds and initiates ingestion of LDL-particles from extracellular fluid into cells, thus reducing LDL particle concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlate
  • Phenotypic differences between mice lacking GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 correlate well with the known impact of GIRK subunit ablation on neurotransmitter-gated GIRK currents, arguing that most neuronal GIRK channels contain GIRK1 and/or GIRK2. (wiley.com)
  • pathways
  • We suggest that Tim-3 may contribute to T cell exhaustion by enhancing TCR-signaling pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • The most conserved arm of the UPR involves IRE1α, an ER transmembrane kinase and endoribonuclease that activates the transcription factor XBP-1 to maintain ER homeostasis and prevent activation of cell death pathways caused by sustained ER stress. (rupress.org)
  • Small-molecule inhibitors that target cell signaling pathways aberrantly activated in medulloblastoma could be very useful in the future management of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrated that GSK-3 inhibition by CH promotes self-renewal of mouse ES cells with non-permissive genetic backgrounds by regulation of multiple signaling pathways. (plos.org)
  • Figure 2 illustrates both pathways of retinoic acid binding to CRABP for cell proliferation and apoptotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Functionally, the development of T cell exhaustion is characterized by the gradual loss of expression of various cytokines and effector molecules, with IL-2, cytotoxicity and proliferation among the earliest affected functions and IFN-γ among the latest ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • When CRABP1 was knocked down the apoptotic induction ability was also removed and allowed for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does this by causing cell cycle arrest between the Go and S phases, preventing cell proliferation, as well as by inhibiting metastasis by downregulating vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Invariant γδ T cells such as DETCs are thought to recognize predictable self-ligands, which are up-regulated by cell stress such as that associated with wounding or tumorigenesis ( 9 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • The latter proteins, so-called "checkpoint" receptors, have attracted attention as possible dominant mediators of T cell exhaustion because Abs to these proteins or their ligands can sometimes rescue the function of exhausted T cells ( 2 - 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • physiological
  • A fundamental question of cell signaling biology is how faint external signals produce robust physiological responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our behavioral, physiological, and biochemical analysis of these mice demonstrates that Gtβγ is crucial for the high amplification of the signaling cascade in intact rods required to support the high sensitivity of rod-mediated night vision. (jneurosci.org)
  • infect
  • This occurs when two genetically related viruses infect the same cell at the same time forming a progeny virus and this virus holds various components of genetic L, M and S segments from the two parental viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that show strong cytolytic function against physiologically stressed cells such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • NK cells have been used in several clinical trials to control tumor growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discussed the NK cell phenotypes and its effector function and impact of the tumor microenvironment on effector and cytolytic function of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate immune cells that show spontaneous cytolytic activity against cells under stress such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • After activation, NK cells also secrete several cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and chemokines (CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL8) that can modulate the function of other innate and adaptive immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • T cell exhaustion can also be detrimental when it impairs the ability of an adaptive immune response to eliminate a tumor. (jimmunol.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment is known to be immunosuppressive as a result of inhibitory signals from cell surface and soluble mediators ( 5 ), although the precise strategies used by different tumors can vary by tissue and even from patient to patient. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although T cells specific to tumor Ags can be readily isolated from solid tumors of patients and in mouse models, these cells often respond poorly to ex vivo stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxic conditions and glucose deprivation also induces the ER stress response ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, the level of Ptc1 expression was decreased in tumor cells although two normal copies of Ptc1 were retained. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, we found that it did not affect growth of medulloblastoma cell lines because the Shh pathway is down-regulated when tumor cells are placed in culture ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In HER-2 positive tumor cells, increasing FOXO4 activity reduces tumor size. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic mice
  • Since these abnormal data were found in diabetic mice, the study concluded that low aconitase activity is likely correlated with genetic and alloxan diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Although most injury responses include a calcium influx signaling to promote resealing of severed parts, axonal injuries initially lead to acute axonal degeneration (AAD), which is rapid separation of the proximal (the part nearer the cell body) and distal ends within 30 minutes of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These uterine NK cells secrete IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1, and interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) which help in tissue building, remodeling, and angiogenesis ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In all cases, supernumerary cells in the forebrain and midbrain cause neural tissue protrusions through the skull as a result of defects in apoptotic cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • proteins
  • NK cells express several activating and inhibitory receptors that recognize the altered expression of proteins on target cells and control the cytolytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although there are no definitive markers, a fingerprint for exhausted T cells has been described that includes the transmembrane proteins PD-1, LAG3, and Tim-3. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, for possible therapeutic reversal, exhausted T cells also gain high-level and persistent, as opposed to transient, expression of several proteins, including the transcription factor BLIMP-1 and the transmembrane proteins PD-1, Tim-3, and LAG3 ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, it was not until the 1960s that the major urinary proteins of mice and rats were first described in detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Used widely in scientific work for decades, black 6 mice are similar genetically to humans and often mimic human health and disease. (genome.gov)
  • cytolytic activity
  • 1 ⇓ - 3 IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor but in addition has other important roles, for example related to the development of regulatory T cells, 4 in activation-induced cell death (AICD), 5 and in the boosting of natural killer (NK)-cell cytolytic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • findings
  • Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time a strong correlation between caspase-7 activity, normal brain development, and apoptotic DNA fragmentation in Casp3 -/- mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings confirmed the neurotropism of this virus, which means that this virus is capable of infecting nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • male mice
  • They have been demonstrated to promote aggression in male mice, and one specific Mup protein found in male mouse urine is sexually attractive to female mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The development of NK cells progresses through various stages of maturation, expansion, and acquisition of specific receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • In normal ears, D1, D2, and D5 receptors were detected in microdissected immature (postnatal days 10-13) spiral ganglion cells and outer hair cells but not inner hair cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ly49C, Ly49F, Ly49H and Ly49I are members of the lectin like homodimeric Ly49 family of cell surface receptors. (abcam.com)
  • Mouse Ly49 receptors exhibit allelic specificity for MHC class I Ia molecules and are thought to serve to prevent natural killer (NK) cells from attacking normal cells, while allowing them to attack infected or transformed cells in which class I molecules have been down regulated. (abcam.com)
  • These inhibitory receptors are also expressed on a subpopulation of mouse CD8+ T cells. (abcam.com)
  • Mechanosensation also contributes to cell growth and development through extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and traction of integrin receptors which facilitate adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Using a biochemical approach to investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the resistance of the B6 strain to the loss of caspase-3, we identified caspase-7 as having similar properties to caspase-3 in the mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • protein
  • Caspases orchestrate the organized death of the cell by cleaving a small but specific complement of protein substrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Further, elevated c-Myc protein levels did not contribute significantly to CH-mediated ES cell self-renewal. (plos.org)
  • Correspondingly, increased expression of IRF5 in cells increased levels of Blimp-1 and p202 protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • This protein is specifically expressed in club cells in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The striking differences between the repertoires of invariant γδ T cells and γδ T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs suggest different functions for these cells. (rupress.org)
  • It has been observed that the efficiency of deriving mouse ES cells varied between different mouse strains. (plos.org)
  • Here, we used a different approach to create Gtγ-deficient mice with no discernable retinal degeneration during the early stages of postnatal life. (jneurosci.org)
  • CRABP1 is constitutively expressed and is believed to have different functions in the cell than the related CRABP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include differences in efficiency of DNA repair, antioxidant defenses, energy metabolism, proteostasis maintenance, and recycling mechanisms such as autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many different kinds of cancers have been observed to contain mutations that promote AKT phosphorylation, and thus the inactivation of FOXOs, effectively preventing proper cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • 19 , 20 In contrast to IL-2Rα, which binds IL-2 with low affinity and is expressed mainly on activated T cells, IL-15Rα has a relatively high affinity for IL-15, and IL-15Rα mRNA is expressed more broadly. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Second, β-catenin binds plasma membrane-localized E-cadherin, which ensures a compact, spherical morphology, a hallmark of ES cells. (plos.org)
  • CRABP1 binds to retinoid acid and helps to transport it into cells (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • First, β-catenin translocated into the nucleus to maintain stem cell pluripotency in a lymphoid-enhancing factor/T-cell factor-independent manner. (plos.org)
  • experiments
  • These experiments collectively indicate that IL-15Rα can act in cis in addition to acting in trans to present IL-15 to responding cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • membrane
  • The resulting closure of cGMP-gated channels on the plasma membrane of the photoreceptor outer segment hyperpolarizes the cell and produces the light response. (jneurosci.org)
  • PrPC attaches to the outer surface of the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at its C-terminal Ser231. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been hypothesized that the attachment of ion channels to cytoplasmic and extracellular structures is responsible for distinguishing mechanical strain on the cell membrane, and that cell curvature may not directly gate these ion channels alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Transfection of targeted ES cell clones with a Cre expression plasmid yielded clones in which only the neo cassette was deleted (242KI allele), or the entire segment contained Vγ4-Vγ2-neo (Δ43 allele). (rupress.org)
  • Exhausted T cells also may become "addicted" to AgR signals and lose responsiveness to the homeostatic cytokine IL-7, with the latter due in part to loss of CD127 (IL-7r α-chain) expression ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • RT-PCR evidence for expression of D1, D2, and D5 in outer hair cells is not schematized here. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although caspase-7 is expressed in both strains during brain development, its expression level is lower in 129 compared with B6 brains. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that an Irf5 deficiency in mice decreased the expression of Blimp-1 and reduced the expression of the Ifi202 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, an Aim2 deficiency in female mice increased the expression of IRF5. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, splenic cells from the Irf5 −/− mice exhibit a decrease in the number of plasma cells and downregulation of Blimp-1 expression ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The re-expression of CRABP1 in CRABP1 null cells brought back the induced apoptotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • T cell exhaustion is thought to be a natural mechanism for limiting immune pathology, although it may be desirable to circumvent this mechanism to help eliminate viral reservoirs or tumors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we dissect the mechanism of GSK-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 in mouse ES cells from refractory mouse strains. (plos.org)
  • dendritic
  • The epidermal TCRγδ + T cells, called dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), all express Vγ3 and Vδ1, whereas TCRγδ + T cells in the vaginal and tongue epithelium all express Vγ4 and Vδ1 ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of an immune response. (rupress.org)
  • high throughput
  • EUMODIC has developed a selection of these screens, called EMPReSSslim, to enable comprehensive, high throughput, primary phenotyping of large numbers of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • They represent 2-7% of lymphocytes in mouse peripheral blood (PB) and 5-15% of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, aged Prnp ZH3/ZH3 mice developed a chronic demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, confirming the crucial involvement of PrP C in peripheral myelin maintenance. (rupress.org)
  • This system comprises a medial OC (MOC) component of myelinated fibers giving rise to cholinergic synapses on outer hair cells (OHCs) and a lateral OC (LOC) component of unmyelinated fibers projecting to cochlear nerve fibers in the inner hair cell (IHC) area, among other peripheral targets (for review, see Guinan, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • dramatically
  • Despite all of the potential diversity, the expressed diversity of γδ TCRs differs dramatically depending on the location of TCRγδ + T cells in the adult. (rupress.org)
  • We found that transplanted tumors were dramatically inhibited in mice treated for only 4 days with HhAntag. (aacrjournals.org)
  • unlike
  • Many intraepithelial γδ T cells resident in the intestinal epithelium use Vγ5 associated with various Vδ chains, but these chains, unlike the invariant intraepithelial cells, show much more junctional diversity ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Unlike most mouse strains, it drinks alcoholic beverages voluntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The specific subset of NK cell is reported to control the development at the fetal-maternal interface during the first trimester of the pregnancy, and it constitutes about 50-90% of total lymphoid cells in the uterus ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In these cases, the sustained presence of viral Ags appears to drive the formation of a state of Ag-specific T cell exhaustion. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the absence of selective drugs, GIRK knockout (GIRK −/− ) mice have helped to link channel subtypes to specific neurotransmitters and behaviors. (wiley.com)
  • These results showed that the cells of the apical ectoderm have a precise fate to form specific regions of the wing. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Murine IRF5 is primarily expressed as a full-length transcript in the B220 + mature B cells, and levels of IRF5 decrease in CD138 + plasma cells ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Thus CRABP1 may be used as a therapeutic target along with trans-retinoic acid for apoptotic activity within cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • It has been estimated that TCRγδ + T cells exhibit substantially greater potential sequence diversity than TCRαβ or primary Ig ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • It also was the same strain used to sequence the mouse genome. (genome.gov)
  • The new sequence from step 1 is introduced into the stem cells from step 2 by electroporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chances of a successful recombination event are relatively low, so the majority of altered cells will have the new sequence in only one of the two relevant chromosomes - they are said to be heterozygous. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Multiple factors such as cell-intrinsic signals (transcription factors) and external signals (cytokines and growth factors) govern the development of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signals emanating from the ER induce a transcriptional program that enables cells to survive ER stress. (rupress.org)
  • exhaustion
  • Other studies showed that T cell exhaustion results from chronic stimulation that extends the effector phase of T cell activation, at the expense of T cell memory. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because this topic has been covered extensively in other relatively recent reviews ( 1 , 2 ), we focus mainly on recent studies of Tim-3, which has attracted substantial preclinical attention of late as a novel therapeutic target for reversal of T cell exhaustion. (jimmunol.org)
  • ERK1
  • First, the efficiency of ES cell derivation from B6 strain mice can be promoted by inhibition of ERK1/2 activity during the outgrowth of embryos . (plos.org)
  • CRABP1 activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1 and ERK2 kinases, which are involved in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • We also summarized various NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies used in the past and the possibilities to improve the function of NK cell for the better clinical outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The control of DC survival plays an important role in regulating T cell activation and function. (rupress.org)
  • IL-15 is critical for natural killer (NK)-cell development and function and for memory CD8 + T-cell homeostasis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 The major actions of IL-15 are related to NK-cell and NKT-cell development and function 8 ⇓ - 10 and to memory CD8 + T-cell homeostasis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although the precise function of PrP is not yet known, it is possibly involved in the transport of ionic copper to cells from the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)