• Gene
  • Here, we investigated its involvement in the control of taste cell replacement by examining adult mice with targeted ablation of the p27Kip1 gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Loss of gene function, however, does not alter the proportions of distinct immunohistochemically-identified cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, should a cell sustain only one mutation in the other RB gene, all Rb in that cell would be ineffective at inhibiting cell cycle progression, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and eventually become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mediating cell cycle checkpoints, Chk1 also contributes to DNA repair processes, gene transcription, embryo development, cellular responses to HIV infection and somatic cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations, amplification and overexpression of this gene, which alters cell cycle progression, are observed frequently in a variety of tumors and may contribute to tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is composed of at least 3 different sub-groups, each having distinct oncogenic mechanisms that respond to therapies in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCB DLBCL shows amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN but these events have not been found in ABC DLBCL B-cells form in the bone marrow and undergo gene rearrangement in order to develop B-cell receptors (BCRs) that bind to a specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki67
  • In breast cancer Ki67 identifies a high proliferative subset of patients with ER-positive breast cancer who derive greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Furthermore, as one allele is already mutated in all other somatic cells, the future incidence of cancers in these individuals is observed with linear kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca 2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca 2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca 2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. (jove.com)
  • The rearranging of genes makes the cells capable of generating antibodies with a higher or lower affinity to the specified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • After exposure to genotoxic agents, cells activate DNA damage response pathways consisting of a signaling cascade (cell cycle checkpoints), and of DNA repair processes able to recognize and remove a great number of DNA lesions [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Prostate cancer cells, PC3 and LNCaP (obtained from American Type Culture Collection), were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and RPMI with 10% fetal calf serum, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cardiomyocytes proliferate rapidly during fetal life but exit the cell cycle soon after birth, after which the predominant form of growth shifts from hyperplasia to hypertrophy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • inactivation
  • We further find that RPA or E2F1 inactivation in the neuroepithelial cells correlates with downregulation of Notch signaling activity, which appears to result from Numb mislocalization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Drosophila
  • In the Drosophila optic lobe, neuroepithelial cells first divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell population and then transform into asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, which generate medulla neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • regulatory
  • Chk1 has a regulatory role in the spindle checkpoint however the relationship is less clear as compared to checkpoints in other cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • We observed that prostate cancer cells treated with BME accumulate during the S phase of the cell cycle and modulate cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p21 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By keeping E2F-DP inactivated, RB1 maintains the cell in the G1 phase, preventing progression through the cell cycle and acting as a growth suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of Chk1 holds the cell in the G2 phase until ready to enter the mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the G1 phase, it is synthesized rapidly and accumulates in the nucleus, and is degraded as the cell enters the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. (jove.com)
  • Chk1 is required for the initiation of DNA damage checkpoints and has recently been shown to play a role in the normal (unperturbed) cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The expression of key transcription factors in B cell development is frequently regulated by non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • They then transit to become radial glial cells that undergo asymmetric, neurogenic divisions to generate the neurons and glial cells in the brain ( Götz and Huttner, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro . (jove.com)
  • Molecule
  • Every time a cell divides, DNA polymerases are required to help duplicate the cell's DNA, so that a copy of the original DNA molecule can be passed to each daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • In conclusion, FP was shown to be a Ca(2+)-CaM-PDE inhibitor, which might account for its underlying anti-cancer mechanism in HeLa cells. (jove.com)
  • dependent
  • Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Prostate tissue from BME-fed mice displayed approximately 51% reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that BME prevents prostate cancer progression in TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Working in mouse models, it was also shown that whilst mice lacking p21 were healthy, spontaneous tumours developed and G1 checkpoint control was compromised in cells derived from these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • pathway
  • Activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) pathway is found only in ABC DLBCLs and not GCB DLBCLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Chk1 is a central component of genome surveillance pathways and is a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the pathways that they can follow is through the germinal center environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development like B cell receptor (BCR) signalling, B cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)