• Gene
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigated its involvement in the control of taste cell replacement by examining adult mice with targeted ablation of the p27Kip1 gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Loss of gene function, however, does not alter the proportions of distinct immunohistochemically-identified cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this case, should a cell sustain only one mutation in the other RB gene, all Rb in that cell would be ineffective at inhibiting cell cycle progression, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and eventually become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations, amplification and overexpression of this gene, which alters cell cycle progression, are observed frequently in a variety of tumors and may contribute to tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mediating cell cycle checkpoints, Chk1 also contributes to DNA repair processes, gene transcription, embryo development, cellular responses to HIV infection and somatic cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is composed of at least 3 different sub-groups, each having distinct oncogenic mechanisms that respond to therapies in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCB DLBCL shows amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN but these events have not been found in ABC DLBCL B-cells form in the bone marrow and undergo gene rearrangement in order to develop B-cell receptors (BCRs) that bind to a specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset
  • Thus, we have shown that the transition from neuroepithelial cells to neuroblasts is directly regulated by cell cycle regulators and propose a model in which the inhibition of neuroepithelial cell cycle progression downregulates Notch signaling activity through Numb, which leads to the onset of neurogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • In normal mice, p27 Kip1 is evident in a subset of receptor and presynaptic taste cells beginning about 3 days post-injection, correlating with the onset of taste cell maturation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression has been shown to correlate with early cancer onset and tumor progression and it can lead to oncogenesis by increasing anchorage-independent growth and angiogenesis via VEGF production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki67
  • In breast cancer Ki67 identifies a high proliferative subset of patients with ER-positive breast cancer who derive greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Furthermore, as one allele is already mutated in all other somatic cells, the future incidence of cancers in these individuals is observed with linear kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca 2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca 2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca 2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. (jove.com)
  • The rearranging of genes makes the cells capable of generating antibodies with a higher or lower affinity to the specified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • After exposure to genotoxic agents, cells activate DNA damage response pathways consisting of a signaling cascade (cell cycle checkpoints), and of DNA repair processes able to recognize and remove a great number of DNA lesions [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • We further find that RPA or E2F1 inactivation in the neuroepithelial cells correlates with downregulation of Notch signaling activity, which appears to result from Numb mislocalization. (jneurosci.org)
  • HeLa
  • In conclusion, FP was shown to be a Ca(2+)-CaM-PDE inhibitor, which might account for its underlying anti-cancer mechanism in HeLa cells. (jove.com)
  • HeLa cells were stained with anti-CDKN1A rabbit purified polyclonal antibody 1:1200 and anti-SKP2 mouse purified polyclonal antibody 1:50. (abnova.com)
  • Drosophila
  • In the Drosophila optic lobe, neuroepithelial cells first divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell population and then transform into asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, which generate medulla neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • regulatory
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 has a regulatory role in the spindle checkpoint however the relationship is less clear as compared to checkpoints in other cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. (jove.com)
  • Chk1 is required for the initiation of DNA damage checkpoints and has recently been shown to play a role in the normal (unperturbed) cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The expression of key transcription factors in B cell development is frequently regulated by non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • They then transit to become radial glial cells that undergo asymmetric, neurogenic divisions to generate the neurons and glial cells in the brain ( Götz and Huttner, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro . (jove.com)
  • nucleus
  • During the G1 phase, it is synthesized rapidly and accumulates in the nucleus, and is degraded as the cell enters the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • By keeping E2F-DP inactivated, RB1 maintains the cell in the G1 phase, preventing progression through the cell cycle and acting as a growth suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of Chk1 holds the cell in the G2 phase until ready to enter the mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • Every time a cell divides, DNA polymerases are required to help duplicate the cell's DNA, so that a copy of the original DNA molecule can be passed to each daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • molecular
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • pathway
  • Activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) pathway is found only in ABC DLBCLs and not GCB DLBCLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Chk1 is a central component of genome surveillance pathways and is a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the pathways that they can follow is through the germinal center environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development like B cell receptor (BCR) signalling, B cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • disruption
  • The equivalence of mutant and wild-type taste buds with regard to cell number, cell types and general structure contrasts with the hyperplasia and tissue disruption seen in certain developing p27Kip1-null sensory organs, and may reflect a compensatory capability inherent in the regenerative taste system. (biomedsearch.com)