• Antigen
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, targeting TACAs has the potential to broaden the spectrum of antigens recognized by the immune response, thereby lowering the risk of developing resistant tumors due to the loss of a given protein antigen. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the production of antibodies against defined cell surface antigens such as these, the best approach has been described to include chemical conjugation of the antigen to a highly immunogenic carrier protein plus the use of a potent immunologic adjuvant. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A discussion on the relevance of O -acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included. (hindawi.com)
  • glycan
  • The various blood types are distinguished by the glycan modification present on the surface of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • First, we analyzed the cell surface glycan signatures and were able to predict mannose-dependent tropism using a model pathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Second, we used the glycan signatures to identify novel lectin biomarkers for cancer stem-like cells in a murine model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Given the commercial availability of a large number of lectins with a variety of glycan specificities, their use in microarrays to provide more accurate and detailed "cell surface glycan signatures" is an inviting alternative to structural analyses, the latter of which are not amenable to rapid or high-throughput approaches. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • peptides
  • On the other hand, building these identities is normally important for the look of individualized immunoassay lab tests for dependable and specific recognition of cancers recurrency It's been demonstrated which the identity from the antigens mimicked by peptides extracted from RPPDL testing can be driven utilizing a proteomic strategy . (buenavidaestudio.com)
  • Structures
  • Frank and Schloissnig 2010)] is facilitating the experimental determination and interpretation of three-dimensional (3D) structures of antibody-carbohydrate complexes. (edu.au)
  • These lipids have highly diverse structures, not the least with respect to their carbohydrate chains, with N -acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N -glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) being the two most common sialic-acid residues in mammalian cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Variations in carbohydrate structure alone account for over a 100 different structures, and this number significantly increases, when ceramide variations are taken into account ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • Moreover, tissues in vivo are a mixture of cell types, and it is difficult to determine in which cells the critical transformation events are occurring and what role the microenvironment of the tissue plays. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the characteristics listed in Table 9-1 may also be observed in rapidly proliferating tissues or stem cell populations of undifferentiated phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • epithelial
  • These "tissue-culture artifacts" include overgrowth of cells not characteristic of the original population of cultured cells (eg, overgrowth of fibroblasts in cultures that were originally primarily epithelial cells), selection for a small population of variant cells with continued passage in vitro, or appearance of cells with an abnormal chromosomal number or structure (karyotype). (nih.gov)
  • Most animal epithelial cells have a fuzz-like coat on the external surface of their plasma membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was initially applied to the polysaccharide matrix coating epithelial cells, but its functions have been discovered to go well beyond that. (wikipedia.org)
  • During inflammation, inflammatory cells produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and IL-1 that activate endothelial cells (EC) and epithelial cells and further augment the inflammatory response 7 . (jove.com)
  • tumors
  • However, many of the biochemical characteristics initially thought to be closely associated with the malignant phenotype of cells in culture were subsequently found to be dissociable from the ability of those cells to produce tumors in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, individual cells of malignant tumors growing in animals or in humans exhibit marked biochemical heterogeneity, as reflected in their cell surface composition, enzyme levels, immunogenicity, response to anticancer drugs, and so on. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these characteristics may be seen both in transformed cells in culture and in tumors growing in vivo in experimental animals or patients. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, endotoxin has been extensively studied in animal tumor models to determine the conditions under which it may be used most effectively against tumors. (springer.com)
  • antibody
  • Progress in both fields is reliant on further mechanistic knowledge of the underlying complex biosynthetic pathways and the structural basis for antibody recognition of isolated and cellular forms of the target carbohydrates. (edu.au)
  • 2011)] are revealing much needed complementary 3D information about antibody recognition of carbohydrates. (edu.au)
  • This heptavalent-KLH conjugate plus QS21 vaccine safely induced antibody responses against five of seven antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • embryonic
  • The recently developed ability to generate immortalized "normal" cell lines of a given differentiated phenotype from human embryonic stem cells has enhanced the ability to study cells of a normal genotype from a single source. (nih.gov)
  • Cancer
  • What Makes a Cancer Cell a Cancer Cell? (nih.gov)
  • Over the past 60 years, much scientific effort has gone into research aimed at identifying the phenotypic characteristics of in vitro-transformed cells that correlate with the growth of a cancer in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This research has tremendously increased our knowledge of the biochemistry of cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • malignant transformation
  • Treatment of animals or cells in culture with carcinogenic agents is a means of studying discrete biochemical events that lead to malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Most studies that are designed to identify discrete biochemical events occurring in cells during malignant transformation have therefore been done with cultured cells, because clones of relatively homogeneous cell populations can be studied and the cellular environment defined and manipulated. (nih.gov)
  • cytokines
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ni2+ on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of cytokines in a LPS-induced air pouch-type inflammation model in BALB/c mice and the murine macrophage cell line RAW264. (jove.com)
  • and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which triggers pathologic signaling in adjacent cells 8 . (jove.com)
  • vitro
  • Studies of cell transformation in vitro, however, have many pitfalls. (nih.gov)
  • fibroblast
  • As an example of this technique, we describe here the titration of glycogen in two cell lines, Chinese hamster lung fibroblast CCL39 and human colon carcinoma LS174, incubated in normoxia (21% O 2 ) versus hypoxia (1% O 2 ). (jove.com)
  • proliferation
  • Reactive oxygen species influences a multitude of cellular processes including signal transduction, cell proliferation and cell death 1-6 . (jove.com)
  • Human
  • Pubmed ID: 12124268 This study was undertaken to investigate the kinetics and molecular requirements of platelet binding to tumor cells in bulk suspensions subjected to a uniform linear shear field, using a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LS174T) as a model. (jove.com)