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  • Antigen
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neosynthesized glycolipids observed in oncogenic processes show antigen specificity and, therefore, they are attractive candidates for the design of cancer vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, targeting TACAs has the potential to broaden the spectrum of antigens recognized by the immune response, thereby lowering the risk of developing resistant tumors due to the loss of a given protein antigen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike classical T cells, NKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of CD1 molecules 2 . (jove.com)
  • However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. (jove.com)
  • Thus, a standardized system that relies on artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) could produce the stimulating effects of DC without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells 12, 13 . (jove.com)
  • Since the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by CD1d-antigen complexes is a fundamental requirement of NKT cell activation, antigen: CD1d-Ig complexes provide a reliable method to isolate, activate, and expand effector NKT cell populations. (jove.com)
  • For the production of antibodies against defined cell surface antigens such as these, the best approach has been described to include chemical conjugation of the antigen to a highly immunogenic carrier protein plus the use of a potent immunologic adjuvant. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A discussion on the relevance of O -acetyl-GD2 in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy development is also included. (hindawi.com)
  • differentiation
  • Glycans are fundamental to the biological functions of cell-cell communication, cell proliferation, and differentiation, and they mediate cell attachment, as well as mediating pathogen attachment and infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Th2 cytokines promote physiological changes in the intestinal microenvironment including rapid turnover of IECs, goblet cell differentiation, recruitment and changes in epithelial permeability and smooth muscle contraction, all of which have been implicated in worm expulsion 7-15 . (jove.com)
  • tumors
  • However, many of the biochemical characteristics initially thought to be closely associated with the malignant phenotype of cells in culture were subsequently found to be dissociable from the ability of those cells to produce tumors in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, individual cells of malignant tumors growing in animals or in humans exhibit marked biochemical heterogeneity, as reflected in their cell surface composition, enzyme levels, immunogenicity, response to anticancer drugs, and so on. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these characteristics may be seen both in transformed cells in culture and in tumors growing in vivo in experimental animals or patients. (nih.gov)
  • The binding between tumors and other cell types is often mediated by carbohydrate-protein (lectin) interactions involving the aberrant glycans expressed on tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Our goal is to optimize these various nanoconstructs to enhance a glycopeptide-specific immune response that will be specific for distinct tumors bearing these antigens. (nih.gov)
  • peptides
  • On the other hand, building these identities is normally important for the look of individualized immunoassay lab tests for dependable and specific recognition of cancers recurrency It's been demonstrated which the identity from the antigens mimicked by peptides extracted from RPPDL testing can be driven utilizing a proteomic strategy . (buenavidaestudio.com)
  • Structures
  • These diverse groups of oligosaccharide chains function to stabilize protein structures, facilitate protein transport or clearance, and mediate cell adhesion. (nih.gov)
  • Frank and Schloissnig 2010)] is facilitating the experimental determination and interpretation of three-dimensional (3D) structures of antibody-carbohydrate complexes. (edu.au)
  • Variations in carbohydrate structure alone account for over a 100 different structures, and this number significantly increases, when ceramide variations are taken into account ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • vaccine
  • In addition, some of these tumor cell glycans are TACA's that are recognized as non-self by the immune system and have thus been used as components in vaccine constructs that are in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, our group developed an hybrid gold nanoparticle that can act as a vaccine delivery system for tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens. (nih.gov)
  • oncogenic
  • Such changes in the characteristics of cultured cell populations can lead to "spontaneous" transformation that mimics some of the changes seen in populations of cultured cells treated with oncogenic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Thus
  • Thus, ex vivo expanded NKT cells remain functional and can be used for adoptive immunotherapy. (jove.com)
  • complement-dependent cytotoxicity
  • Periodic blood and urine samples were obtained to monitor safety (complete blood count, comprehensive panel, amylase, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and urinalysis) and antibody production (ELISA, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and complement-dependent cytotoxicity analysis showed substantially increased reactivity against MCF7 cells in seven of nine patients, with some increase seen in all patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • tissues
  • Moreover, tissues in vivo are a mixture of cell types, and it is difficult to determine in which cells the critical transformation events are occurring and what role the microenvironment of the tissue plays. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the characteristics listed in Table 9-1 may also be observed in rapidly proliferating tissues or stem cell populations of undifferentiated phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Ten normal skin samples, 11 benign melanocytic nevi, 7 dysplastic nevi, 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 13 basal cell carcinomas, 28 cutaneous melanomas, and 7 lymph node metastases formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues from Manuel Fajardo General Hospital and the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology were obtained, after approved consent by the institutional ethical committees. (hindawi.com)
  • The glycocalyx is a type of identifier that the body uses to distinguish between its own healthy cells and transplanted tissues, diseased cells, or invading organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • These "tissue-culture artifacts" include overgrowth of cells not characteristic of the original population of cultured cells (eg, overgrowth of fibroblasts in cultures that were originally primarily epithelial cells), selection for a small population of variant cells with continued passage in vitro, or appearance of cells with an abnormal chromosomal number or structure (karyotype). (nih.gov)
  • APF treatment of normal bladder epithelial cells inhibits proliferation at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and imparts many features to these cells as seen in the actual disease. (nih.gov)
  • Most animal epithelial cells have a fuzz-like coat on the external surface of their plasma membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was initially applied to the polysaccharide matrix coating epithelial cells, but its functions have been discovered to go well beyond that. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infective eggs are given by oral gavage, hatch in the distal small intestine, invade the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the crypts of the cecum and proximal colon and upon maturation the worms release eggs into the environment 1 . (jove.com)
  • Expression
  • Additionally, the expression of NeuGcGM3 in nonsmall cell lung cancer as well as in Wilms tumor has been also reported [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During oncogenesis, the cell-surface glycans on tumor cells are transformed relative to the normal phenotype through modified expression of the enzymes involved in the cell's glycoprocessing machinery. (nih.gov)
  • efficacy
  • Each one of these approaches holds promise, but their generalized success has been impaired by the paucity of specific tumor antigens resulting in suboptimal tumor efficacy and unpredictable side effects. (hindawi.com)
  • phenotype
  • The recently developed ability to generate immortalized "normal" cell lines of a given differentiated phenotype from human embryonic stem cells has enhanced the ability to study cells of a normal genotype from a single source. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, these cells retained their original phenotype, secreted cytokines, and displayed cytotoxic function against tumor cell lines. (jove.com)
  • proliferation
  • In addition, APF inhibits proliferation of bladder carcinoma and many other solid tumor cells at similar concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • An alpha-galactosyl ceramide (alpha-GalCer) 2 was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to stimulate iNKT-cell proliferation and elicit T-helper cytokines, IL-4 and IFNgamma. (jove.com)
  • innate and adaptive immune
  • In addition, we characterize pathogen recognition, the interface between innate and adaptive immune systems, and therapeutic approaches including immune modulators, gut microbiota support, and nutritional and exercise therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • chains
  • 2- to analyze the possible presence of Lewis y in carbohydrate chains of tumoral MUC1 glycoprotein and 3- to correlate serum and tissue parameters considered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NKT cells express an invariant TCRα chain rearrangement: Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans, which is associated with Vβ chains of limited diversity 3-6 , and are referred to as canonical or invariant NKT ( i NKT) cells. (jove.com)
  • Cancer
  • What Makes a Cancer Cell a Cancer Cell? (nih.gov)
  • Over the past 60 years, much scientific effort has gone into research aimed at identifying the phenotypic characteristics of in vitro-transformed cells that correlate with the growth of a cancer in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This research has tremendously increased our knowledge of the biochemistry of cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • cytokines
  • The potential to utilize NKT cells for therapeutic purposes has significantly increased with the ability to stimulate and expand human NKT cells with α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and a variety of cytokines 8 . (jove.com)
  • inhibitors
  • Nevertheless, these remarkable advances are being counteracted for striking effects on anti-tumor immunity exerted by particular molecular species of tumor-secreted glycolipids and, hence, strategies involving the use of glycolipid synthesis inhibitors are being considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since it is well known that monovalent sugar-protein binding is a very weak interaction, inhibitors of these events utilize 'multivalency' (multiple copies of the carbohydrate ligand) to enhance the strength of this effect. (nih.gov)
  • vivo
  • Table 9-1 lists the properties of transformed malignant cells growing in cell culture or in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • immunogenicity
  • The poor immunogenicity, low-affinity immunoglobulin responses, and immunotolerance associated with glycolipids have been overcome with the advent of new technologies and combinatorial immunotherapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • autologous
  • In fact, murine DC rather than autologous APC have been used to test the function of NKT cells from CML patients 11 . (jove.com)
  • malignant transformation
  • Treatment of animals or cells in culture with carcinogenic agents is a means of studying discrete biochemical events that lead to malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Most studies that are designed to identify discrete biochemical events occurring in cells during malignant transformation have therefore been done with cultured cells, because clones of relatively homogeneous cell populations can be studied and the cellular environment defined and manipulated. (nih.gov)
  • melanomas
  • While basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are malignant neoplasms with a low lethality and a good prognosis [ 2 ], the 10-year survival rate is 92% among the patients with T1 melanomas, and is 50% in patients with T4 melanomas [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)