• Algae
  • Algae possess cell walls made of glycoproteins and polysaccharides such as carrageenan and agar that are absent from land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) How do cells such as algae and protists avoid lysis in fresh water? (brainmass.com)
  • As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes, plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • turgor
  • WAKs can also regulate cell expansion through a control of sugar concentration and thus turgor control where wak2-1 phenotype could be rescued by the expression of sucrose phosphate synthase that alters sugar sinks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wall stress relaxation reduces cell turgor and thereby creates the driving forces needed for water uptake by growing cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • induce
  • The interaction of pectin polyanion with the cell wall or plasmalemma could induce conformational changes in the pectin polymers that affect their gelling and swelling behavior in the presence of the calcium and the binding of pectins to WAK1 in the presence of calcium could result in muro disturbances of the pectin network that could generate signals within the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansins alone can induce cell walls to extend, but in living cells they probably act in concert with a variety of enzymes that cut and restructure the wall. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Golgi
  • These polymers are synthesized in the Golgi Apparatus, transported to cell surface sites via actin- and tubulin-based motors and deposited in the wall complex. (springer.com)
  • Plastids do not develop, and the secretory apparatus (ER and Golgi) proliferates to secrete additional primary wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • xylem
  • Apart from the xylem and phloem in their vascular bundles, leaves are composed mainly of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • protein
  • Cell wall protein 2 (CWP2) is a cell wall protein, produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell wall associated kinases (WAKs) are receptor-like protein kinases, found in plant cell walls, that have the capability to transmit signals directly by their cytoplasmic kinase domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Antisense WAK RNA can be induced using the Dex system which contributes to a 50% reduction in WAK protein levels as well as a smaller cell size, rather than fewer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For support, cells attach to an extracellular protein matrix that is not found in any other multicellular organism. (reference.com)
  • Collagen is the major structural protein outside cells in many connective tissues of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it has a pellicle made up of a protein layer supported by a substructure of microtubules, arranged in strips spiraling around the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • Here it is critical to understand that, unlike a sausage, the outer envelope of a cell is alive, dynamic and porous. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall that acts as a barrier surrounding the cell providing strength, which supports plants just like a skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • It occurs throughout the cell wall and has close homology with the CWP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a century biologists have thought they understood how the gooey growth that occurs inside cells caused their protective outer walls to expand. (eurekalert.org)
  • polymer
  • It seems to be due partly to polymer physics and partly to carefully controlled reactions that alter the bonding relationships of the wall polymers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It may be attractive to think that wall stress relaxation and expansion are largely a matter of polymer physics, but many physiological experiments indicate that there is another level of control by the cell. (plantphysiol.org)
  • pectin
  • This pectin-kinase hybrid located for reporting to the cytoplasm on the cell wall where WAK1 is bound in a calcium-induced conformation to polygalacturonic acid, oligogalacturonides and pectins and this interaction was prevented by methyl esterification, calcium chelators and pectin depolymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wall associated Kinases (WAKs) contribute several functions (cell division or growth) as other plant receptors like cell wall sensors, however, the unique characteristics is to bind directly to pectin that postulates a WAK-dependent signaling pathway regulating cell expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • In a bid to ensuring the safety of citizens, researchers at the University of Georgia, teaming up with scientists at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, have identified the structure of a unique cell-wall carbohydrate in B. anthracis. (medindia.net)
  • meristem
  • These cells mature from meristem derivatives that initially resemble parenchyma, but differences quickly become apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymeric
  • 2005. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals native polymeric cell wall structure in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the existence of a periplasmic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus
  • As a first step in understanding the structure and function of cell wall carbohydrates, the research team examined four Bacillus anthracis strains - Ames, Pasteur, Sterne and UT60 - and compared them to two related strains of Bacillus cereus, a soil-dwelling bacterium that causes food-borne illnesses. (medindia.net)
  • structure
  • Cell walls of plants also help to determine and maintain the shape and structure of plant cells. (reference.com)
  • Without me giving the cell its structure, the plants would more resemble formless blobs. (medium.com)
  • Cell expansion can be stimulated or inhibited within seconds, without major changes in cell wall structure or viscoelastic properties (for review, see Cosgrove, 1993 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • This is not to say that wall structure is irrelevant for control of growth, but rather that growing cells can evidently regulate specific "loosening" processes that result in wall stress relaxation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The ensuing expansion of the wall is undoubtedly influenced by its structure and viscoelasticity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The structure of a cell wall differs according to various plants. (maximumyield.com)
  • Pectins
  • They are primarily involved in regulating plant cell wall functions including cell expansion, bind as well as response to pectins, pathogen response and also protects plants from detrimental effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • euglena
  • Most species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Euglena, one flagellum is very short, and does not protrude from the cell, while the other is relatively long, and often easily visible with light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell rotates with respect to the light source, the eyespot partially blocks the source, permitting the Euglena to find the light and move toward it (a process known as phototaxis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Euglena lacks a cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • In low moisture conditions, or when food is scarce, Euglena forms a protective wall around itself and lies dormant as a resting cyst until environmental conditions improve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Euglena reproduce asexually through binary fission, a form of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Euglena divide longitudinally, beginning at the front end of the cell, with the duplication of flagellar processes, gullet and stigma. (wikipedia.org)