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  • Algae
  • As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes, plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungal
  • A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the fungal-type cell wall. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Fungal pathogens almost invariably trigger cell wall-associated defense responses, such as extracellular hydrogen peroxide generation and callose deposition, when they attempt to penetrate either resistant or susceptible plant cells. (mendeley.com)
  • It inhibits the production of beta-1,3-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • turgor pressure
  • Cell walls have several functions such as providing framework, protection and support for the cell, regulating diffusion and growth, withstanding turgor pressure, serving as storage and facilitating communication. (reference.com)
  • glycoproteins
  • Using the quick-freeze, deep-etch technique, we have analyzed the structure of the intact cell wall of Chlamydomonas reinhardi, and have visualized its component glycoproteins after mechanical shearing and after depolymerization induced by perchlorate or by the wall-disrupting agent, autolysin. (mendeley.com)
  • regulate
  • WAKs can also regulate cell expansion through a control of sugar concentration and thus turgor control where wak2-1 phenotype could be rescued by the expression of sucrose phosphate synthase that alters sugar sinks. (wikipedia.org)
  • These walls also regulate how large cells can grow. (reference.com)
  • unlike
  • Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall that acts as a barrier surrounding the cell providing strength, which supports plants just like a skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmalemma
  • The interaction of pectin polyanion with the cell wall or plasmalemma could induce conformational changes in the pectin polymers that affect their gelling and swelling behavior in the presence of the calcium and the binding of pectins to WAK1 in the presence of calcium could result in muro disturbances of the pectin network that could generate signals within the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pectins
  • They are primarily involved in regulating plant cell wall functions including cell expansion, bind as well as response to pectins, pathogen response and also protects plants from detrimental effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pectin-kinase hybrid located for reporting to the cytoplasm on the cell wall where WAK1 is bound in a calcium-induced conformation to polygalacturonic acid, oligogalacturonides and pectins and this interaction was prevented by methyl esterification, calcium chelators and pectin depolymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus
  • 2005. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals native polymeric cell wall structure in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the existence of a periplasmic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • microfibrils
  • An enzyme called xyloglucan endo-transglucosylase, or XET, breaks the tether during cell growth to allow the microfibrils to separate. (innovations-report.com)
  • Unless the xyloglucans are retied or reassociated around the new configurations of microfibrils, the cells will continue to expand indefinitely. (innovations-report.com)
  • thickness
  • Carl Nägeli (1858, 1862, 1863) believed that the growth of the wall in thickness and in area was due to a process termed intussusception. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process prevents the thickness of the wall from changing even as the cell increases 100 or 1,000 times its length. (innovations-report.com)
  • meristem
  • These cells mature from meristem derivatives that initially resemble parenchyma, but differences quickly become apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • flexibility
  • The flexibility of the cell walls is seen when plants wilt, so that the stems and leaves begin to droop, or in seaweeds that bend in water currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal wall
  • It has a positive effect on the bowel movement, which may be utilised in treatments of many diseases that lead to disruption of intestinal wall, and thus increase the risk of developing a more serious disease . (penoxal.com)
  • this consequently produces diverticula that are sacs formed by herniation of the intestinal wall . (penoxal.com)
  • The submucous plexus (Meissner's plexus, plexus of the submucosa, plexus submucosus) lies in the submucosa of the intestinal wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which causes the microscopic strokes in the brain, retina, and inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • prisoners
  • However, he managed to escape from his cell, and with the aid of other British prisoners of war, left the camp with a work party, slipped away and travelled to Danzig. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like carotenoids and mycosporines represent passive physiological adaptations which enable black fungi to be highly resistant against environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • There were a series of thunderstorm cells that formed early in the morning - despite it being more common for thunderstorms to form in the late afternoon in the south-east Queensland region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of myxobacteria, rather than as isolated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • It consists of following housing units: Closed Section (Zatvoreno odjeljenje) - Medium/maximum security facility, containing a yard with several pavilions, encircled with a high brick wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • The cause is unknown but the current thinking is that antibodies are produced against endothelial cells in tiny arteries which leads to damage and the symptoms related to the illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • unit
  • When the button is pushed, the transmitter sends a radio signal to the receiver unit, which is plugged into a wall outlet inside the building. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pavilion A - medium security, capacity 80 inmates Pavilion B - medium security, capacity 92 inmates Pavilion C - maximum security, under permanent lockdown, capacity 24 inmates Pavilion D - medium security, capacity 100 inmates Disciplinary unit - a solitary confinement unit, single building with 8 cells Semi-open Section (Polu otvoreno odjeljenje, POO) - minimum security facility, capacity 470 inmates. (wikipedia.org)
  • buildings
  • The first buildings included an administration building, east and west cell block wings connected by a rotunda, a dining hall, a hospital, and a power house. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original 1889 complex included the Administration Building, Rotunda, Cell Block A, and Cell Block B. Cell Block A was demolished in 1971, but the other buildings still remain. (wikipedia.org)