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  • tumor
  • To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • E. A. Friedman, Differential response of premalignant epithelial cell classes to phorbol ester tumor promoters and to deoxycholic acid, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • Many cancers overexpress ATF4, a stress-induced transcription factor that promotes cell survival under hypoxic conditions and other stresses of the tumor microenvironment, but the potential contributions of ATF4 to oncogenesis itself have been little explored. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune system and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a sub-population of tumor cells that possess stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and the ability of differentiation. (cancerindex.org)
  • In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular mechanisms vary from one virus to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis validated the approach of whole cancer genome sequencing in identifying somatic mutations and the importance of parallel sequencing of normal and tumor cell genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Chemically defined media have been developed for culturing many of these tissues and cells from normal organs, including those with a high rate of cancer in humans. (springer.com)
  • In other polyomaviruses, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, which causes Merkel cell carcinoma in humans, STag appears to be important for replication and to be an oncoprotein in its own right. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Here we show that immortalized or HRAS -transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl 2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Advances in cell biology, including the delineation of biochemical and morphological markers of specific cell types, have also facilitated the identification of cells in vitro (including keratins as markers for epithelial cells and collagen types I and III for identifying fibroblasts). (springer.com)
  • J. C. Willey, J. F. Lechner and C. C. Harris, Bombesin and the C-terminal tetradecapeptide of gastrin-releasing peptide are growth factors for normal human bronchial epithelial cells, Exp. (springer.com)
  • endothelial cells
  • A carcinoma is a complex tissue composed of multiple cell types, including epithelial cancer cells as well as stromal cells that include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some studies, however, have demonstrated that endothelial cells can be derived from cancer cells [ 5 - 7 ], and other studies have shown that stromal components of tumors may not be derived entirely from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow [ 8 , 9 ], suggesting that cancer cells are highly plastic and capable of generating stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They also found that targeting MEK1 and cyclin E1 with small interfering RNA decreased the number of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway which regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (cancerindex.org)
  • Also, this gene is down-regulated during transformation of normal myoblasts to rhabdomyosarcoma cells and the encoded protein may function as a link between presenilin-2 and an intracellular signaling pathway. (cancerindex.org)
  • Chromosome
  • Indications are that: for high-LET radiation, where complex DSBs occur with high frequency, little repair occurs, leading to cell death or the mis-rejoining of unrepairable ends with other radiation-induced DSB leads to large DNA deletions and chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, heterochromatin formation is required for proper chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • In addition, human cells with abnormal phenotypes such as either enzymatic deficits or malignant properties frequently maintain these phenotype in vitro. (springer.com)
  • SV40
  • A multistep in vitro/in vivo transformation system was used to test the transforming effect(s) of the human bladder procarcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) and two putative proximate carcinogenic metabolites, N -hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (N-OH-ABP) and N -hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl (N-OH-AABP), on a clonally derived nontumorigenic SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cell line, SV-HUC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Strikingly, primary embryo fibroblasts from ATF4 -deficient mice were resistant to transformation by coexpression of H-ras V12 and SV40 large T antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are believed to bind zinc in the SV40 STag and confer improved protein stability, but in Merkel cell polyomavirus STag, they have been reported to bind iron-sulfur clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Normal human cells in vitro appear to retain many normal phenotypic properties, remain diploid, eventually undergo senescence and rarely, if ever "spontaneously" transform to malignant cells. (springer.com)
  • Human cells cultured in vitro have thus proven to be extremely useful to scientists studying the molecular and biochemical aspects of human carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in several model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • host cell's
  • Because polyomavirus genome replication relies on the DNA replication machinery of the host cell, the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to provide the necessary molecular machinery for viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of LTag in the viral life cycle involve dysregulation of the host cell's cell cycle and replication of the virus's circular DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill. (definitions.net)
  • carcinogenesis
  • These advances have created experimental approaches to answering critical questions in human cell carcinogenesis 1,2 . (springer.com)
  • Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. (cancerindex.org)
  • While the high effectiveness in cell killing provides the rationale for heavy ion cancer therapy (hadron therapy), residual damage in surviving cells is of concern for carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • LTag has two primary functions, both related to replication of the viral genome: it unwinds the virus's DNA to prepare it for replication, and it interacts with proteins in the host cell to dysregulate the cell cycle so that the host's DNA replication machinery can be used to replicate the virus's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These truncated LTags retain their ability to interact with some cell cycle regulatory proteins and are involved in cell transformation but not in viral genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J domain is a DnaJ molecular chaperone that is required for viral genome replication in vivo (but is dispensable in cell-free laboratory experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • This phase II trial is studying how well fludarabine phosphate and total-body irradiation followed by donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant work in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia that has responded to previous treatment with imatinib mesylate, dasatinib, or nilotinib. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving low doses of chemotherapy, such as fludarabine phosphate, and total-body irradiation (TBI) before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It may also stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • INDUCTION THERAPY: Patients continue to receive imatinib mesylate orally (PO), dasatinib PO, or nilotinib PO once or twice daily until day -2 and resume on day 14 or when blood counts recover after peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The product of this gene is required for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and also regulates gene expression in the stomach. (cancerindex.org)
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (cancerindex.org)
  • Correlation of HIWI and HILI Expression with Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the HIWI and HILI expression and its relationship with cancer stem cells markers in 72 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). (cancerindex.org)
  • The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The LP cells have scant cytoplasm and one folded or multilobated nuclei with prominent, mostly basophilic nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unstructured linker region also contains a nuclear localization sequence, which triggers the host cell to transport the protein from the cytoplasm where is it translated to the nucleus where it performs its replication-related functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Once in the blood stream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become partially embedded. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Such studies have been facilitated by the recent development of improved methods for culturing normal human epithelial tissues and cells 1 . (springer.com)
  • Microscopic energy deposition in cells and tissues is distinct for GCR compared to X-rays on Earth leading to both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects, while there is no human epidemiology data for GCR for cancer and other fatal risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRC2
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cytarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 3-AP may help cytarabine kill more cancer cells by making them more sensitive to the drug. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as flavopiridol, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • MyD88-Dependent Signaling Decreases the Antitumor Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer Cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • genetic
  • This reduction of genetic information has committed M. haemofelis to a parasitic lifestyle in which it is entirely dependent upon host cells for the amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins it has lost the ability to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • However, PIO did not alter the growth of cells from other tissues. (medsci.org)
  • In 1926, Canadian physician Thomas Glover reported that he could consistently isolate a specific bacterium from the neoplastic tissues of animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal population of B lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, or tissues that display an unusual but characteristic pattern of molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological samples can be different cells/tissues within the same individual, the same cell/tissue at different times, cells/tissues from different individuals, even different alleles in the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAX gene family has an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development and maintaining the normal function of some cells after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • Resveratrol was also effective in inhibiting CYP1A1 transcription induced by the aryl hydrocarbon dimethylbenz[ a ]anthracene in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • pathways
  • The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thymidine monophosphate is produced by the cell in two different reactions - either by phosphorylation of thymidine as described above or by methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, a product of other metabolic pathways unrelated to thymidine, by the enzyme thymidylate synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid malignancies), and Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 (cell-cycle processes). (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • The second method described in this paper is the transwell cell migration and invasion assay that measures the capacity of cell motility and invasiveness toward a chemo-attractant gradient. (jove.com)
  • Fyn is functionally distinct from its family members in that it interacts with FAK and paxillin (PXN) in the regulation of cell morphology and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoplasms
  • PAX8/PPARy rearrangement account for 30-40% of conventional type follicular carcinomas and less than 5% of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. (jove.com)
  • E4 proteins are expressed, and viral DNA amplification starts in the differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins no longer needed after the cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • It is a poorly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) [ 1 ] with a more aggressive behavior [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Only squamous cell carcinoma was determined in the pathologic examination of the specimen. (hindawi.com)
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma is the second-most prevalent skin cancer, followed by melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma usually occur in horses greater than 9-years-old, while sarcoids commonly affect horses 3 to 6 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fyn overexpression has been studied in relation to the following cancers: prostate cancer, glioblastoma multiform, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, pancreatic cancer, chronic melogenic leukemia, and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Mondal S, Heidelberger C. In vitro malignant transformation by methylcholanthrene of the progeny of single cells derived from C3H mouse prostate. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of PIO on normal urothelial transitional epithelium (NUTE) cells and bladder cancer (J82) cells to further evaluate the risk. (medsci.org)
  • Along with the debate on whether PIO causes bladder cancer in humans, animal and in vitro cell culture studies have suggested a biological effect of PIO on the induction or protection from bladder cancer [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. (jove.com)
  • glioma
  • In the present study, MMP-9, uPAR and cathepsin B genes were downregulated in glioma xenograft cells using shRNA plasmid constructs and we evaluated the involvement of integrins and changes in their adhesion, migration and invasive potential. (jove.com)
  • protein
  • Interestingly, PIO significantly downregulated the protein levels of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells, but not NUTE cells after more than 192 hours of treatment. (medsci.org)
  • Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Changes in its DNA sequence transform it into an oncogene that leads to the formation of a different protein with implications for normal cell regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nuclear protein is involved in thyroid follicular cell development and expression of thyroid-specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Here we use tumor cell migration and invasion as an example and describe two related assays to illustrate the commonly used, easily accessible methods to measure these processes. (jove.com)
  • expression
  • PIO decreased the expression of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells after long-term culture, which suggested that PIO may be helpful for diabetic patients with bladder cancer. (medsci.org)
  • We therefore examined the effect of resveratrol on CYP1A enzymatic activity and CYP1A1 expression induced by the AH benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[a]P) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These genes are primed for expression (also known as existing in a bivalent state in embryonic stem cells but are kept in a repressed state by chromatin modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer instrument can examine the expression of molecules on individual cells in fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • premalignant
  • Tracing specific cell populations in the presence and absence of tissue injury in mice, the research team demonstrated that oncogenic Kras can readily induce PDA precursor - or premalignant - lesions called PanIN, from adult pancreatic acinar cells, but not from ductal cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Accounting for the fact that acinar cells are more abundant than ductal cells in the adult pancreas of mice, the difference in the ability of the acinar cells to generate PanIN premalignant lesions remained more than a 100 times greater than the ability of ductal or so-called centroacinar cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • The scientists show that activation of Sox9 is necessary to convert the acinar cells into premalignant lesions. (healthcanal.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Thus, we can conclude that insufficiency of immunological defense mechanisms leading to disruption of maligned cell elimination process is the primary pathogenic factor for metastatic tumor development. (ssmj.ru)
  • Histologically
  • Histologically, sarcoids are composed of fibroblasts (collagen producing cells) that invade and proliferate within the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue but do not readily metastasize to other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • It has shed many biosynthetic systems found in related gram-positive bacteria as well as the ability to secrete a cell wall (rendering it technically gram-negative). (wikipedia.org)
  • monolayer
  • The first method is the cell culture wound closure assay in which a scratch is generated on a confluent cell monolayer. (jove.com)
  • mast cells
  • most likely due to increased histamine from mast cells, but may be related to an increased susceptibility to infection with the ulcer-causing bacterium H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant increase in the density of mast cells has been seen in cherry hemangiomas compared with normal skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • At experiment termination, several distinct endpoints can be measured, such as size and molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the presence and quantification of circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow, and formation of metastasis to the lung. (jove.com)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL results in the build up of B cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some individuals, the disease comes to light only after the cancerous cells overwhelm the bone marrow resulting in anemia producing tiredness or weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Migration is a key property of live cells and critical for normal development, immune response, and disease processes such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. (jove.com)
  • Methods to examine cell migration are very useful and important for a wide range of biomedical research such as cancer biology, immunology, vascular biology, cell biology and developmental biology. (jove.com)
  • Their work, published on line November 29 in the journal Cancer Cell , may help in the search for earlier detection methods and treatments. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers also showed that inflammation of the pancreas, which is a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer, promotes the conversion of acinar cells into duct-like tumor precursors. (healthcanal.com)
  • The findings demonstrate a key role for acinar cells in the beginning stages of pancreatic cancer, and point to Sox9 as a potential target for preventing early tumor-initiating events. (healthcanal.com)
  • Certain fusion transcripts are commonly produced by cancer cells, and detection of fusion transcripts is part of routine diagnostics of certain cancer types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karyotypes have been used for several decades to identify chromosomal abnormalities in both germline and cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Normal B lymphocytes consist of a stew of different antibody-producing cells, resulting in a mixture of both kappa- and lambda-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of the normal distribution of these B cells is one basis for demonstrating clonality, the key element for establishing a diagnosis of any B cell malignancy (B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • These B cells resemble normal lymphocytes under the microscope, although slightly smaller, and are fragile when smeared onto a glass slide, giving rise to many broken cells, which are called "smudge" or "smear" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded intracellularly, so that it does not pass to body fluids after normal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second route is used by the cell under normal conditions, and it is sufficient to supply thymidine monophosphate for DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoma
  • Surgery was performed and pathologic examination revealed a spindle cell carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is a relatively rare malignancy affecting the upper aerodigestive tract. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods
  • It is our goal to describe these methods in a highly accessible manner so that the procedures can be successfully performed in research laboratories even just with basic cell biology setup. (jove.com)
  • cyclin
  • In addition, treatment with PIO for up to 72 hours did not result in changes in the expressions of p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and Bax in NUTE cells and J82 cells. (medsci.org)
  • It encodes a cell cycle inhibitor that binds to G1 cyclin-CDK complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • invade
  • In addition to a variety of endpoints, this model provides a picture of a cells ability to invade and escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the circulatory system, and implant and grow in a secondary site. (jove.com)
  • commonly
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Despite the diversity of platforms, ultimately they all use genomic DNA from disrupted cells to recreate a high resolution karyotype in silico. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ES) Lineage-specific genes are genes that will define the final identity of the differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis
  • 9. Baramia M.G. Carcinogenesis, aging and longevity: the potential of transformed cells and inhibition of aging (the hypothesis). (ssmj.ru)
  • transcription
  • In addition, the study demonstrated that, when PanIN lesions originate in acinar cells, they activate the ductal transcription factor Sox9. (healthcanal.com)
  • marker
  • The enzyme suggested as a tumor marker in malignant disease is the cytosolic cell cycle dependent TK1 that is present during cell division in quantities much larger than TK2 and is therefore set free to the circulation in quantities that completely dominate the activity of thymidine kinase in blood and other body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • A karyotype is typically presented as an image of the chromosomes from a single cell arranged from largest (chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • An example of a tDMR would be different methylation patterns between an eye cell and a liver cell within the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study published in 2011, Jeffries and colleagues examined the differences in methylation patterns in CD4 T cells (a type of white blood cell) of healthy patients and patients with lupus, an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Resveratrol competitively inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of the carcinogen activating enzymes cytochrome P-450 (CYP)1A1/CYP1A2 in microsomes and intact HepG2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This reduction of genetic information has committed M. haemofelis to a parasitic lifestyle in which it is entirely dependent upon host cells for the amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins it has lost the ability to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent) whereas TK2 which is located in mitochondria is cell cycle-independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymidine kinase 1 is such a salvage enzyme, whereas thymidine kinase 2 is not cell cycle-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological samples
  • Electron cryo-tomography is a powerful tool in structural biology, capable of visualizing the three-dimensional structure of biological samples, such as cells, organelles, membrane vesicles, or viruses at molecular detail. (jove.com)
  • viral
  • However, high viral loads within cells are strongly correlated with more severe clinical signs and aggressive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • E1 is similar to COOH-terminal domain of the Simian virus 40, plays a role in viral DNA replication maintaining plasmids within a cell. (wikipedia.org)