• Depletion
  • We demonstrate here that depletion of NK1.1(+) cells (NK cells and NKT cells) before immunization inhibits pulmonary eosinophil and CD3(+) T cell infiltration as well as increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-12 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a murine model of allergic asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Depletion of NK1.1(+) cells during the challenge period only did not influence pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokines
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct lineage of lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxic activity and secrete cytokines upon immune stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease enhancement was associated with augmentation of T cell proliferation and production of Th1 cytokines in response to MOG35-55.We further showed that NK cells inhibit T cell proliferation triggered by antigen or cytokine stimulation.Taken together, we conclude that NK cells are an important regulator for EAE in both induction and effector phases. (nih.gov)
  • The disease enhancement was associated with augmentation of T cell proliferation and production of Th1 cytokines in response to MOG35-55. (nih.gov)
  • spleen
  • ZB-1 T line cells (4 × 104 cells/well) were stimulated with MOG35-55 in the presence of x irradiated spleen cells (8 × 105 cells/well) from wild-type B6 (A) or β2m−/− mice (B). In each experiment, spleen cells from mice pretreated with control mAb (control) and those pretreated with anti-NK1.1 mAb (anti-NK1.1) were compared in their accessory function. (nih.gov)
  • To obtain insights into the mechanism of NK cell-mediated regulation, we conducted in vitro experiments, assaying antigen-induced proliferation of ZB-1 cells in the presence of irradiated spleen cells as APCs. (nih.gov)
  • First, spleen cells from NK cell-deleted mice were compared with those from control mice as accessory cells for ZB-1 line cells. (nih.gov)
  • The experiment showed that antigen-induced ZB-1 cell proliferation is enhanced when spleen cells were derived from NK-deleted mice. (nih.gov)
  • We obtained similar results not only with spleen cells from wild-type B6 mice, but also from β2m−/− mice (Fig. 9, A and B). These indicate that irradiated, spleen NK cells would inhibit antigen-induced Th1 proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Because previous studies have implicated NK cells in the control of MCMV predominantly in the liver and spleen and early during infection, viral titers in these organs were determined on day 3 after infection. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue/ cell preparation: CD spleen and bone marrow cells enriched for NK1 + cells (Mouse). (abcam.com)
  • Flow Cyt: Mouse spleen cells. (abcam.com)
  • NK1.1
  • Aggravation of EAE by NK cell deletion was also seen in beta 2-microglobulin-/- (beta 2m-/-) mice, indicating that NK cells can play a regulatory role in a manner independent of CD8+ T cells or NK1.1+ T cells (NK-T cells). (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that cells of the innate immune system, such as natural killer (NK) cells, NK1.1(+) T cells (NKT cells), and gamma/delta T cells, may regulate the development of allergic airway disease. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, systemic allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG2a levels and the number of IL-4 and interferon gamma-producing splenic cells were diminished in mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells before the priming regime. (nih.gov)
  • MICA
  • Cell surface proteins major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related chain A (MICA) and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP) 1, 2, and 3 are up-regulated upon infection or tumor transformation and can activate human natural killer (NK) cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, ULBPs and MICA are expressed in lipid rafts at the cell surface. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, MICA may have a weaker association with lipid rafts than ULBP3, yet both proteins accumulate at an activating human NK cell immune synapse. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Regarding a specific molecular basis for the organization of these proteins, ULBP1, 2, and 3 and MICA are lipid modified. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, expression of a truncated form of MICA that lacks the putative site for S-acylation and the cytoplasmic tail can be expressed at the cell surface, but is unable to activate NK cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Acquisition of MICA from target cells was dependent on cell contact and occurred after accumulation of MICA at the immunological synapse. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MICA captured from target cells could subsequently transfer between NK cells and, more importantly, NK cell degranulation was triggered in such NK cell-NK cell interactions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation
  • Recent data offer some clues on the mechanism that could explain the important role of PKCθ in NK cell-mediated anti-tumor immune surveillance: some studies show that PKCθ is implicated in signal transduction and anti-tumoral activity of NK cells elicited by interleukin (IL)-12 or IL-15, while others show that it is implicated in NK cell functional activation mediated by certain killer-activating receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanism by which PKCθ contributes to the first steps of T cell activation has recently been uncovered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation by cross-linking of the receptor induces Ca(2+) mobilization and interferon-gamma production. (abcam.com)
  • Activation also leads to AKT1/PKB and RPS6KA1/RSK1 kinases stimulation as well as markedly enhanced T-cell proliferation induced by anti-CD3. (abcam.cn)
  • mediate
  • By binding to these structures, C-type lectins mediate a variety of crucial cellular processes including cell adhesion, serum glycoprotein turnover and quick innate-type immune responses to potential pathogens [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • superfamily
  • As these proteins contain Ig domains, they are members of the Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cadherin superfamily can be divided into at least 6 subfamilies: the classical cadherins, the nonclassical cadherins, desmocollins, desmogelins, protocadherins, and Flamingo cadherins. (sunyorange.edu)
  • DAP12
  • Some, however, like Siglec-14, contain positive amino acid residues that help dock ITAM-containing adaptor proteins such as DAP12. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Acts as a lectin that binds to the terminal carbohydrate Gal-alpha(1,3)Gal epitope as well as to the N-acetyllactosamine epitope. (abcam.cn)
  • Killer Cells
  • Natural killer cells determine development of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice. (nih.gov)
  • immunity
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are an important early mediator of host immunity to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. (nih.gov)
  • They can also regulate specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation of Antiviral B Cell Immunity Relies on Innate Signals from Spatially Positioned NKT Cells. (chavi-id.org)
  • cluster
  • Recent developments in sequencing and the availability of comprehensive sequence data comprising many species showed that the receptors of the DECTIN-1 cluster are not only homologous to each other but also highly conserved between species. (hindawi.com)
  • tumor
  • Natural killer (NK) cells, which express PKCθ, play a prominent role in this process, mainly by elimination of tumor cells with reduced or absent major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • More recently the concepts of T-cell exhaustion [ 42 ] and tumor immune evasion [ 43 ] have been added to this complex game of cat and mouse. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • regulation
  • Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by natural killer (NK) cells. (nih.gov)
  • Other experts in this issue extensively describe the biochemical and functional aspects of PKCθ regulation in T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • proliferation
  • The appearance of clinically detectable tumors may be the result of the proliferation of cells that have developed sophisticated strategies to escape the immune response. (frontiersin.org)