Loading...
  • cytoskeleton
  • The progress made in recent years in cell biology has focused much attention on the structure and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • html Types of Cytoskeleton Assembly of Microfilaments  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/animation1201.h tml Cell Surface Projections Formed by Cytoskeleton  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1202 .html Microvilli  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1201. (slidegur.com)
  • There are 4 types of cell junctions: Anchoring junctions (Adherens junctions, Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes), which transmit stress through tethering to cytoskeleton are cell-cell or cell-matrix Occluding Junctions (Tight junctions), which seal gaps between cells, making an impermeable barrier Channel forming junctions (Gap junctions and plasmodesmata), which links cytoplasm of adjacent cells Signal relaying junction, synapses in nervous systems Cell-cell adhesions in Anchoring junctions are mediated by cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of microvilli can occur in certain diseases because of the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name integrin is based on the word integrate, integrins are in a position to transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton and thus to integrate changes occurring outside and inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Thus oncogenic JSRV has borrowed features of both pH-dependent and pH-independent viruses for entry which involves both the receptor binding and a low pH for fusion transformation of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence also suggests that the VRA region of Mo-MLV recognizes the receptor, while downstream regions such as VRB and proline-rich regions are important for stabilization of the receptor-specific structure on the surface of the virion. (hubpages.com)
  • This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as DC-SIGN because of its expression on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages. (mybiosource.com)
  • The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • CD209: Pathogen-recognition receptor expressed on the surface of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and involved in initiation of primary immune response. (mybiosource.com)
  • Upon activation of the receptor, a signal is sent to the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh), which is located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC restriction within TNCs Whether the thymocytes undergo positive or negative selection is determined through MHC restriction, which refers to the interaction between the αβTCR (αβ T cell receptor) of the T cells and MHC antigens on the antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the behavior of the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction allows the hormone receptor to produce second messengers within the cell to aid response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding receptor for foamy viruses is not entirely know, however it is know that the virus is capable of infecting a board spectrum of cells, meaning the binding receptor must be quite prevalent in most forms of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that the most likely candidate for a common receptor is heparan sulfate (HS), an extremely common glycosaminoglycan (GAG) present on the ECM of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • Their main functions center around breaking down materials and debris in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological functions of these glycoproteins are disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, cell surface expression of LAMP1 is seen in cells with migratory or invasive functions, such as cytotoxic T cells, platelets and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central vacuole of a plant cell functions like a large lysosome. (prezi.com)
  • It functions during the seperation of chromosomes in cell division. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It functions to allow the movement of substances along the cell surface. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Signaling pathways regulate cells through activating or inactivating gene expression, transport of metabolites, and controlling enzymatic activity in order to manage growth and functions of metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • At this site, membrane glycoproteins and associated "glue" bind the cells together like double-sided "strapping tape" The freeze-fracture/freeze etch view of this junction (shown below) illustrates the ridges in the plane of the exposed leaflet. (cytochemistry.net)
  • In order to develop effective targeting strategies it is imperative to understand the mechanism by which retroviral virions bind and enter cells. (hubpages.com)
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • After cleavage, the products of the env gene are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane where they are incorporated onto budding virions. (hubpages.com)
  • The goblet cells mainly use the merocrine method of secretion, secreting vesicles into a duct, but may use apocrine methods, budding off their secretions, when under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early endosomes are often located in the periphery of the cell, and receive most types of vesicles coming from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Once the spermatozoon has entered, the peripheral portion of the yolk changes into a membrane, the perivitelline membrane, which prevents the passage of additional spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • The sperm must undergo capacitation in the female's reproductive tract over several hours, which increases its motility and destabilizes its membrane, preparing it for the acrosome reaction, the enzymatic penetration of the egg's tough membrane, the zona pellucida, which surrounds the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • Homophilic attachment allows selective recognition, resulting in cells of a similar type sticking together, whereas cells of a different type stay segregated. (wikipedia.org)
  • junctions
  • The sides have specialized junctions that keep the nutrients from entering the space between the cells. (cytochemistry.net)
  • There are several ways to prove the cells are communicating by gap junctions. (cytochemistry.net)
  • Desmosomes  function like rivets  fastens cells together  anchored in cytoplasm by intermediate filaments  example: attach muscle cells to each other Desmosomes Cell Junctions in Animal Cells  3. (slidegur.com)
  • Cell junctions allow cells to adhere to one another in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term may also refer to cells interconnected by specialized membrane with gap junctions, as seen in the heart muscle cells and certain smooth muscle cells, which are synchronized electrically in an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuse
  • Fertilization occurs when the nucleus of both a sperm and an egg fuse to form a diploid cell, known as zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo-derived cells that form the interface with the maternal blood stream fuse together to form a multinucleated barrier - the syncytiotrophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because many cells fuse together, syncytium are also known as multinucleated giant cells or polykaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once internalized, the virus particle must fuse with the internal vessical and allow its genetic material to escape into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Both LAMP1 and LAMP2 have been found expressed on the surface of cancerous tumors, specifically in cells of highly metastatic cancer such as colon cancer and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • However, in the above view, they are dual labeled for Cre-recombinase with dylight 594 (red) in the nuclei and cytoplasm. (cytochemistry.net)
  • This makes the nuclei purple and the cytoplasm yellow. (cytochemistry.net)
  • Most fungi of Basidiomycota exist as a dikaryon in which thread-like cells of the mycelium are partially partitioned into segments each containing two differing nuclei, called a heterokaryon. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)- It is a system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It is a small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, with a membrane surrounding it. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It is a group of fluid-filled, membrane-bound, flattened sacs. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model, it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic
  • This gives the basal part of the cell a basophilic staining because of nucleic acids within the nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum staining with hematoxylin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • First, fat synthesized within the endoplasmic reticulum accumulates in droplets between the inner and outer phospholipid monolayers of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most bud into the endoplasmic reticulum which are then packaged and distributed to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than budding through the plasma membrane like a more traditional retrovirus, BFV and other foamy viruses bud using the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrovirus
  • Once a retrovirus has gained entry into a host cell, the genetic material is converted via reverse transcription from RNA to DNA, a process that is essentially backwards from normal transcription in which a cell converts DNA into RNA. (hubpages.com)
  • occurs
  • Once the sperm cells find their way past the zona pellucida, the cortical reaction occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleation of actin fibers occurs as a response to external stimuli, allowing a cell to alter its shape to suit a particular situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • This leads to the degradation of the T cells within the vacuoles.Macrophages have also been found actively moving in and out of the vacuoles inside the TNCs during the times of high apoptotic activity suggesting their involvement in the elimination of negatively selected T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative selection has been proposed to occur when the αβTCR in developing T cells interact with MHC present on antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells and macrophages with strong affinities, which then leads T cells down the apoptotic pathway inside the TNCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The professional phagocytes include many types of white blood cells (such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • After phagocytosis, macrophages and dendritic cells can also participate in antigen presentation, a process in which a phagocyte moves parts of the ingested material back to its surface. (wikipedia.org)