• receptor
  • Thus oncogenic JSRV has borrowed features of both pH-dependent and pH-independent viruses for entry which involves both the receptor binding and a low pH for fusion transformation of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potocytosis is a form of receptor-mediated endocytosis that uses caveolae vesicles to bring molecules of various sizes into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation of the receptor, a signal is sent to the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh), which is located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC restriction within TNCs Whether the thymocytes undergo positive or negative selection is determined through MHC restriction, which refers to the interaction between the αβTCR (αβ T cell receptor) of the T cells and MHC antigens on the antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding receptor for foamy viruses is not entirely know, however it is know that the virus is capable of infecting a board spectrum of cells, meaning the binding receptor must be quite prevalent in most forms of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that the most likely candidate for a common receptor is heparan sulfate (HS), an extremely common glycosaminoglycan (GAG) present on the ECM of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the behavior of the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction allows the hormone receptor to produce second messengers within the cell to aid response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • The progress made in recent years in cell biology has focused much attention on the structure and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • html Types of Cytoskeleton Assembly of Microfilaments  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/animation1201.h tml Cell Surface Projections Formed by Cytoskeleton  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1202 .html Microvilli  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1201. (slidegur.com)
  • There are 4 types of cell junctions: Anchoring junctions (Adherens junctions, Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes), which transmit stress through tethering to cytoskeleton are cell-cell or cell-matrix Occluding Junctions (Tight junctions), which seal gaps between cells, making an impermeable barrier Channel forming junctions (Gap junctions and plasmodesmata), which links cytoplasm of adjacent cells Signal relaying junction, synapses in nervous systems Cell-cell adhesions in Anchoring junctions are mediated by cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of microvilli can occur in certain diseases because of the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name integrin is based on the word integrate, integrins are in a position to transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton and thus to integrate changes occurring outside and inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucous membranes
  • An intestinal gland from the human intestine with goblet cells visible Goblet cell in ileum Section of mouse intestine, mucus of goblet cells in blue Goblet cells in large intestine The main role of goblet cells is to secrete mucus in order to protect the mucous membranes where they are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrum of disease was expanded to include primary and recurrent infections of mucous membranes (gingivostomatitis, herpes labialis, and genital HSV infections), keratoconjunctivitis, neonatal HSV infection, visceral HSV infections of the immunocompromised host, HSV encephalitis, Kaposi's varicella-like eruption, and an association with erythema multiforme. (asmscience.org)
  • Adhesion
  • LAMP2, along with LAMP1, interact with E-selectin and galectins to mediate the adhesion of some cancer cells to the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular adhesion can link cells in different ways and can be involved in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion is also essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cadherin subunit, β-catenin plays a role in cell-cell adhesion by controlling cadherin-mediated cell adhesion at the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective cell-cell adhesion enables vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer metastasis tumors that spread through the circulatory system use mechanisms of cell adhesion to establish new tumors in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesion of bacteria is the first step in colonization and regulates tropism (tissue- or cell-specific interactions). (wikipedia.org)
  • The differential adhesion hypothesis (sometimes called the "thermodynamic hypothesis") is a theory of cell adhesion advanced by Malcolm Steinberg in 1964 to explain the mechanism by which heterotypic cells in mixed aggregates sort out into isotypic territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface tensions correspond to the mutual sorting behavior: the tissue type with the higher surface tension will occupy an internal position relative to a tissue with a lower surface tension (if these tissues can interact with each other through their adhesion machinery). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunction of cell-adhesion and cell-migration occurs during cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular adhesion and traction can allow cells to migrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell surface expression of LAMP1 can serve as a ligand for selectins and help mediate cell-cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of LAMP1 correlates with differentiation and metastatic potential of tumor cells as it is thought to help mediate cell-cell adhesion and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Both LAMP1 and LAMP2 have been found expressed on the surface of cancerous tumors, specifically in cells of highly metastatic cancer such as colon cancer and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpressed in epithelial tumors, such as breast or ovarian cancer and also in non-epithelial tumor cells. (abcam.com)
  • structures
  • It is small, hair-like structures found on the surface membrane of some animal cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • 7, At this stage in the infection, the chromatin (c) is degraded and displaced toward the nuclear membrane, whereas the nucleoli (round hatched structures) become disaggregated. (asmscience.org)
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, matrix (plural: matrices) is the material (or tissue) in animal or plant cells, in which more specialized structures are embedded, and a specific part of the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • The sperm must undergo capacitation in the female's reproductive tract over several hours, which increases its motility and destabilizes its membrane, preparing it for the acrosome reaction, the enzymatic penetration of the egg's tough membrane, the zona pellucida, which surrounds the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • Desmosomes  function like rivets  fastens cells together  anchored in cytoplasm by intermediate filaments  example: attach muscle cells to each other Desmosomes Cell Junctions in Animal Cells  3. (slidegur.com)
  • The term may also refer to cells interconnected by specialized membrane with gap junctions, as seen in the heart muscle cells and certain smooth muscle cells, which are synchronized electrically in an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • The phospholipids have hydrophobic alkyl chains and a hydrophilic polar group, and they are spontaneously assembled as a continuous membrane in an aqueous medium. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These domains and ligands are hydrophobic and are able to travel through the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • attachment
  • Homophilic attachment allows selective recognition, resulting in cells of a similar type sticking together, whereas cells of a different type stay segregated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can form integrin-mediated attachment sites called focal adhesions, which provide the necessary mechanical force for cells to propel themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Regulates TP53-mediated transcription and determines cell fate in the genotoxic stress response. (abcam.com)
  • The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • It is a round organelle surrounded by a membrane, with no clear internal structure. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It is a small, flattened structure found in plant cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Biocompatible and non-biofouling surfaces are designed largely based on cell membrane structure, and the preparation and functioning of the bioinspired interface are evaluated and compared between living and artificial systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cell membrane structure is the most attractive candidate for the fabrication of nanostructured biomaterials, which involves bio-, nano- and information technologies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Schematic of a bioinspired interface based on the cell membrane structure. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The lipid bilayer hypothesis, proposed in 1925 by Gorter and Grendel, created speculation to the description of the cell membrane bilayer structure based on crystallographic studies and soap bubble observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in the 1930s, the membrane structure model developed in general agreement to be the paucimolecular model of Davson and Danielli (1935). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally used as a jelly like structure instead of cytoplasm in connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some examples of plant syncytia, which result during plant development, include: Developing endosperm The non-articulated laticifers The plasmodial tapetum, and The "nucellar plasmodium" of the family Podostemaceae A syncytium is the normal cell structure for many fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensions of plasma membrane from thymic nurse cells form a cage-like structure, which trap (Hendrix et. (wikipedia.org)