• cytoskeleton
  • The progress made in recent years in cell biology has focused much attention on the structure and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • There are 4 types of cell junctions: Anchoring junctions (Adherens junctions, Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes), which transmit stress through tethering to cytoskeleton are cell-cell or cell-matrix Occluding Junctions (Tight junctions), which seal gaps between cells, making an impermeable barrier Channel forming junctions (Gap junctions and plasmodesmata), which links cytoplasm of adjacent cells Signal relaying junction, synapses in nervous systems Cell-cell adhesions in Anchoring junctions are mediated by cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of microvilli can occur in certain diseases because of the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • html Types of Cytoskeleton Assembly of Microfilaments  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/animation1201.h tml Cell Surface Projections Formed by Cytoskeleton  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1202 .html Microvilli  http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/micrograph1201. (slidegur.com)
  • The name integrin is based on the word integrate, integrins are in a position to transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton and thus to integrate changes occurring outside and inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Thus oncogenic JSRV has borrowed features of both pH-dependent and pH-independent viruses for entry which involves both the receptor binding and a low pH for fusion transformation of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence also suggests that the VRA region of Mo-MLV recognizes the receptor, while downstream regions such as VRB and proline-rich regions are important for stabilization of the receptor-specific structure on the surface of the virion. (hubpages.com)
  • Potocytosis is a form of receptor-mediated endocytosis that uses caveolae vesicles to bring molecules of various sizes into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as DC-SIGN because of its expression on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages. (mybiosource.com)
  • The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • CD209: Pathogen-recognition receptor expressed on the surface of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and involved in initiation of primary immune response. (mybiosource.com)
  • Upon activation of the receptor, a signal is sent to the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh), which is located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC restriction within TNCs Whether the thymocytes undergo positive or negative selection is determined through MHC restriction, which refers to the interaction between the αβTCR (αβ T cell receptor) of the T cells and MHC antigens on the antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the behavior of the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction allows the hormone receptor to produce second messengers within the cell to aid response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding receptor for foamy viruses is not entirely know, however it is know that the virus is capable of infecting a board spectrum of cells, meaning the binding receptor must be quite prevalent in most forms of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that the most likely candidate for a common receptor is heparan sulfate (HS), an extremely common glycosaminoglycan (GAG) present on the ECM of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • In order to develop effective targeting strategies it is imperative to understand the mechanism by which retroviral virions bind and enter cells. (hubpages.com)
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • Their main functions center around breaking down materials and debris in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological functions of these glycoproteins are disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, cell surface expression of LAMP1 is seen in cells with migratory or invasive functions, such as cytotoxic T cells, platelets and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • It functions during the seperation of chromosomes in cell division. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It functions to allow the movement of substances along the cell surface. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The central vacuole of a plant cell functions like a large lysosome. (prezi.com)
  • Signaling pathways regulate cells through activating or inactivating gene expression, transport of metabolites, and controlling enzymatic activity in order to manage growth and functions of metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolipids
  • It is a source of multiple bioactive compounds, including phospholipids, glycolipids, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that have important functional roles within the brain and gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • The goblet cells mainly use the merocrine method of secretion, secreting vesicles into a duct, but may use apocrine methods, budding off their secretions, when under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cleavage, the products of the env gene are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane where they are incorporated onto budding virions. (hubpages.com)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early endosomes are often located in the periphery of the cell, and receive most types of vesicles coming from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Both LAMP1 and LAMP2 have been found expressed on the surface of cancerous tumors, specifically in cells of highly metastatic cancer such as colon cancer and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpressed in epithelial tumors, such as breast or ovarian cancer and also in non-epithelial tumor cells. (abcam.com)
  • peripheral
  • Once the spermatozoon has entered, the peripheral portion of the yolk changes into a membrane, the perivitelline membrane, which prevents the passage of additional spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • The sperm must undergo capacitation in the female's reproductive tract over several hours, which increases its motility and destabilizes its membrane, preparing it for the acrosome reaction, the enzymatic penetration of the egg's tough membrane, the zona pellucida, which surrounds the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • Homophilic attachment allows selective recognition, resulting in cells of a similar type sticking together, whereas cells of a different type stay segregated. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuse
  • Fertilization occurs when the nucleus of both a sperm and an egg fuse to form a diploid cell, known as zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo-derived cells that form the interface with the maternal blood stream fuse together to form a multinucleated barrier - the syncytiotrophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because many cells fuse together, syncytium are also known as multinucleated giant cells or polykaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once internalized, the virus particle must fuse with the internal vessical and allow its genetic material to escape into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model, it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)- It is a system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It is a small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, with a membrane surrounding it. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It is a group of fluid-filled, membrane-bound, flattened sacs. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • binds
  • The sperm binds through the corona radiata, a layer of follicle cells on the outside of the secondary oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic
  • This gives the basal part of the cell a basophilic staining because of nucleic acids within the nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum staining with hematoxylin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • First, fat synthesized within the endoplasmic reticulum accumulates in droplets between the inner and outer phospholipid monolayers of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most bud into the endoplasmic reticulum which are then packaged and distributed to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than budding through the plasma membrane like a more traditional retrovirus, BFV and other foamy viruses bud using the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrovirus
  • Once a retrovirus has gained entry into a host cell, the genetic material is converted via reverse transcription from RNA to DNA, a process that is essentially backwards from normal transcription in which a cell converts DNA into RNA. (hubpages.com)
  • intracellular
  • However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to intracellular movement of components internally but not externally and that membranes weren't the equivalent of a cell wall to plant cell. (wikipedia.org)