• microtubule
  • Researchers at the Carnegie Institution for Science, with colleagues at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, observed for the first time a fundamental process of cellular organization in living plant cells: the birth of microtubules by studying recruitment and activity of individual protein complexes that create the cellular protein network known as the microtubule cytoskeleton""the scaffolding that provides structure and ultimately form and shape to the cell. (redorbit.com)
  • As co-author David Ehrhardt from Carnegie's Department of Plant Biology explained: "In many cells, microtubule arrays are created with aid of a centralized body called a centrosome. (redorbit.com)
  • When introduced into plant cells and visualized with highly sensitive spinning disk confocal microscopy, this tagged protein permitted the researchers to observe what happens as the microtubule array is being built. (redorbit.com)
  • Tubulin-binding drugs kill cancerous cells by inhibiting microtubule dynamics, which are required for DNA segregation and therefore cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treating embryos with the microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole completely blocks epiboly of the YSL and partially blocks epiboly of the blastoderm, while treating with the microtubule stabilizing agent taxol blocks epiboly of all cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • These fundamental results could be important to agricultural research and are published in the October 10, 2010, early on-line edition of Nature Cell Biology. (redorbit.com)
  • Understanding these mechanisms of molecular organization is a primary goal of cell biology. (redorbit.com)
  • Kulper (S.B. 2003) and Roy (S.B. 2005) designed the cell-shaped building for the Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology in Chengdu, China, the regional capital of Sichuan province in southwestern China. (innovations-report.com)
  • The building is intended to look like a cell from the outside and to include an assortment of forms inspired by molecular biology inside. (innovations-report.com)
  • The cell-shaped building attempts to combine the architecture and the biology structures," he said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Phys.org) -A crucial step toward skin cancer may be changes in the genes that control cell shape, report a team of scientists from The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, the Institute of Cancer Research, London, and Harvard Medical School in an upcoming issue of Nature Cell Biology . (phys.org)
  • Medical Xpress)-Scientists have discovered genes that control shape changes in melanoma skin cancer cells, allowing them to wriggle free and spread around the body, according to new research published in Nature Cell Biology. (phys.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • One fundamental question in developmental biology is how the zygote acquires the complex shape of the adult organism. (biologists.org)
  • The study of cells is called cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Motohashi M, Wempe MF, Mutou T, Takahashi H, Kansaku N, Ikegami M, Inomata T, Asari M, Wakui S. Male rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate: Age-related changes in Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum and testicular testosterone-biosynthesis enzymes/proteins. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This irregular shape that each individual cell takes on can be influenced by the cytoskeleton and specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ is found in nearly all Bacteria and Archaea, where it functions in cell division, localizing to a ring in the middle of the dividing cell and recruiting other components of the divisome, the group of proteins that together constrict the cell envelope to pinch off the cell, yielding two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are structures (not present in all prokaryotes) made of proteins that facilitate movement and communication between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins found primarily in eukaryotic cells of fungi and animals, but also in some green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembled as such, septins function in cells by localizing other proteins, either by providing a scaffold to which proteins can attach, or by preventing diffusion of molecules from one compartment of the cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • When turned off, virtually all cells became elongated or large and rounded, two shapes that can help cancerous cells escape confinement, travel blood vessels, and infiltrate healthy tissues. (phys.org)
  • Bakal added, "The cells have to become rounded to travel through the bloodstream or invade soft tissues such as the brain, but they take on an elongated shape to travel through harder tissues like bone. (phys.org)
  • Although embryonic tissues are shaped in a specific manner in different species, the fundamental process always involves the rearrangement of cell layers and the movement of cells from one location to another. (biologists.org)
  • In many cases, changes in cell shape are necessary for cells to move to distant locations where they aggregate to form tissues. (biologists.org)
  • In other cases, groups of cells undergo such changes in a coordinated manner, shaping and orientating tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Contact guidance refers to a phenomenon for which the orientation of cells and stress fibers is influenced by geometrical patterns such as nano/microgrooves on substrates, or collagen fibers in gels and soft tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, too large values of groove widths can also decrease the effects of contact guidance Cells can orient in response to contact guidance also when located inside three-dimensional structures, such as collagen gels, scaffolds, and soft tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, it has been demonstrated that the collagen fibers present in collagen gels and soft tissues can influence cell alignment, providing the most important stimulus in terms of cell orientation Recent research has highlighted the importance of cellular alignment for the mechanical properties and functionality of the prostheses developed using the principles of tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAM can provide data on the elasticity of cells and tissues, which can give useful information on the physical forces holding structures in a particular shape and the mechanics of structures such as the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • All plant and animal cells rely on an elaborate array of molecular rods built from the protein tubulin. (redorbit.com)
  • According to Zhang, the pioneering design for the cell-shaped building was inspired by "elegantly folded protein structures and their simple and beautiful structural motifs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Rab27A-binding protein Slp2-a is required for peripheral melanosome distribution and elongated cell shape in melanocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of Slp2-a protein also induced a change in melanocyte morphology, from their normal elongated shape to a more rounded shape, which depended on the phospholipid-binding activity of Slp2-a, but not on its Rab27A-binding activity. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, knockdown of Slac2-a (also called melanophilin), another Rab27A-binding protein in melanocytes, caused perinuclear aggregation of melanosomes alone without altering cell shape. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-shape regulation and matrix protein p52 content in phenotypic variants of ras-transformed rat kidney fibroblasts. (biochemj.org)
  • The marked down-regulation of p52 expression seen in four different ras-mediated transformation systems, its induction prior to butyrate-induced morphological reorganization in KiMSV-transformed cells, and the morphological consequences of exogenously added p52 or p52 antibodies on NRK fibroblasts suggest that this protein probably functions in cell-shape regulation. (biochemj.org)
  • however, whereas peptidoglycan helps maintain the structural strength of the cell, it is actually the MreB protein that facilitates cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive cell wall Penicillin binding protein forming cross-links in newly formed bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • Laminin is present on the basal surfaces of ectodermal cells and is absent or reduced on migrating primary mesenchyme cells. (biologists.org)
  • The trypsin digestion of imaginal discs in vitro produces the partial dissociation of cell contacts at the basal surface, and this leads to cell flattening and partial evagination ( Poodry and Schneiderman, 1971 ). (biologists.org)
  • epithelium
  • During larval life, the number of cells in the disc increases to about 50,000 ( Garcia-Bellido and Merrian, 1971 ) and in this proliferative phase, the imaginal disc forms an epithelial sac comprised of a folded columnar epithelium on one side and a squamous epithelium (the peripodial membrane) on the other. (biologists.org)
  • At the onset of metamorphosis, some 2 hours after puparium formation, local changes in cell shape promote the transformation of the single-layered columnar epithelium to a flattened bi-layer. (biologists.org)
  • Comparisons of epiboly in amniotes, teleosts and X. laevis show that the key movement of epiboly in the fish and frog is radial intercalation while in amniotes it would appear to be cell division in the plane of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • living organism
  • We found that by altering the way the cells are grown to better mimic conditions in a living organism , gene expression could have a profound impact on cell shape," said Zheng Yin, the paper's lead author and a postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Systems Medicine and Bioengineering of The Methodist Hospital Research Institute (TMHRI). (phys.org)
  • cellular
  • We show that transient Twist1 activation primes certain cells for stem-cell-like properties and cellular plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • To their surprise, cells were permanently altered after a short dose of Twist1-activation: they proliferated under very stringent conditions usually permissive only for stem cells and were able to generate complex multicellular structures, suggesting a gain of cellular plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Due to the anisotropic cellular contraction, stress fibers and cells align along the direction of the microgrooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • A similar behavior has been observed with other cell types, such as fibroblasts, which align along these topographical patterns when the grooves are wider than 150 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Under normal conditions, each hemocyte was found to take on just one of five distinct shapes about 98 percent of the time. (phys.org)
  • We still saw three distinct shapes other than rounded and elongated, and a handful of cell populations enriched with intermediate shapes-a lot of possibilities for hypothesis generation. (phys.org)
  • Several sea urchins, however, including the sand dollars, are oval in shape, with distinct front and rear ends, giving them a degree of bilateral symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The septin cortex undergoes several changes throughout the cell cycle: The first visible septin structure is a distinct ring which appears ~15 min before bud emergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes are split and the daughter chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the chromosomes are drawn to each side of the cell, the non-kinetochore spindle fibers push against each other, in a ratcheting action, that stretches the cell into an oval. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Thecate features vary greatly from species to species, in which thecae can vary between 1-5 scale layers, in scale shape, in scale size, and in molecular composition/ultrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Finally, we show that the ECM has an instructive rather than a structural role, because inhibition of Raf reverses the cell shape changes caused by perturbing integrins. (biologists.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast cells, they compartmentalize parts of the cell and build scaffolding to provide structural support during cell division at the septum, from which they derive their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural changes require a destabilization of the septin cortex (fluid state) induced by dephosphorylation prior to bud emergence, ring splitting and cell separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptidoglycan serves a structural role in the bacterial cell wall, giving structural strength, as well as counteracting the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • These regulatory mechanisms in both adaptive and innate immune cells are known as immunometabolic regulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • For this Research Topic, we would like to cover immunometabolic regulations in both innate and adaptive immune cells and how these regulatory mechanisms can be exploited in immune response-related diseases and interventions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokinesis
  • In contrast to septin mutants, disruption of one single pathway only leads to a delay in cytokinesis, not complete failure of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesenchymal
  • C4h is not found in cells such as lymphocytes and oncogenically transformed mesenchymal cells where actin stress fiber bundles are reduced in number or absent. (rupress.org)
  • C4h expression can also be blocked by switching normal nontransformed mesenchymal cells from adherent to suspension culture. (rupress.org)
  • fundamental
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Reexpression of C4h occurs 24 h after these cells are returned to normal adherent culture conditions, but can be blocked by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, suggesting that the expression of this epitope is regulated at the transcriptional level. (rupress.org)
  • This also means that cell body and flagellar scale production occurs separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • These complexes then associate to form non-polar filaments, filament bundles, cages or ring structures in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ring-like structures of filamentous actin have been observed at the leading edge of the enveloping layer, where it contacts the yolk cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • TubZ functions in segregating low copy-number plasmids during bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research in human cells suggests that septins build cages around bacterial pathogens, immobilizing the harmful microbes and preventing them from invading other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptidoglycan is also involved in binary fission during bacterial cell reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating amino sugars, namely N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc or NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc or NAM). (wikipedia.org)
  • apically
  • In some epithelial cells, PIP2 is apically localised while PIP3 is basolaterally localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • During Xenopus gastrulation, bottle cells are located in the dorsal marginal zone and apically constrict inwards to initiate involution of the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural tube cells in Xenopus apically constrict during the initial invagination as well as during hingepoint folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Though most prokaryotes have both a cell membrane and a cell wall, there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma (bacteria) and Thermoplasma (archaea) which only possess the cell membrane layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against exterior forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell shape and size of Chlorodendrales cells varies depending on the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells range greatly in size from species to species, with an upper limit of ~25m in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific mechanism depends on the species, the cell type, and the morphogenetic movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • The following measurements were taken of contiguous runs of cells, Including only one of the walls of the outer two cells of a run. (dave-cushman.net)
  • The measurements were made on the face of the plaster which was pared down with a scalpel to expose the cell walls. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Cell walls may or may not be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are devoid of cellulosic cell walls, chloroplasts or stigmata. (wikipedia.org)
  • periphery
  • Thus, the interplay between immune cells and metabolic homeostasis in circulation and periphery lead to effective and detrimental immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • form
  • The researchers identified seven genes that cause cells to take on an especially rounded form, or else an elongated form. (phys.org)
  • The formation of the wing starts during early embryonic development when about 30 cells are allocated to form the wing imaginal disc. (biologists.org)
  • The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Together, the main purpose of these cells is to form a protective layer for the more specialized cells below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, their irregular shapes help them to interlock with each other like puzzle pieces to form a sturdy layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, it has been supposed that cells, once seeded, form focal adhesions on top of the ridges and not above the grooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells connect to one another via their lateral membranes to form epithelial sheets that line cavities and surfaces throughout the animal body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitotic septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, Shs1) form a ring structure at the bud neck during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorodendrales scales are unique from other Prasinophyceae lineages because the scales fuse to form a theca, which acts as an exterior protective casing for the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point the zebrafish embryo contains three portions, an epithelial monolayer known as the enveloping layer (EVL), a yolk syncytial layer (YSL) which is a membrane-enclosed group of nuclei that lie on top of the yolk cell, and the deep cells (DEL) of the blastoderm which will eventually form the embryo's three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • MeSH
  • Cell Shape" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Other key Amira features are multi-planar and volume visualization, image registration, filament tracing, cell separation and analysis, tetrahedral mesh generation, fiber-tracking from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, skeletonization, spatial graph analysis, and stereoscopic rendering of 3D data over multiple displays including CAVEs (Cave automatic virtual environments). (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to conventional wisdom , other shapes and "intermediate" forms were rare, suggesting genes that control cell shape behave more like light switches than teakettles coming to a slow boil. (phys.org)
  • blastopore
  • Once epiboly is complete, the DEL, EVL, and YSL have engulfed the yolk cell, forming a closure known as the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • The scientists began their study in fruit fly immune cells called hemocytes. (phys.org)
  • however, we are beginning to appreciate the complexity of immunometabolic regulations and the delicate co-regulation between innate and adaptive immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Bactoprenol transports peptidoglycan monomers across the cell membrane where they are inserted into the existing peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is in the membrane where a lipid carrier called bactoprenol carries peptidoglycan precursors through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • Subsequently, the rest of the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces become apposed, tight contacts are formed between the intervein regions of the wing, and the cells adopt a more cuboidal shape. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, when substrates have topographical patterns, the orientation of cells cultured on these surfaces is influenced by these geometrical cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, a computational model has been developed that is able to simulate the re-alignment of cells and stress fibers on top of grooved surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • These results, published in the journal " Cell Reports ", help to unravel seemingly contradictory observations and illuminate the complexities of transcription factor action in regeneration and tumor progression. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, when activated during tumor development, Twist1 promotes aggressive behaviour in tumor cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • genome
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Neisseria elongata is a Gram negative bacterium and is different from the other cocci shaped members of the genus Neisseria as it is rod shaped. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neisseria elongata sp.nov., a Rod-shaped Member of the Genus Neisseria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this genus are known to reproduce asexually through cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • Therefore, the IgA repertoire might be dynamically shaped to mirror the actual composition of the intestinal microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • The composition of the septin cortex does not only vary throughout the cell cycle but also along the mother-bud axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scales also differ in size, shape, and macromolecular composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscope
  • The cells shown solid grey were filled with molten paraffin wax so that a piece containing several cells could be sectioned using a microtome and the resulting slices mounted on slides to be viewed under the microscope. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrulation
  • Researchers have shown that the removal of bottle cells does not inhibit gastrulation, but simply makes it less efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from its environment, serving as a protective filter. (wikipedia.org)