• abnormal
  • When those genes suffer some kind of mutation or translocation, they can change their conformation and cause a catalytic activity in cell reproduction that is normally inactivated, which causes abnormal cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) have been documented to demonstrate abnormal morphologic characteristics such as ragged margins and irregular cytoplasmic projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of pericyte growth factor (PDGFB) and its receptor on endothelial cells are molecular-level changes that can account for this abnormal loss in pericyte support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In both cases, regular, limited amounts of alcohol inhibited a protein called Notch 1 and prevented the buildup of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels that leads to the narrowing of the arteries and can put you at risk for a heart attack or stroke . (highlighthealth.com)
  • Fucosyl-GM1 expression and amyloid-beta protein accumulation in PC12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We found that overexpression of tail interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47), but not its truncated form (t-TIP47) protected NIH3T3 cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death, prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced mitochondrial depolarization determined by 5,50,6,60-tetrachloro-1,10,3,30-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC1), while suppression of TIP47 in HeLa cells facilitated oxidative-stress-induced cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PGA13 encodes a GPI protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans, which is highly up-regulated during cell wall regeneration in protoplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report that protein adsorption, cell attachment, and cell proliferation were enhanced on spherulites-roughened polymer surfaces. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antigen KI-67 is a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein (also known as MKI67) is a cellular marker for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During interphase, the Ki-67 antigen can be exclusively detected within the cell nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and mitosis), but is absent in resting (quiescent) cells (G0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Ki-67 in human MCF-7 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ki-67 protein (red), tubulin (green) and DNA (blue) in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdh1 is one of the co- activator proteins of APC/c and therefore contributes to the regulation of protein degradation, by providing substrate specificity to the E3-ligase in a cell cycle regulated manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is nuclear in the M and G1 phases of the cell cycle and moves to the cytoplasm during S and G2. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • On the other hand, tumor cells over express phosphate dependent glutaminase and NAD(P)-dependent malate decarboxylase, which in combination with the remaining reaction steps of the citric acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate impart the possibility of a new energy producing pathway, the degradation of the amino acid glutamine to glutamate, aspartate, pyruvate CO2, lactate and citrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Indeed it is very likely that there are many pathways from cell-surface receptors to the nucleus and these pathways overlap and interact so that no single intracellular messenger is likely to be both necessary and sufficient to commit a cell to DNA synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Sorafenib and sutinib are additional angiogenesis inhibitors that bind and block receptors on endothelial cells that have important roles in downstream pathways contributing to angiogenesis progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesterol is imported into the neuron by apolipoprotein E (apoE) via LRP1 receptors on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • CNTs can be internalized by cells, first by binding their tips to cell membrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Most authors currently quantify the frequency of apoptotic cells in a given phenotypically defined population after calculating the apoptotic index (AI), i.e., the percentage of apoptotic cells displaying a specific linage antigen (LAg) within a population of cells that remain unfragmented and retain the expression of the LAg. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ki-67 and MIB-1 monoclonal antibodies are directed against different epitopes of the same proliferation-related antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Since exogenous testosterone can suppress LH levels, it could be that androgen therapy could revert the LH-induced growth stimulation of Leydig cell compartment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • nuclei
  • Cell type-specific affinity purification of nuclei for chromatin profiling in whole animals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by nuclear transfer, cell fusion and expression of transcription factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In various polarized cells, positions of nuclei are often off-center. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • In most cells initiation of DNA synthesis is inexorably followed by a premitotic phase and then by mitosis, the essential control of cell proliferation is therefore the signal that commits a cell to DNA synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Cdh1 plays a pivotal role in controlling cell division at the end of mitosis (telophase) and in the subsequent G1 phase of cell cycle: By recognizing and binding proteins (like mitotic cyclins) which contain a destruction box (D-box) and an additional degradation signal (KEN box), Cdh1 recruits them in a C-box-dependent mechanism to the APC for ubiquination and subsequent proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • One characteristic of budding yeast cells exit from mitosis after chromosome segregation is the removal of the mitotic determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-Cyclins) drops down at the cell exit from mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that APCCdh1-mediated degradation of PIk1 plays an important role in preventing mitosis in cells that have DNA-damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy cells Cdh1 stays inactive from late G1 to early mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin, N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces death in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, suggesting a cell model of Parkinson's disease (PD). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prolonged p21 up-regulation induces a senescent phenotype in normal and cancer cells, accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in the DME cells induces the expression of Decapentaplegic (Dpp). (biomedsearch.com)
  • apoptotic cells
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Development of mitochondrially-targeted drugs is receiving increasing attention because of the central roles these organelles play in energy production, reactive oxygen generation, and regulation of cell death pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • proliferate
  • Cdh1-deficient cells can proliferate but accumulate mitotic errors and have difficulties with cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of BTG1, the stem and progenitor cells initially hyper proliferate and then in the longer period lose the ability to proliferate and expand. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Although the mechanisms and proteins of mitochondrial fusion are well known in yeast and mammalian cells, they remain poorly understood in plant cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distributed symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • malignant
  • This finding often create alarm and anxiety, because it has to be placed in a differential diagnosis versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given that the focal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia are nowadays easily detectable at ultrasonography of the testis (US), as small non-palpable hypoechoic micro-nodules that can show internal vascularization, their finding create a diagnostic challenge versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • selectively
  • 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is often used in models of Parkinson's disease since it can selectively target and kill dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mitotic cyclins
  • The main function of Cdh1 is to suppress the re-accumulation of mitotic cyclins and other cell cycle determinants and therefore stabilising the G1-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • APCCdh1 is thought to prevent premature S-phase entry by degrading mitotic cyclins in G1 and regulate processes unrelated to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of the immune system function and in the search for new drugs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Results from a cell proliferation assay are presented which compare the performance of TopCount to the traditional counting method. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for years there has been a debate about its accuracy, due to problems in the original assay which caused necrotic cells to be inappropriately labeled as apoptotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically modified donor cells facilitates the generation of tailored pig models for biomedical research and for xenotransplantation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • tissues
  • Multicellular organisms arise from the generation of different cell types and the organization of cells into tissues and organs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LRP1 is a member of the LDLR family and ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues, though it is most abundant in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), hepatocytes, and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of cell development and cell division (reproduction). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Rather, the gp130 mutation caused nonhematopoietic cells to produce excess IL-7-a growth factor that triggers T cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • The latter can work as a growth factor for Leydig cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, an important role of Notch activation for Ras-induced transformation of glial cells and for glioma growth and survival has been demonstrated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Granulosa cells form ovarian follicles and play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In breast cancer Ki67 identifies a high proliferative subset of patients with ER-positive breast cancer who derive greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are now multiple studies that illustrate the complexity behind these previous simple conceptions of angiogenesis, indicating that the way cancer cells interact with and co-opt new blood vessel growth varies amongst cancer types and must be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Kinome profiling revealed 5-IT to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK) and cell division cycle (CDC)-like (CLK) kinase families. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates cell cycle arrest. (biomedsearch.com)
  • gene
  • The BTG1 gene locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix proteins strongly influence cell-induced tension in the matrix, which in turn influences cell function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epidermal or neural fate of a proneural cell depends on the concentrations of proteins of the achaete-scute complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • synthesis
  • Integration of biological parts toward the synthesis of a minimal cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the small GTPase family it is classified in the RAS domain, a special group of oncogenes and oncoproteins that take part in the synthesis of molecules related to cell reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Induction of beta-cell proliferation by either 5-IT or harmine, another natural-product DYRK1A inhibitor, was suppressed by co-incubation with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, suggesting involvement of DYRK1A and NFAT signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • METHODS: WJCs subjected to adipocyte induction were observed changes in the cell morphology and alterations in actin filament formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondria
  • Mitochondria are intracellular organelles where most fundamental processes of energy transformation within the cell are located. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been reported that in most cells, mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondria in plant cells undergo fusion and fission frequently. (biomedsearch.com)
  • human
  • The research, published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology , studied the effects of moderate amounts of alcohol in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and in the carotid arteries of mice . (highlighthealth.com)
  • These results point to inhibition of DYRK1A as a therapeutic strategy to increase human beta-cell proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We examined whether betulin, a naturally abundant compound, has anticancer functions in human cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study evaluated the protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in human adult retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19). (biomedsearch.com)
  • mice
  • The authors now show that disease development in these mice depends on CD4 + T cells, but not on cytolytic CD8 + T cells or antibody-producing B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Rather, the cells simply proliferated excessively in the mutant mice. (rupress.org)
  • This hyperproliferation was not the fault of the T cell, as wild-type CD4 + T cells also multiplied excessively and caused disease when transferred into irradiated mutant mice. (rupress.org)
  • The serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinases-1-3 (SGK1-3) are downstream effectors of PI3 kinases, implicated in various cell responses including colon cancer tumorigenesis in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • lineages
  • Primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) are two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 blastocyst. (biomedsearch.com)
  • neuronal
  • In this study, we examined the effects of PS1 overexpression on neuronal morphology using SH-SY5Y cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Angiographic findings suggest that central neurocytoma (CN) might originate from neuronal cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) around the foramen of Monro rather than from the septum pellucidum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • permeability
  • For many tumors, it has been discovered associated endothelial cells have significantly increased permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased permeability of tumor-associated endothelial cells permits macromolecules to leave the blood system and directly enter the tumor interstitial space. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are localized primarily in the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)