• proteins
  • Since aPKCs form an evolutionary conserved complex with the partitioning defect proteins Par3 and Par6 as well as with the rho-GTPase Cdc42 and this complex has been found to organize cell polarity in many organisms and tissues, we decided to investigate the function of the individual components on the cell polarization process of human HSPCs next. (uk-essen.de)
  • Due to the fact that the Par/aPKC complex also coordinates asymmetric cell divisons in a number of systems and as we showed that human HSPCs can divide asymmetrically, we have started to study the impact of these proteins on the cell fate of human CD34 + cells in parallel. (uk-essen.de)
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is a collection of specialized cells and proteins that control the movement of molecules from the blood to the central nervous system. (the-scientist.com)
  • The basolateral membrane refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the basal membrane where cells are attached to the basement membrane, a thin sheet of extracellular matrix proteins that separates the epithelial sheet from underlying cells and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Interfering with the function of these proteins in vitro randomizes spindle orientation and changes cell fate. (biologists.org)
  • β-Catenin acts as a transcriptional coactivator by forming a complex with T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) DNA-binding proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These three proteins all localize to the basolateral domain and are essential for basolateral identity and for epithelial polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cells to function properly it is important for components-proteins and other molecules- to be in the right place at the right time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frizzled proteins also play key roles in governing cell polarity, embryonic development, formation of neural synapses, cell proliferation, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a cell to move, it is necessary to bring a fresh supply of "feet" (proteins called integrins, which attach a cell to the surface on which it is crawling) to the front. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living cells, signals are processed by networks of proteins that can act as complex computational devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The union of two highly polarized cells, the sperm and the egg, initiates a series of dramatic cellular transformations that culminate, during the first 4 days of mouse preimplantation development, in the production of a multicellular blastocyst (reviewed by Wiley, Chapter 4) having two distinct and committed tissues. (springer.com)
  • Included are diseases affecting highly polarized epithelial tissues in the lung and kidney, as well as loss and gain of cell polarity in the onset and progression of cancer. (indigo.ca)
  • The relationship between this system and the polarity determinants in animal tissues remains unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells first need to establish a polarity through a symmetry-breaking event before tissues and organs themselves can be polar. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Thymoma cells were cultured and transfected with shRNA plasmids targeting the Wnt4 gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • By the use of a strict tetracycline-regulation system, we found that the continuous suppression of β-catenin/TCF4-mediated gene transactivation by dominant-negative TCF4B (ΔN30) reduced these piled-up foci and restored a simple monolayer of polarized columnar cells resembling normal intestinal epithelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of Tis21, an antiproliferative gene, causes the neuroepithelial cell to make the switch from proliferative division to neuronic division. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Connections in yeast cell polarity. (rupress.org)
  • Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions merit further study in a variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • New-end take off (NETO) in fission yeast provides a good example of this: during G1/S phase, cells grow only at the `old' end, but in G2 phase they switch to bipolar growth. (biologists.org)
  • All the cells within a multicellular organism, or any single cell species i.e. yeast, displays a polarized organization necessary for its proliferation, differentiation or physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the generation of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphoinositide-generating enzymes have been studied extensively in yeast and cultured cells, yet their roles in animal development are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • The complex is found in cellular regions characterized by dynamic actin filament activity: in macropinocytic cups, in the leading edge of motile cells (lamellipodia), and in motile actin patches in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In recent years, great progress has been made by experimental biologists towards understanding how during plant and animal morphogenesis cells become polarised in a manner that is coordinated between each other and the axes of the tissue. (biologists.com)
  • His research is focused on a central problem in developmental biology: how a single-celled egg differentiates into an organism containing many different cell and tissue types. (indigo.ca)
  • First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. (jci.org)
  • actin
  • At the rear of the cell, adhesions are disassembled and bundles of actin microfilaments, called stress fibers, contract and pull the trailing edge forward to keep up with the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a major component of the actin cytoskeleton and is found in most actin cytoskeleton-containing eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton is important for processes like cell locomotion, phagocytosis, and intracellular motility of lipid vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex appears to be important in a variety of specialized cell functions that involve the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDZ domains also play a highly significant role in the anchoring of cell surface receptors (such as Cftr[disambiguation needed] and FZD7) to the actin cytoskeleton via mediators like NHERF and ezrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The neural tube begins as a single layer of pseudostratified epithelial cells, but rapid proliferation of neuroepithelial cells creates additional layers and eventually three distinct regions of growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further proliferation of the cells in these regions gives rise to three distinct areas of the brain: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Many of the neuroepithelial cells also divide into radial glial cells, a similar, but more fate restricted cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a more fate restricted cell the radial glial cell will either generate postmitotic neurons, intermediate progenitor cells, or astrocytes in gliogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tight junctions
  • Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that line the surface of the animal body and internal cavities (e.g., digestive tract and circulatory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour growth under energetically unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • An understanding of the mechanism by which cells migrate may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for controlling, for example, invasive tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Founded in 2007, the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology is a collaborative, non-profit research institution located on Cornell University's campus in Ithaca, New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "cornerstone" of the University's $650 million New Life Sciences Initiative, the Institute is intended to foster multidisciplinary, collaborative research efforts toward answering fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2006, Scott D. Emr was named the Frank H.T. Rhodes Class of '56 Director of the Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology benefits from $25 million gift from the Weills" "Clean, white, open spaces and lots of light: Weill Hall opens for business" "Cornell opens new science center" Zagorski, Nick. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • Cell polarization is associated with a type of symmetry breaking, that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It generally involves drastic changes in cell shape which are driven by the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • asymmetric
  • At a later stage of brain development, neuroepithelial cells begin to self renew and give rise to non-stem cell progenitors, such as radial glial cells simultaneously by undergoing asymmetric division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroepithelial cells undergo two different forms of mitosis: asymmetric differentiating division and symmetric prolific division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a radial glial cell and another neuroepithelial cell), while the symmetric version yields identical daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • As Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes, we test whether genetic activation of Notch could rescue the Eya1 −/− lung phenotype, which is characterized by loss of epithelial progenitors, increased epithelial differentiation but reduced branching. (biologists.org)
  • symmetry
  • When cells can perform symmetry breaking in absence of any spatial cue (landmarks), is called spontaneous polarization or spontaneous symmetry breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is to say, symmetry breaking is the event where symmetry along a particular axis is lost to establish a polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • According to our observation the vast majority of freshly isolated human HSPCs, i.e. umbilical cord blood derived CD34 + cells, show a random distribution of the Flotillins and other lipid raft associated molecules like ICAM3. (uk-essen.de)
  • Upon cultivation they redistribute these molecules to form a crescent and thus become intrinsically polarized, before they adopt their characteristic morphological polarized cell shape. (uk-essen.de)
  • mechanisms
  • The aims of this meeting are to bring together as diverse a group as possible of experimental and theoretical biologists who are interested in mechanisms of coordinated cell polarisation in plants and animals. (biologists.com)
  • Some key principles have been proposed to maintain polarity, but the mechanisms behind these principles remain to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells achieve active movement by very different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • junctions
  • Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • development
  • Loss of cell polarity and inflammation are hallmarks of breast cancer development. (uky.edu)
  • Moving forward, figuring out ways to reduce ROS levels in mammary epithelial cells is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer-associated inflammation and prevent cancer development and progression. (uky.edu)
  • Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development. (wikipedia.org)