• tissues
  • This polarization facilitates processes such as differentiation and morphogenesis, directional cell migration, nerve impulse transmission, and transport of molecules across tissues. (cshlpress.com)
  • The union of two highly polarized cells, the sperm and the egg, initiates a series of dramatic cellular transformations that culminate, during the first 4 days of mouse preimplantation development, in the production of a multicellular blastocyst (reviewed by Wiley, Chapter 4) having two distinct and committed tissues. (springer.com)
  • Included are diseases affecting highly polarized epithelial tissues in the lung and kidney, as well as loss and gain of cell polarity in the onset and progression of cancer. (indigo.ca)
  • Cells first need to establish a polarity through a symmetry-breaking event before tissues and organs themselves can be polar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between this system and the polarity determinants in animal tissues remains unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology reviews our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in establishing and maintaining cell polarity, as well as their relevance for human disorders. (cshlpress.com)
  • Throughout, the focus is on epithelial cells and how polarity mechanisms facilitate the development of their apical and basolateral surfaces, tube formation (e.g., in blood vessel development), exchange of waste and nutrients, and the generation and maintenance of specialized structures at the cell surface (e.g., cilia). (cshlpress.com)
  • however, the mechanisms that control this cell behavior are poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aims of this meeting are to bring together as diverse a group as possible of experimental and theoretical biologists who are interested in mechanisms of coordinated cell polarisation in plants and animals. (biologists.com)
  • Some key principles have been proposed to maintain polarity, but the mechanisms behind these principles remain to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • A neuron receives signals from neighboring cells through branched, cellular extensions called dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex is found in cellular regions characterized by dynamic actin filament activity: in macropinocytic cups, in the leading edge of motile cells (lamellipodia), and in motile actin patches in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Connections in yeast cell polarity. (rupress.org)
  • Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions merit further study in a variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • All the cells within a multicellular organism, or any single cell species i.e. yeast, displays a polarized organization necessary for its proliferation, differentiation or physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the generation of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • New-end take off (NETO) in fission yeast provides a good example of this: during G1/S phase, cells grow only at the `old' end, but in G2 phase they switch to bipolar growth. (biologists.org)
  • effector
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tight junctions
  • Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that line the surface of the animal body and internal cavities (e.g., digestive tract and circulatory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In recent years, great progress has been made by experimental biologists towards understanding how during plant and animal morphogenesis cells become polarised in a manner that is coordinated between each other and the axes of the tissue. (biologists.com)
  • His research is focused on a central problem in developmental biology: how a single-celled egg differentiates into an organism containing many different cell and tissue types. (indigo.ca)
  • proliferation
  • The neural tube begins as a single layer of pseudostratified epithelial cells, but rapid proliferation of neuroepithelial cells creates additional layers and eventually three distinct regions of growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further proliferation of the cells in these regions gives rise to three distinct areas of the brain: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Many of the neuroepithelial cells also divide into radial glial cells, a similar, but more fate restricted cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a more fate restricted cell the radial glial cell will either generate postmitotic neurons, intermediate progenitor cells, or astrocytes in gliogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Founded in 2007, the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology is a collaborative, non-profit research institution located on Cornell University's campus in Ithaca, New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "cornerstone" of the University's $650 million New Life Sciences Initiative, the Institute is intended to foster multidisciplinary, collaborative research efforts toward answering fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2006, Scott D. Emr was named the Frank H.T. Rhodes Class of '56 Director of the Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology benefits from $25 million gift from the Weills" "Clean, white, open spaces and lots of light: Weill Hall opens for business" "Cornell opens new science center" Zagorski, Nick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarization
  • Cell polarization is associated with a type of symmetry breaking, that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells can perform symmetry breaking in absence of any spatial cue (landmarks), is called spontaneous polarization or spontaneous symmetry breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • According to our observation the vast majority of freshly isolated human HSPCs, i.e. umbilical cord blood derived CD34 + cells, show a random distribution of the Flotillins and other lipid raft associated molecules like ICAM3. (uk-essen.de)
  • Upon cultivation they redistribute these molecules to form a crescent and thus become intrinsically polarized, before they adopt their characteristic morphological polarized cell shape. (uk-essen.de)
  • How epithelial cells generate and maintain polarity remains unclear, but certain molecules have been found to play a key role. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitates
  • A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour growth under energetically unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • these cell asymmetries may play important roles in embryonic development. (springer.com)
  • Neuroepithelial cells of the ectoderm begin multiplying rapidly and fold in forming the neural plate, which invaginates during the fourth week of embryonic growth and forms the neural tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cells give rise to radial glial cells early on during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often categorized as neural stem cells, neuroepithelial cells give rise to only a few varieties of neural cells, making them multipotent - a definite distinction from the pluripotent stem cells found in embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • It is a major component of the actin cytoskeleton and is found in most actin cytoskeleton-containing eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex appears to be important in a variety of specialized cell functions that involve the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDZ domains also play a highly significant role in the anchoring of cell surface receptors (such as Cftr[disambiguation needed] and FZD7) to the actin cytoskeleton via mediators like NHERF and ezrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The outer layer of transporting epithelial cells, which surround and generate the blastocoelic cavity, are the trophectodermal cells that will give rise to extraembryonic structures. (springer.com)
  • Development
  • Loss of cell polarity and inflammation are hallmarks of breast cancer development. (uky.edu)
  • Moving forward, figuring out ways to reduce ROS levels in mammary epithelial cells is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer-associated inflammation and prevent cancer development and progression. (uky.edu)
  • Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a later stage of brain development, neuroepithelial cells begin to self renew and give rise to non-stem cell progenitors, such as radial glial cells simultaneously by undergoing asymmetric division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prickle1 plays an important role in the development of the nervous system by regulating the movement of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This book provides a basic resource for understanding the biology of polarity, offering a starting point for those thinking of targeting cell polarity for translational medical research. (indigo.ca)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • junctions
  • Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • neural
  • These neural Stem cells differentiate further into multiple types of cells, like neurons, astrocytes and other glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the formation of the neural tube, neuroepithelial cells undergo symmetric proliferative divisions that give rise to two new neuroepithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)