• oriented in a comm
  • Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. (jci.org)
  • proteins
  • Since aPKCs form an evolutionary conserved complex with the partitioning defect proteins Par3 and Par6 as well as with the rho-GTPase Cdc42 and this complex has been found to organize cell polarity in many organisms and tissues, we decided to investigate the function of the individual components on the cell polarization process of human HSPCs next. (uk-essen.de)
  • Due to the fact that the Par/aPKC complex also coordinates asymmetric cell divisons in a number of systems and as we showed that human HSPCs can divide asymmetrically, we have started to study the impact of these proteins on the cell fate of human CD34 + cells in parallel. (uk-essen.de)
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is a collection of specialized cells and proteins that control the movement of molecules from the blood to the central nervous system. (the-scientist.com)
  • The basolateral membrane refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the basal membrane where cells are attached to the basement membrane, a thin sheet of extracellular matrix proteins that separates the epithelial sheet from underlying cells and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Interfering with the function of these proteins in vitro randomizes spindle orientation and changes cell fate. (biologists.org)
  • β-Catenin acts as a transcriptional coactivator by forming a complex with T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) DNA-binding proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PCP signalling controls contact inhibition of locomotion between neural crest cells by localizing different PCP proteins at the site of cell contact during collision and locally regulating the activity of Rho GTPases. (biochemj.org)
  • The PAR protein network works under similar mechanisms, where the certain PAR proteins, which are initially homogenous throughout the cell, break their symmetry and are segregated to different ends of the zygote to establish a polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three proteins all localize to the basolateral domain and are essential for basolateral identity and for epithelial polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cells to function properly it is important for components-proteins and other molecules- to be in the right place at the right time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living cells, signals are processed by networks of proteins that can act as complex computational devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • Using this discrimination, we obtained evidence that PI3K and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activities are required to organize the intrinsic polarity while the morphological polarization process also depends on protein synthesis, actin polymerization and rho-GTPases activities. (uk-essen.de)
  • Cell Polarity in Development and Disease offers insights into the basic molecular mechanisms of common diseases that arise as a result of a loss of ordered organization and intrinsic polarity. (indigo.ca)
  • yeast
  • Connections in yeast cell polarity. (rupress.org)
  • Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in yeast, but Drees et al. (rupress.org)
  • Using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen, the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. (rupress.org)
  • Because the machinery of cell polarity development is highly conserved from yeast to humans, the newly described interactions merit further study in a variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • New-end take off (NETO) in fission yeast provides a good example of this: during G1/S phase, cells grow only at the `old' end, but in G2 phase they switch to bipolar growth. (biologists.org)
  • All the cells within a multicellular organism, or any single cell species i.e. yeast, displays a polarized organization necessary for its proliferation, differentiation or physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Budding yeast is a highly accessible experimental system, which serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanism underlying the generation of polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphoinositide-generating enzymes have been studied extensively in yeast and cultured cells, yet their roles in animal development are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • The complex is found in cellular regions characterized by dynamic actin filament activity: in macropinocytic cups, in the leading edge of motile cells (lamellipodia), and in motile actin patches in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarity of the neuron thus facilitates the directional flow of information, which is required for communication between neurons and effector cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • They also observe that the reduction in Mob2p levels produces a NETO defect similar to that produced by mutations in Orb6p - a kinase whose relatives regulate cell polarity in several species. (biologists.org)
  • The present objective was to examine c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) mRNA and protein expression in thymoma cells undergoing apoptosis subsequent to downregulation of Wnt4. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • LKB1 is a primary upstream kinase of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a necessary element in cell metabolism that is required for maintaining energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tight junctions
  • Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that line the surface of the animal body and internal cavities (e.g., digestive tract and circulatory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In recent years, great progress has been made by experimental biologists towards understanding how during plant and animal morphogenesis cells become polarised in a manner that is coordinated between each other and the axes of the tissue. (biologists.com)
  • His research is focused on a central problem in developmental biology: how a single-celled egg differentiates into an organism containing many different cell and tissue types. (indigo.ca)
  • First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. (jci.org)
  • proliferation
  • The neural tube begins as a single layer of pseudostratified epithelial cells, but rapid proliferation of neuroepithelial cells creates additional layers and eventually three distinct regions of growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further proliferation of the cells in these regions gives rise to three distinct areas of the brain: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Founded in 2007, the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology is a collaborative, non-profit research institution located on Cornell University's campus in Ithaca, New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "cornerstone" of the University's $650 million New Life Sciences Initiative, the Institute is intended to foster multidisciplinary, collaborative research efforts toward answering fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2006, Scott D. Emr was named the Frank H.T. Rhodes Class of '56 Director of the Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology benefits from $25 million gift from the Weills" "Clean, white, open spaces and lots of light: Weill Hall opens for business" "Cornell opens new science center" Zagorski, Nick. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric division play a crucial role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells, yet little is known about these processes and the molecular programs that control them in embryonic lung distal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • asymmetric
  • At a later stage of brain development, neuroepithelial cells begin to self renew and give rise to non-stem cell progenitors, such as radial glial cells simultaneously by undergoing asymmetric division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroepithelial cells undergo two different forms of mitosis: asymmetric differentiating division and symmetric prolific division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetric cell division results in two different varieties of daughter cells (i.e. a neuroepithelial cell divides into a radial glial cell and another neuroepithelial cell), while the symmetric version yields identical daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • As Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes, we test whether genetic activation of Notch could rescue the Eya1 −/− lung phenotype, which is characterized by loss of epithelial progenitors, increased epithelial differentiation but reduced branching. (biologists.org)
  • symmetry
  • Cell polarization is associated with a type of symmetry breaking, that occurs in the cytoskeleton and guides the direction of growth of the future daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells can perform symmetry breaking in absence of any spatial cue (landmarks), is called spontaneous polarization or spontaneous symmetry breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are interested in the spontaneous symmetry breaking, as an example of self-organization phenomena in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is to say, symmetry breaking is the event where symmetry along a particular axis is lost to establish a polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • It is a major component of the actin cytoskeleton and is found in most actin cytoskeleton-containing eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arp2/3 complex appears to be important in a variety of specialized cell functions that involve the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDZ domains also play a highly significant role in the anchoring of cell surface receptors (such as Cftr[disambiguation needed] and FZD7) to the actin cytoskeleton via mediators like NHERF and ezrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • However, in ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, estradiol caused a dose-dependent decrease in LKB1 transcript and protein expression leading to a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of the LKB1 target AMPK. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarization
  • The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. (biochemj.org)
  • molecules
  • According to our observation the vast majority of freshly isolated human HSPCs, i.e. umbilical cord blood derived CD34 + cells, show a random distribution of the Flotillins and other lipid raft associated molecules like ICAM3. (uk-essen.de)
  • Upon cultivation they redistribute these molecules to form a crescent and thus become intrinsically polarized, before they adopt their characteristic morphological polarized cell shape. (uk-essen.de)
  • junctions
  • Distinct complexes of the core module segregate to opposite sides of the cell, where they interact with the opposite complex in the neighboring cell at or near the adherents junctions (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • LKB1
  • Activation of AMPK-related kinases by LKB1 plays vital roles maintaining cell polarity thereby inhibiting inappropriate expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A picture from current research is emerging that loss of LKB1 leads to disorganization of cell polarity and facilitates tumour growth under energetically unfavorable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells fill in for lost dopamine neurons in a primate model of the disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • These cells have often been called neuroblasts in an effort to delineate them as precursors to neurons and glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of occludin causes a loss of the previous tight junction seal which is required for the generation of nonepithelial cells such as neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This book provides a basic resource for understanding the biology of polarity, offering a starting point for those thinking of targeting cell polarity for translational medical research. (indigo.ca)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)