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  • Yeast
  • In 1925 it was determined by Fricke that the thickness of erythrocyte and yeast cell membranes ranged between 3.3 and 4 nm, a thickness compatible with a lipid monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and since then due to its ease of application and efficiency become a routine method for introducing foreign genes into bacterial, yeast, plant, and animal cells in vitro and into different tissues, including muscle, tumors, liver, and skin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation of intact yeast cells by electroporation, Methods Enzymol 217:478-483 Terzaghi WB, Cashmore AR (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic concentrations of calcium in model organisms are: in E. coli 3mM (bound), 100nM (free), in budding yeast 2mM (bound), in mammalian cell 10-100nM (free) and in blood plasma 2mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome (both bacterial and mammalian cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2014, self-replicating, synthetic bacterial cells with cell walls and synthetic DNA had been produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efflux
  • Finally, in phase III, the conjugated xenobiotics may be further processed, before being recognised by efflux transporters and pumped out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • Organosilane coatings create a nanocoating that is highly abrasive to virus, bacteria, and fungi that is undetectable to humans, but rips the outer membrane of the microbes attempting to attach to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • sterols
  • Like the allylamine antifungals, butenafine works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting squalene epoxidase, an enzyme responsible for the creation of sterols needed in fungal cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • In beetroot cells the red anthocyanin pigment occurs in the vacuoles. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Transduction does not require physical contact between the cell donating the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA (which occurs in conjugation), and it is DNase resistant (transformation is susceptible to DNase). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Researchers today believe that the most important mechanisms include the following: Elevated copper levels inside a cell causes oxidative stress and the generation of hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • For example, the sodium-calcium exchanger uses energy from the electrochemical gradient of sodium by coupling the influx of sodium into cell (and down its concentration gradient) with the transport of calcium out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • However the first report of protein-mediated water transport through membranes was by Gheorghe Benga in 1986, prior to Agre's first publication on the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Although not completely artificial because the cytoplasmic components as well as the membrane from the host cell are kept, the engineered cell is under control of a synthetic genome and is able to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • barrier
  • However, the existence of a permeability barrier means that organisms were able to evolve detoxification systems that exploit the hydrophobicity common to membrane-permeable xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Gas permeability of synthetic phospholipid bilayers. (slideserve.com)
  • In the field of synthetic biology, cell membranes can be artificially reassembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term does not refer to a specific physical entity, but rather to the idea that certain functions or structures of biological cells can be replaced or supplemented with a synthetic entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the area of synthetic biology, a "living" artificial cell has been defined as a completely synthetically made cell that can capture energy, maintain ion gradients, contain macromolecules as well as store information and have the ability to mutate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a cell is not technically feasible yet, but a variation of an artificial cell has been created in which a completely synthetic genome was introduced to genomically emptied host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Later artificial cells have ranged from hundred-micrometer to nanometer dimensions and can carry microorganisms, vaccines, genes, drugs, hormones and peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracts
  • Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated chemical constituents have been studied for their potential pharmacological effects, including: Induction of apoptosis as determined in cell culture and animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity - V. amygdalina extracts may render cancerous cells to be more sensitive to chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, artificial cells are biological or polymeric membranes which enclose biologically active materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial cells in biological cell encapsulation were first used in the clinic in 1994 for treatment in a diabetic patient and since then other types of cells such as hepatocytes, adult stem cells and genetically engineered cells have been encapsulated and are under study for use in tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • There are a number of factors that can influence the efficiency of gene electrotransfer, such as: temperature, parameters of electric pulses, DNA concentration, electroporation buffer used, cell size and the ability of cells to express transfected genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay medium was maintained at 0.16. (springer.com)
  • occur
  • In the human gut they occur automatically when the resting membrane potential of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle becomes more positive than about -40 millivolts (the normal resting membrane potential in the smooth muscle fibers of the gut is between -50 and -60 millivolts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • Other functions of collectins are modulation of inflammatory, allergic responses, adaptive immune system and clearance of apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1972
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The properties of the high affinity Ca membrane binding sites are consistent with the assumption that site I corresponds to the site at which Ca initiates an increase in K permeability in resealed red cell ghosts. (springer.com)
  • Gene transfer into mouse lyoma cells by electroporation in high electric fields, EMBO J 7:841-845 Drury L (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • This high permeability contributes to the rapid repolarization of the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • The T wave is referred to as the repolarization period of the ventricles because it represents the period in which the cardiac muscle cells of the heart can relax and prepare for the next contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • integrity
  • Excess copper causes a decline in the membrane integrity of microbes, leading to leakage of specific essential cell nutrients, such as potassium and glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are formed in the aerial hyphae (spore bearing structures) of the prokaryotic soil bacteria Streptomyces, where they are thought to minimise water loss across the membrane to the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Mature vasculature contains an endothelial cell lining with a surrounding sheath of pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling drives angiogenesis and recruitment of perivascular cells to surround the newly formed blood vessels [ 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) coordinates pericyte coverage of vascular sprouts through PDGF-R β on vascular smooth muscle cells [ 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • showed that, in addition to stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, VEGF also inhibits neovascularization via its capacity to disrupt vascular smooth muscle cell function [ 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 , 4 RPE cell loss might originate from several mechanisms, including photooxidative stress, 5 vascular alterations, 6 , 7 and deposition of toxic lipofuscin material under RPE. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purity and large blood vessel permeability, elasticity and integrity of the vascular walls - is the health and viability of the whole organism. (newpharmacy.org)
  • The main active ingredients of peptide complex to make veins vessels peptides that regulate the operation of all vascular cells. (newpharmacy.org)
  • It also regulates angiogenic factors and vascular permeability after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, and regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after intracerebral hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology process of mutation, cell fusion, or genetic modification introduction of a polynucleotide molecule into or rearrangement of nucleic acid within a microorganism (e.g., bacteria, protozoa, bacteriophage, etc. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • In many organisms including Xenopus and Drosophila, the mid-blastula transition usually occurs after a particular number of cell divisions for a given species, and is defined by the ending of the synchronous cell division cycles of the early blastula development, and the lengthening of the cell cycles by the addition of the G1 and G2 phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this transition, cleavage occurs with only the synthesis and mitosis phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • 2. A cell nucleus: a spheroid body within a cell, consisting of a number of characteristic organelles visible with the optical microscope, a thin nuclear membrane, a nucleolus or nucleoli, irregular granules of chromatin and linin, and a diffuse nucleoplasm. (ndif.org)
  • AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In epithelial cells, the nuclear localization and proapoptotic function of EndoG leads it to play a role in cell senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • 2. A blood cell progenitor , or mother cell , having the capacity for both replication and differentiation , and giving rise to various morphologically recognizable precursors of different blood cell lines, such as the proerythrocyte and myeloblast , which cannot self-replicate and must differentiate into more mature daughter cells . (ndif.org)
  • organelles
  • it consists of a continuous aqueous solution and the organelles and inclusions suspended in it, and is the site of most of the chemical activities of the cell. (ndif.org)
  • undergoes
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • 1 , 2 These compounds cannot be readily metabolized and have negative effects on RPE cell function and viability. (arvojournals.org)
  • Then, an issue arises in how to transport such compounds across the inner membrane and into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • luciferase
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that this region may mediate an interaction between LBP and luciferase or their association with the vacuolar membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are a field which, though controversial, have tremendous potential for treating disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • In Xenopus, blastomeres behave as pluripotent stem cells which can migrate down several pathways, depending on cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being formed at the base, the new cells migrate upwards and out of the crypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Gene expression can be stably altered through epigenetic changes which not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to "memorize" these encounters once the stimulus is removed. (jove.com)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • stem cell - 1. (ndif.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renewal relies on proliferative cells (stem cells) that reside at the crypt base of the intestinal glands (epithelial invasions into the underlying connective tissue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Six different cell types are produced by the stem cells that reside at the base of the crypts. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • Some examples also contain stretches of basic amino acids, or stretches of aromatic amino acids thought to reside in the interfacial region of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • The white material is made up of debris, fibrin, and desquamated epithelium that has been invaded by yeast cells and hyphae that invade to the depth of the stratum spinosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that forms the luminal surface or lining of both the small and large intestine (colon) of the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some diseases and conditions are caused by dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium, and some diseases and conditions cause problems with these cells, which then leads to further complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, the total number of cells making up the intestinal epithelium remains constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • channels
  • Ca 2+ sparks are the elementary units of Ca 2+ signaling in the striated muscle fibers that appear as highly localized Ca 2+ release events mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca 2+ release channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. (jove.com)
  • Ca2+-activated K+ channels that open in response to the influx of Ca2+ during the action potential carry much of the K+ current as the membrane potential becomes more negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • N. Gu, K. Vervaeke, H. Hu, and J.F. Storm, Kv7/KCNQ/M and HCN/h, but not KCa2/SK channels, contribute to the somatic medium afterhyperpolarization and excitability control in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, Journal of Physiology 566:689-715 (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hille, Bertil (2001) Ion channels of excitable membranes, 3rd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • 3. A group of nerve cells ordinarily located within the central nervous system and bearing a direct relationship to the fibers of a particular nerve. (ndif.org)
  • tissues
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • By manipulating the cell signals during the blastula stage of development, various tissues can be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • He has also pioneered studies in leukocyte activation (via C5a, immune complexes, etc.), the role of salicylates and corticosteroids in cell signalling and adhesion (MAP kinases, erk 1-2, MEK, NFKappaB). (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. (jove.com)
  • Urine samples from healthy control subjects ( n = 50) and type 2 diabetic patients ( n = 100) were collected and tested for excretion of CML and the presence of proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry in diabetic rat kidneys and a human diabetic kidney confirmed strong expression of NF-κB in tubular cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • release
  • In addition transcriptional activity and IL-6 release from transfected cells could be inhibited by overexpression of the NF-κB-specific inhibitor κBα. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • blood
  • Blood flow, assuming that the drug is transported mainly by blood, as is often the case, is then the limiting factor to distribution in the various cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise without prior pseudomembranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • allows
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the benefits of using a secreted reporter molecule like MetLuc is its no-lysis protocol that allows one to be able to conduct live cell assays and multiple assays on the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Weissmann next worked at the Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge England, studying cell biology under Dame Honor B. Fell to 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • negative
  • Five of eight NF-κBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-κB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • injury
  • Tubular cells are are not only affected secondary to glomerular injury but are also primary targets for pathological influences in diabetes ( 1 - 4 , 8 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)