• hydrophobic
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their theory was also incorrect in that it ascribed the barrier properties of the membrane to electrostatic repulsion from the protein layer rather than the energetic cost of crossing the hydrophobic core. (wikipedia.org)
  • electroporation
  • Irreversible electroporation (IRE or NTIRE for non-thermal irreversible electroporation) is a soft tissue ablation technique using ultra short but strong electrical fields to create permanent and hence lethal nanopores in the cell membrane, to disrupt the cellular homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two kinds of damage can occur: Reversible electroporation (RE): Temporary and limited pathways for molecular transport via nanopores are formed, but after the end of the electric pulse, the transport ceases and the cells remain viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) are functionally similar to AFCs, the difference being AAEMFCs employ a solid polymer electrolyte while AFCs use aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrochemical reactions when hydrogen is the fuel At Anode: H2 + 2OH− → 2H2O + 2e− At cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4e− → 4OH− Electrochemical reactions when methanol is the fuel At anode: CH3OH + 6OH− → CO2 + 5H2O + 6e- At cathode: 3/2O2 + 3H2O + 6e− → 6OH− The alkaline fuel cell used by NASA in 1960s for Apollo and Space Shuttle program generated electricity at nearly 70% efficiency using aqueous solution of KOH as an electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Natural cells use enzymes to catalyze the biochemical reactions that manufacture their membranes from thioester precursors, but in this case Devaraj's team was able to get membranes to assemble spontaneously, without enzymes, through a process called native chemical ligation. (ucsd.edu)
  • fluid mosai
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model, it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the numerous models that have been developed to describe the deformation of cell membranes, a widely accepted model is the fluid mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicolson in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • A major cellular manifestation of motor neuron disease is the inability of nerve cells to stimulate the opening of channels through the membranes of muscle cells, which would result in normal muscle function. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Within the cytosol , membrane-enclosed organelles such as the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have distinctive positions which isolate these organelles from other cellular units. (brainmass.com)
  • In terms of support, the rigidity of the cell wall maintains cellular integrity because without this wall, the cell would collapse under the pressure. (brainmass.com)
  • 2) What characteristics of beets make them useful as experimental models for studying cellular membranes? (brainmass.com)
  • The cell membrane is the only cellular structure that is found in all of the cells of all of the organisms on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of challenges in the investigation is to elucidate how faulty genes that are ubiquitously expressed and are involved in basic cellular functions, such as sphingolipid metabolism, maintenance of organellar integrity, membrane dynamics, and transcription regulation, affect specific populations of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • The length and properties of the fatty-acid components of phospholipids determine the fluidity of the cell membrane. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, often called essential fats, are necessary for the formation of healthy cell membranes. (articlealley.com)
  • Rather than being made up of phospholipids, however, early membranes may have formed from monolayers or bilayers of fatty acids, which may have formed more readily in a prebiotic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron
  • Firstly, the role of multi-domain cell surface proteins involved in cell recognition and secondly, the components of the electron-transport chain and its relation to energy transduction including an introduction to Mitchell's chemi-osmotic hypothesis. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • A more direct investigation of the membrane was made possible through the use of electron microscopy in the late 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • Neal Devaraj, a chemistry and biochemistry professor at UC San Diego, leads a research team that develops and explores new reactions that can trigger the formation of membranes, particularly the spheres that characterize membranes that enclose vesicles and cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Self-assembled vesicles are essential components of primitive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These receptors are increased in number on luminal side by fusion of tubulovesicles during activation of parietal cells and removed during deactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal cells secrete acid in response to three types of stimuli: Histamine, stimulates H2 histamine receptors (most significant contribution). (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are present on basolateral side of membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • protons
  • This oxidation half-cell reaction or hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is represented by: At the anode: The newly formed protons permeate through the polymer electrolyte membrane to the cathode side. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction half-cell reaction or oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is represented by: At the cathode: Overall reaction: The reversible reaction is expressed in the equation and shows the reincorporation of the hydrogen protons and electrons together with the oxygen molecule and the formation of one water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • They drive the hyperpolarization of the cell membrane by secreting protons in presence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the pH naturally neutralizes within the liposome (protons can pass through some membranes), the drug will also be neutralized, allowing it to freely pass through a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell's
  • The electroinsertion process involves exposing red blood cells to a pulsed electrical field, thereby enabling the CD4 to be incorporated into the red blood cell's membrane to form RBC-CD4 which acts as a sponge absorbing free-floating HIV and forming aggregates with HIV-infected cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cathode
  • The electrons travel along an external load circuit to the cathode side of the MEA, thus creating the current output of the fuel cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the membrane must be resistant to the reducing environment at the cathode as well as the harsh oxidative environment at the anode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water management is a very difficult subject in PEM systems, primarily because water in the membrane is attracted toward the cathode of the cell through polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, methanol crossover from anode to cathode is reduced in AAEMFCs compared to PEMFCs, due to the opposite direction of ion transport in the membrane, from cathode to anode. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • He and colleagues recently reported a breakthrough that promises to bring down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells by replacing expensive platinum catalysts with cheaper ones made from metals like nickel. (udel.edu)
  • The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a concentration gradient of about 3 million to 1, which is the steepest ion gradient formed in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • Our goal is to develop a process to easily synthesize the polymer at scale, creating large area membranes for testing that are thinner than human hair. (udel.edu)
  • skeleton
  • These results identify the Rh/RhAG-ankyrin complex as a new interaction site between the red cell membrane and the spectrin‐based skeleton, the disruption of which might result in the stomato‐spherocytosis typical of Rh null red cells. (els.net)
  • Thus the free energy density can be expressed as the invariant form of 2 H {\displaystyle 2H} , K {\displaystyle K} , t r ( ε ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {tr} (\varepsilon )} and det ( ε ) {\displaystyle \det(\varepsilon )} : where ε {\displaystyle \varepsilon } is the in-plane strain of the membrane skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • and (2) subsequently contacting the cell surface with a composition comprising a second member of the binding pair selected from the group consisting of avidin or streptavidin linked to a death ligand selected from the group consisting of Fas ligand (FasL), and the extracellular portion of Fas ligand to form a decorated cell surface, wherein the decorated cell surface is capable of inducing apoptosis. (google.com)
  • Traube had no direct evidence for the composition of this film, though, and incorrectly asserted that it was formed by an interfacial reaction of the cell protoplasm with the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • These form extracellular, cytoplasmic and helix alpha transmembrane domains, as are multi-pass membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • Boman HG (1991), "Antibacterial peptides: key components needed in immunity", Cell, 65 (2): 205-207, doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90154-Q, PMID 2015623. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythrocyte
  • Brugnara C (2003) Sickle cell disease: from membrane pathophysiology to novel therapies for prevention of erythrocyte dehydration. (els.net)
  • 1987) Modulation of erythrocyte membrane mechanical stability by 2,3‐diphosphoglycerate in the neonatal poikilocytosis/elliptocytosis syndrome. (els.net)
  • By measuring the capacitance of erythrocyte solutions Fricke determined that the cell membrane was 3.3 nm thick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fricke
  • Although the results of this experiment were accurate, Fricke misinterpreted the data to mean that the cell membrane is a single molecular layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemists
  • Chemists and biologists at UC San Diego have succeeded in designing and synthesizing an artificial cell membrane capable of sustaining continual growth, just like a living cell. (phys.org)
  • separates
  • Cell theory has its origins in seventeenth century microscopy observations, but it would be nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory be developed to explain what separates cells from the outside world. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • The new process they have just described is specific and non-toxic, and can be used in the presence of biomolecules one might want to study within artificial cells . (ucsd.edu)
  • Every day all over the world, researchers work with artificial cell membranes. (phys.org)
  • Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Test your knowledge about cell differentiation, cell function and tissue culture. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the persistent modification of cell membranes with exogenous proteins so as to alter the function of the cell to achieve effects similar to those of gene therapy, without the introduction of exogenous DNA. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to the persistent modification of cell membranes so as to alter the function of the cells. (google.com)
  • A useful alteration of cell function is the induction of apoptosis. (google.com)
  • For example, if undesired cells could be induced to alter their behavior to undergo apoptosis while normal cells retain normal function, subjects with a disease caused by proliferation of undesired cells would obtain relief from the disease. (google.com)
  • The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycophorin C has the function of holding band 4.1 to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This insight, they felt, was to cell function what the discovery of the double helix had been to genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffusion
  • PEMFCs are built out of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) which include the electrodes, electrolyte, catalyst, and gas diffusion layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These liposomes work to deliver drug by diffusion rather than by direct cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)