• eukaryotes
  • Gupta, R.S. (1998) Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: A reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in eukaryotes, membrane vesicular trafficking in prokaryotes is an emerging area in interactive biology for intra-species (quorum sensing) and inter-species signaling at host-pathogen interface, as prokaryotes lack internal membrane-compartmentalization of their cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Interestingly all sites bar one are concentrated within surface loops of the protein that most likely interact with host immune response or the surrounding environment. (maynoothuniversity.ie)
  • Tip proteins were also reported to interact with deoxycholate (DOC), a small molecule component of bile acids. (ku.edu)
  • infection
  • In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Our findings could be used to develop drugs that would disrupt the Staphylococcal iron uptake systems,' said co-author Eric Skaar, PhD, research associate in molecular genetics and cell biology at the University, 'which could, in turn, prevent infection. (uchospitals.edu)
  • This phenomenon has key role in host-pathogen interactions, endotoxic shock in patients, invasion and infection of animals/plants, inter-species bacterial competition, quorum sensing, exocytosis, etc. (see External links). (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of OMVs in Helicobacter pylori infection of human primary antral epithelial cells, as model that closely resembles human stomach, has also been confirmed VacA-containing OMVs could also be detected in human gastric mucosa, infected with H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella OMVs were also shown to have direct role in invasion of chicken ileal epithelial cells in vivo in the year, 1993 (ref 4) and later, in hijacking of defense macrophages into sub-service for pathogen replication and consequent apoptosis of infected macrophages in typhoid-like animal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies brought the focus on OMVs into membrane vesicle trafficking and showed this phenomenon as involved in multifarious processes like genetic transformation, quorum sensing, competition arsenal among microbes, etc., and invasion, infection, immuno-modulation, etc., of animal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein disappears from the bacterial surface around 2 weeks after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Furthermore, a C. jejuni wild-type isolate, in contrast to the isogenic CadF mutant, was found to compete with another C. jejuni wild-type isolate for host cell receptors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These toxins recognize protein receptors such as the β2-integrins, form pores at high concentrations, and cause cell rupture by mechanisms not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Membrane proteins which have hydrophobic surfaces, are relatively flexible and are expressed at relatively low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • The type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) functions like a syringe to inject proteins through an external needle and into a target cell's membrane and cytosol. (ku.edu)
  • If this fails too the protein is exported to the cytosol and labelled for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A copy of the sense strand of the large genome segment (6374 bases) is then synthesized (transcription) on the vertices of the capsid, with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, P2, and released into the host cell cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The completed phage progeny remain in the cytosol until sufficient levels of the lytic protein P5 degrade the host cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytosol then bursts forth, disrupting the outer membrane, releasing the phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • genome contains a family of iron-regulated surface determinant ( isd ) genes that encode factors responsible for binding hemoglobin and bringing the iron it contains across the cell wall and into the cell's interior. (uchospitals.edu)
  • pathogens
  • Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. (ku.edu)
  • functional
  • Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a sensitive technique in monitoring functional and conformational states of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),main compounds participating in oxidative phosphorylation in cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Membrane proteins with functional areas on the cytosolic side of both the vesicle and cell membrane make sure the vesicle associates with the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purified Φ6 RdRP displays processive elongation in vitro and self-assembles along with polymerase complex proteins into subviral particles that are fully functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • topology
  • All beta-barrel transmembrane proteins have simplest up-and-down topology, which may reflect their common evolutionary origin and similar folding mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although OmpX has the same beta-sheet topology as the structurally related outer membrane protein A (OmpA) InterPro: IPR000498, their barrels differ with respect to the shear numbers and internal hydrogen-bonding networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • 2000. A bacterial toxin that controls cell cycle progression as a deoxyribonuclease I-like protein. (springer.com)
  • The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The name RTX (repeats in toxin) refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general rtx gene cluster encodes three protein types: the RTX toxin, an RTX activating acyltransferase, and T1SS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is inactive until post-translational modification by the cis-encoded RTX toxin activator, which typically occurs within the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • permeability
  • It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential avenues for the development of resistance to doripenem are: altered PBPs (penicillin-binding protein), reduced activity in the permeability of the outer membrane especially when accepting foreign toxic substances within the cell, and deactivation of the drug by hydrolyzing enzymes from the carbapenem. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • We determined the NMR structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-74, called N1-74) of the Andes hantavirus N protein. (ku.edu)
  • Here, a protein folding and structure prediction model based on the first principle forces (energy gradients) and physical kinetics including the drift and diffusion of residues and/or protein substructures relative to one another, is described. (hindawi.com)
  • A transient expression of HsdM-EGFP in COS-1 cells exhibited exclusively a nuclear localization of the fusion proteins, whereas the fusion proteins of HsdM with substitutions in residues lysine to alanine in the NLS sequences, 7 AAAKAAA 13 , were localized in the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • The structure shows two girdles of aromatic amino acid residues and a ribbon of nonpolar residues that attach to the membrane interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is highly soluble, contains a large number of Lys and Glu residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • prediction
  • This work introduces an ab initio physical drift and diffusion-based protein structure prediction simulation that runs on a desktop PC. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, many protein folding simulations such as molecular dynamics (MD) require large amounts of CPU time for protein structure folding and/or prediction and require templates (or homologs) for initiation [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several methods to assess the performance of protein structure prediction have evolved. (hindawi.com)
  • Another is the (CASP) Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction competition [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, these principles are applied to the protein folding dynamic and the protein structure prediction. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to this difficulty and the importance of this class of proteins methods of protein structure prediction based on hydropathy plots, the positive inside rule and other methods have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • Plants are a completely new field of study for Chang - his biomedical research lab is known for determining the structure of transporter proteins embedded in the outer membranes of bacterial cells, where they play a role in multidrug resistance. (ucsd.edu)
  • Transporter proteins direct the passage of virtually every molecule across plant cell membranes, including water, nutrients and heavy metals. (ucsd.edu)
  • The CROPS team will provide transformative resources for the entire plant research community by producing purified plant transporters on a large-scale and generating antibodies that target transporter proteins. (ucsd.edu)
  • translocon
  • At the tip of the needle, a tip complex is assembled by tip proteins into a ring-like structure which serves as a platform for the assembly of the translocon by translocator proteins. (ku.edu)
  • GspD is transported into the periplasm via the Sec translocon and is then inserted into the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it arrives at the ER, the signal sequence is transferred to the translocon, a protein-conducting channel in the membrane that allows the newly synthesized polypeptide to be translocated to the ER lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Both NADH and FAD play key roles in the conversion of energy from acetyl CoA, derived from food molecules, to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important molecule for capturing free energy in cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • passenger domain
  • Once the membrane anchor has been inserted into the outer membrane, the passenger domain passes through it into the host extracellular environment autonomously, hence the description of autotransporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YadA C-terminal domain has a particular function in translocating the trimeric N-terminal passenger domain to the exterior of the membrane and is also responsible for trimerisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • anchor
  • Type I transmembrane proteins are anchored to the lipid membrane with a stop-transfer anchor sequence and have their N-terminal domains targeted to the ER lumen during synthesis (and the extracellular space, if mature forms are located on plasmalemma). (wikipedia.org)
  • When observed with electron microscopy, the structure has been described as a "lollipop" shape consisting of an N-terminal head domain, a stalk domain, and a C-terminal membrane anchor domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although all TAAs carry a membrane anchor in common, they may not all contain both a stalk and a head as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, all membrane anchor domains are of the left-handed parallel beta-roll type. (wikipedia.org)
  • made of a short C-terminal membrane anchor, an 18 nm long coiled-coil stem and a 5 nm long N-terminal globular head structure consisting of a left-handed parallel beta roll. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimerization is thought to involve the coiled-coil stem and the C-terminal membrane anchor, which forms a 12-strand beta-barrelfrom the four transmembrane beta-strands of the three monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • They exert both cell type- and species-specific effects (e.g., the leukotoxin of M. haemolytica interacts only with alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes of ruminants and is believed to promote bacterial proliferation by killing or incapacitating these cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • This sequence is recognised by a cytosolic protein, SRP (Signal Recognition Particle), which stops the translation and aids in the transport of the mRNA-ribosome complex to an SRP receptor found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)