• lipids
  • It is a sophisticated system comprising epithelial barriers, white blood cells, various peptides and proteins including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as well as lipids and other chemicals, such as reactive oxygen species [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, fungal membranes contain mostly zwitterionic lipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine), but also ergosterol, whereas bacterial membranes comprise various acidic phospholipids (phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin), which confer a negative charge facilitating AMP binding and sometimes also defect formation [ 13 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The composition of the ECM varies depending on the organisms within the biofilm, but in general it includes microbial-derived complex polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1895, Ernest Overton proposed that cell membranes were made of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • promote bacterial
  • They exert both cell type- and species-specific effects (e.g., the leukotoxin of M. haemolytica interacts only with alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes of ruminants and is believed to promote bacterial proliferation by killing or incapacitating these cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Membrane proteins which have hydrophobic surfaces, are relatively flexible and are expressed at relatively low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biogenesis of the outer membrane requires that the individual components are transported from the site of synthesis to their final destination outside the inner membrane by crossing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Furthermore, a C. jejuni wild-type isolate, in contrast to the isogenic CadF mutant, was found to compete with another C. jejuni wild-type isolate for host cell receptors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These toxins recognize protein receptors such as the β2-integrins, form pores at high concentrations, and cause cell rupture by mechanisms not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • pore
  • The C-terminal domain helps to build the beta barrel pore in the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This beta-barrel would form a pore-like structure through which the N-terminal head and coiled helical domains of the three monomer chains exit to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pore-formation is the only known shared function in RTX cytotoxins, and pores are typically cation-selective allowing for an influx of Ca2+ in target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RTX-toxin family (TC# 1.C.11) (subfamily of RTX-toxin superfamily) is a large family of multidomain Gram-negative bacterial pore-forming exotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three transmembrane domains are believed to be involved in pore formation which in the E. coli HlyA protein (TC# 1.C.11.1.3) are at residues 299-319, 361-381 and 383-403. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Type I transmembrane proteins are anchored to the lipid membrane with a stop-transfer anchor sequence and have their N-terminal domains targeted to the ER lumen during synthesis (and the extracellular space, if mature forms are located on plasmalemma). (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of Campylobacter jejuni to fibronectin (Fn), a component of the extracellular matrix, is mediated by a 37 kDa outer-membrane protein termed CadF for C ampylobacter ad hesion to f ibronectin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Once the membrane anchor has been inserted into the outer membrane, the passenger domain passes through it into the host extracellular environment autonomously, hence the description of autotransporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function: The function of this protein domain is to bind to the extracellular matrix of the host, most notably fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OmpX structure shows that the membrane-spanning part of the protein is much better conserved than the extracellular loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm formation
  • In this review, we summarize current knowledge about bacterial responses to sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics and the related implications of biofilm formation and clinical consequences. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial biofilm formation and maturation consist of reversible and irreversible stages and include several conserved and/or species-specific bacterial factors [ 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Attachment further allows more interactions and increase of biofilm formation to aid bacterial colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Studies targeting paxillin, a focal adhesion signalling molecule, identified an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation upon C. jejuni infection of INT 407 cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The function is to promote their pathogenicity and virulence in host cells, though cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially, the main function of the YadA domain is to help cell adhesion and to increase virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suggested that this type of binding promotes cell adhesion and invasion and helps defend against the complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • attachment
  • It contains a number of proteins involved in the structural organization of the nucleus and the attachment of chromatin to the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The head domain is very important for attachment to the host cell and for autoagglutination, sticking to itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Φ6 typically attaches to the Type IV pilus of P. syringae with its attachment protein, P3. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • If this fails too the protein is exported to the cytosol and labelled for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A copy of the sense strand of the large genome segment (6374 bases) is then synthesized (transcription) on the vertices of the capsid, with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, P2, and released into the host cell cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The completed phage progeny remain in the cytosol until sufficient levels of the lytic protein P5 degrade the host cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytosol then bursts forth, disrupting the outer membrane, releasing the phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutes
  • 600 Da) hydrophillic solutes across bacterial membranes. (kenyon.edu)
  • In addition, it includes solutes such as ions and proteins, which are involved in wide variety of functions ranging from nutrient binding, transport, folding, degradation, substrate hydrolysis, to peptidoglycan synthesis, electron transport, and alteration of substances toxic to the cell (xenobiotic metabolism). (wikipedia.org)
  • fungal
  • Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • Binding of a D5-derived peptide, HKH20 (His 479 -His 498 ), to the fungal cell membrane was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacterial, fungal, and mammalian cell surfaces have structural differences which may explain a certain degree of selectivity for AMP action. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, glucan, chitin, mannoprotein, and a blend of other cell wall proteins and polysaccharides contribute to a negative surface potential of fungal surfaces. (hindawi.com)
  • pathogens
  • The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. (ku.edu)
  • passenger domain
  • The YadA C-terminal domain has a particular function in translocating the trimeric N-terminal passenger domain to the exterior of the membrane and is also responsible for trimerisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterologous protein is inserted at the passenger domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • topology
  • All beta-barrel transmembrane proteins have simplest up-and-down topology, which may reflect their common evolutionary origin and similar folding mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although OmpX has the same beta-sheet topology as the structurally related outer membrane protein A (OmpA) InterPro: IPR000498, their barrels differ with respect to the shear numbers and internal hydrogen-bonding networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • permeability
  • It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential avenues for the development of resistance to doripenem are: altered PBPs (penicillin-binding protein), reduced activity in the permeability of the outer membrane especially when accepting foreign toxic substances within the cell, and deactivation of the drug by hydrolyzing enzymes from the carbapenem. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Refolding of α-helical transmembrane proteins in vitro is technically difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although endothelial cells are the main target cell type for SFG Rickettsia , R. conorii can attach to and invade different cell types in vitro and in vivo and spread via lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes or via the bloodstream to various tissues ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The purified Φ6 RdRP displays processive elongation in vitro and self-assembles along with polymerase complex proteins into subviral particles that are fully functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Furthermore, soluble Sca2 protein is capable of diminishing R. conorii invasion of cultured mammalian cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This phenomenon has key role in host-pathogen interactions, endotoxic shock in patients, invasion and infection of animals/plants, inter-species bacterial competition, quorum sensing, exocytosis, etc. (see External links). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their role in invasion of animal host cells in vivo was then demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella OMVs were also shown to have direct role in invasion of chicken ileal epithelial cells in vivo in the year, 1993 (ref 4) and later, in hijacking of defense macrophages into sub-service for pathogen replication and consequent apoptosis of infected macrophages in typhoid-like animal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies brought the focus on OMVs into membrane vesicle trafficking and showed this phenomenon as involved in multifarious processes like genetic transformation, quorum sensing, competition arsenal among microbes, etc., and invasion, infection, immuno-modulation, etc., of animal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Over the past 40 years, the field has accumulated abundant evidence to support the concept that bacterial biofilms are important during the pathogenesis of infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been suggested that lysogeny may generally have a role in bacterial survival in animal hosts, and perhaps in pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)