Loading...



  • types
  • Subsequently, particular cell types within the mesoderm are specified along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we present evidence from genetic analysis suggesting that, before stage 10 of embryogenesis, gonadal mesoderm and the fat body have not yet been specified as different cell types, but exist as a common pool of precursor cells requiring the functions of the tin, zfh-1 and cli genes for their development. (biologists.org)
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell may give rise to any of the different types of terminally differentiated blood cells. (google.es)
  • gene
  • These studies demonstrate that evolutionarily distant organisms utilize conserved factors to regulate early germ cell development and survival, and that these factors include members of the nanos and pumilio gene families. (biologists.org)
  • maintain
  • nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. (biologists.org)
  • embryo
  • At the time of implantation, the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and trophectoderm (TE). (springer.com)
  • Arnold SJ, Robertson EJ (2009) Making a commitment: cell lineage allocation and axis patterning in the early mouse embryo. (springer.com)
  • Bruce AW, Zernicka-Goetz M (2010) Developmental control of the early mammalian embryo: competition among heterogeneous cells that biases cell fate. (springer.com)
  • In the preimplantation mouse embryo, TEAD4 is critical to establishing the trophectoderm (TE)-specific transcriptional program and segregating TE from the inner cell mass (ICM). (pnas.org)
  • Cell lineage denotes the developmental history of a tissue or organ from the fertilized embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryo begins as a yolk with a single enormous cell on top (see image, 0 h panel), which divides into two (0.75 h panel) and continues dividing until there are thousands of small cells (3.25 h panel). (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiboly in zebrafish is the first coordinated cell movement, and begins once the embryo has completed the blastula stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point the zebrafish embryo contains three portions, an epithelial monolayer known as the enveloping layer (EVL), a yolk syncytial layer (YSL) which is a membrane-enclosed group of nuclei that lie on top of the yolk cell, and the deep cells (DEL) of the blastoderm which will eventually form the embryo's three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastoderm begins to thin as it spreads toward the vegetal pole of the embryo until it has completely engulfed the yolk cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early divisions within the leech embryo result in teloblast cells, which are stem cells that divide asymmetrically to create bandlets of blast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the number of segments within the embryo is defined by the number of divisions and blast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the cells were effectively labeled, the agar chip could be removed and the embryo was allowed to develop normally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although innovative for the time, this technique is limiting in that the size of a chip of agar may not accommodate single-cell resolution studies at later stages of development, since successive cell divisions will yield smaller cells (until the embryo develops into a larval form that can eat, and thereby grow larger). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cell or cell population of interest must be superficial, since the agar chip with the dye must be placed on the surface of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • They later received the 2002 Nobel prize for their work in genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the most popular method of cell fate mapping in the genetic era is through site-specific recombination mediated by the Cre-Lox or FLP-FRT systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the system, researchers could investigate the function of their favorite gene in determining cell fate by designing a genetic model where within a cell one recombination event is designed for manipulating the gene of interest and the other recombination event is designed for activating a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, researchers have begun using synthetic biology approaches and the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer new genetic systems that enable cells to autonomously record lineage information in their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic cell lineage tracing became an extremely powerful approach when Nat Sternberg and Daniel Hamilton identified a topoisomerase in P1 bacteriophage called Cre recombinase, which has site-specific (loxP site) recombination activity (1981). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several groups of collaborating computational biologists (Regev & Koller) used the data to reverse-engineer the genetic regulatory network in immune cells, and compare it to the human immune system An initial survey of differential splicing across immune lineages was carried out using both microarrays and RNA-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Our lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells, to reconstruct cell lineage trees among cells of multi-cellular organisms and applied it to various questions of biological and medical importance. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be attempted by applying algorithms and techniques of population genetics to somatic mutations accumulated during cell division. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We used extensive measurements of somatic mutations in individual single cells isolated from different healthy and diseased tissues from mice and humans. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofiber that were cultured at clonal density. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We analyze acquired somatic mutations to reconstruct lineage trees of hundreds of oocytes and other cells, sampled from mismatch-repair deficient mice at various ages. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In the current study, a high-throughput method that utilizes neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and somatic cell numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, for instance, they provided evidence that male courtship behavior originates in the brain, that males can distinguish conspecific females from males by the scent of the posterior, dorsal, integument of females, that the germ cells originate in the posterior-most region of the blastoderm, and that somatic components of the gonads originate in the mesodermal region of the fourth and fifth abdominal segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • fates
  • For a typical uncommitted cell, the fates that its progeny actually adopt in vivo may be only a slice of the uncommitted cell's full potential, because environmental conditions are limiting. (jimmunol.org)
  • Normally, developmental potentials of two populations are compared by testing cells under uniform conditions that are clearly permissive for the fates being assayed. (jimmunol.org)
  • These more variable cell fates are thought to be due to the cells' interaction with the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disadvantage of this technique was that observation of single points in developmental time provide only snapshots of what cell movements are actually occurring and what fates are being assigned. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Oncogenic cells often regress to an earlier developmental state, and the mechanisms of this process are under study. (qiagen.com)
  • Multipotent hematopoietic cells gain access to the T cell developmental pathway and then confirm that choice of fate by "burning their bridges" to other pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • In developmental biology, fate mapping is a method of understanding the embryonic origin of various tissues in the adult organism by establishing the correspondence between individual cells (or groups of cells) at one stage of development, and their progeny at later stages of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seth Blair, also in Stent's lab, introduced a novel ablation technique that could be used in tandem with lineage tracing to pursue the questions relating to developmental potential changes in cell fate in experimentally perturbed embryos that were first raised by Roux and Driesch (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • A developmental network theory of how gynandromorphs develop from a single cell based on internetwork links between parental allelic chromosomes is given in. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. (genome.jp)
  • The compendium of microarray data currently include over 250 immunologically relevant cell types, from all lymphoid organs and other tissues which are monitored by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen) is a collaborative scientific research project that is currently building a gene-expression database for all characterized immune cells in the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first aim of ImmGen is to generate a compendium of whole-genome transcriptional profiles (initially by microarray, now mostly by RNA-sequencing) for nearly all characterized cell populations of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the mouse, at major stages of differentiation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Immunological Genome Project: networks of gene expression in immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, MS channels have been found in cells from bacteria to humans: they are now known to be present in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, incl. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell lineage research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • This new assay method using a small number of cells would be of great advantage for clarifying which cells are truly P-HSCs. (labome.org)
  • precursors
  • Precursors undertaking T cell development shed their access to other pathways in a sequential process that begins before entry into the thymus and continues through many cell cycles afterward. (jimmunol.org)
  • Each alternative potential has a different underlying molecular basis that is neutralized and then permanently silenced through different mechanisms in early T cell precursors. (jimmunol.org)
  • When hematopoietic precursors are adoptively transferred i.v., the protocol, in effect, "hands over" to the grafted cells themselves the ultimate choice of the environment into which they will lodge. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1992 ) tek , a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mousechromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. (biologists.org)
  • In the absence of cell-cell interactions, the O/P precursors will become O teloblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In autoimmune disease, a deficiency of regulatory T cell activity can allow other autoimmune cells to attack the body's own tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus found in the peripheral circulation and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM)= occupy tissues (skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, etc..) without recirculating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early embryologists thus had to infer which cells became what tissues at later stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • leech
  • In 1978, David Weisblat and colleagues in Gunther Stent's lab at Berkeley improved the technique of single-cell resolution fate mapping by injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme, and later fluorescent peptides (1980), into individual cells in Helobdella triserialis (leech) embryos during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The choice is mediated by adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors on the cells that can bias migration to particular microenvironments, and these "traffic control" molecules are themselves developmentally regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings suggest that neural cell adhesion molecules expressed on FMS/PA6-P cells play a crucial role in the human hematopoiesis-supporting ability of the cell line. (labome.org)
  • It will also allow us to deliver genes specifically into this cell type in vivo to test specifically molecules that have been implicated in cardiovascular development. (biologists.org)
  • Many other molecules involved in cell-cell contact are implicated in zebrafish epiboly, including G alpha (12/13) which interacts with E-Cadherin and actin, as well as the cell adhesion molecule EpCam in the EVL, which may modulate adhesion with the underlying deep cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of fluorescent peptides such as Rhodamine-D-protein (red, RDP) and Fluorescein-D-protein (yellow/green, FDP) conjugated to large carrier molecules to prevent diffusion through cell gap junctions, alleviated several of the shortcomings of HRP injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • The development of cells within a multi-cellular organism has similarities to the development of populations, and hence is amenable to study using concepts and tools of population genetics. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Subsequently, numerous additional populations of memory T cells were discovered including tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most information is currently based on observations in the cytotoxic T cells (CD8-positive) subset, similar populations appear to exist for both the helper T cells (CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this method, Vogt was able to discern movements of particular cell populations and the ultimate organ or tissue into which they integrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of August 2016, Immgen has profiled more than 250 naive cell populations in the mouse using microarrays, and several dozens of activated cell types using RNA-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitors
  • We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • mechanisms
  • Though still poorly understood, our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying this lineage allocation will be discussed. (springer.com)
  • development
  • The Human Cell Differentiation & Development miScript miRNA PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 miRNAs differentially expressed during cellular differentiation and organism development. (qiagen.com)
  • Avilion AA, Nicolis SK, Pevny LH, Perez L, Vivian N, Lovell-Badge R (2003) Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function. (springer.com)
  • Vascular endothelial cells play essential roles in the function and development of the cardiovascular system. (biologists.org)
  • 1925 ) The development of adventitial (Rouget) cells on the blood capillaries of amphibian larvae. (biologists.org)
  • Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. (mdpi.com)
  • Yutzey, K.E. Transcriptional Control of Cell Lineage Development in Epicardium-Derived Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • A member of the FOX protein family, FOXP3 appears to function as a master regulator of the regulatory pathway in the development and function of regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, the N and Q bandlets, which eventually have 64 blast cells each, slide past the O,P,and M bandlet, which only have 32 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilateral gynandromorphy arises very early in development, typically when the organism has between 8 and 64 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to one of the two cells having sex chromosomes that cause male development and the other cell having chromosomes that cause female development. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this happens early in development, then a large portion of the cells are X and a large portion are XYY. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs
  • In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and sense the stress needed for muscular coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • This process involves three levels of regulatory change, in which the cells' intrinsic transcriptional regulatory factors, expression of signaling receptors (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • A true understanding of cell differentiation in the immune system will require a general perspective on the transcriptional profile of each cell type of the adaptive and innate immune systems, and how these profiles evolve through cell differentiation or activation by immunogenic or tolerogenic ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In mice, TCM cells have been shown to confer superior protection against viruses, bacteria, and cancer in several different model systems compared with TEM cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • Comparisons of epiboly in amniotes, teleosts and X. laevis show that the key movement of epiboly in the fish and frog is radial intercalation while in amniotes it would appear to be cell division in the plane of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helobdella triserialis), the provisional epithelium covering the cells plays a role in inducing the O fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • yolk
  • The cells then migrate down the sides of the yolk (8 h panel) and begin forming a head and tail (16 h panel). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once epiboly is complete, the DEL, EVL, and YSL have engulfed the yolk cell, forming a closure known as the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ring-like structures of filamentous actin have been observed at the leading edge of the enveloping layer, where it contacts the yolk cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vogt used small chips of agar impregnated with a vital dye, (such as Nile Blue or Nile Red) which he placed on a particular cell or population of cells in Xenopus embryos until the dye absorbed into the yolk platelets within the desired cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • Moreover, deletion analysis of this promoter region in transgenic embryos revealed multiple elements that are required for the maximum endothelial cell lineage-specific expression. (biologists.org)
  • organisms
  • These approaches promise to provide more comprehensive analysis of lineage relationships in model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • All organisms, and apparently all cell types, sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • zebrafish
  • Additionally, zebrafish embryos that fail to make a fully differentiated EVL show defects in epibolic movements of the DEL, EVL, and YSL, suggesting a requirement for a normal EVL for the epiboly of all three cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Ikenishi K, Nishiumi F, Komiya T. The Xdsg protein in presumptive primordial germ cells (pPGCs) is essential to their differentiation into PGCs in Xenopus. (labome.org)
  • epithelial
  • We have developed a method for single cell extraction of epithelial cells from single intestinal crypts using a modification of the crypt isolation technique. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • progeny
  • Signals from the surrounding cells act to specify which fate the teloblasts and their progeny take on. (wikipedia.org)
  • All progeny of the injected cells could later be discerned by staining for HRP using benzidine substrate or visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorescent tracers could also be combined with nuclear Hoechst staining to visualize the mitotic status of the progeny of injected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • divisions
  • We discovered that in the reconstructed lineage trees oocytes cluster distinctly from cells of bone marrow origin, show no lineage barrier between ovaries and increase in depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote) with mouse age, an increase accelerated after unilateral ovariectomy. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • absent sperm, growth stops after the first few cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChIP
  • For instance, in Figure 1, Nile Blue staining of a 32-cell blastula at the dorsal side of the animal pole yields a blue-stained brain and (depending on the size of the agar chip) may also stain the anterior portion of the notochord. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic
  • Interferon-alpha and interleukin-12 are induced differentially by Toll-like receptor 7 ligands in human blood dendritic cell subsets. (labome.org)
  • helper
  • CD4+ (helper) T cells co-ordinate the immune response (they are what becomes defective in an HIV infection). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the use of regulatory T cells in therapy may be risky, as the T regulatory cell transferred to the patient may change into T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather than regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The process involves a continuing dialogue between the differentiating cell and the signals coming from its environment. (jimmunol.org)
  • These can be revealed if the cells are removed from the thymic environment and challenged with different environmental signals. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is a powerful molecular tool that will enable us to identify factors and cellular signals essential for the establishment of vascular endothelial cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • types
  • Subsequently, particular cell types within the mesoderm are specified along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we present evidence from genetic analysis suggesting that, before stage 10 of embryogenesis, gonadal mesoderm and the fat body have not yet been specified as different cell types, but exist as a common pool of precursor cells requiring the functions of the tin, zfh-1 and cli genes for their development. (biologists.org)
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell may give rise to any of the different types of terminally differentiated blood cells. (google.es)
  • gene
  • These studies demonstrate that evolutionarily distant organisms utilize conserved factors to regulate early germ cell development and survival, and that these factors include members of the nanos and pumilio gene families. (biologists.org)
  • maintain
  • nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. (biologists.org)
  • Proc Nat
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:2010 †Leavenworth JW, †Wang X, Wenander CS, Spee P, Cantor H. Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through mobilization of CD8+ regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:8506-8510 (1988) v-cbl, a new oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induced early B-lineage lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1168-1172 (1989) Transformation of murine bone marrow cells with a raf/myc retrovirus yields clonally related mature B cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, HERV-K reinfected germ lineage cells of Neandertals and Denisovans multiple times, and these events occurred around the time of or subsequent to the divergence of the archaic hominin lineages from that leading to modern humans. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the best feature of the data lineage view would be to be able to simplify the view by temporarily masking unwanted peripheral data points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, data lineage can be broadly divided into three categories based on the way metadata is harvested: data lineage involving software packages for structured data, programming languages, and big data. (wikipedia.org)
  • This galectin is strongly overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and it might participate in the interaction between the H&RS cells with their surrounding cells and might thus play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its consistently associated immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • limbs
  • 7. Little Bangs: Wings and Other Revolutionary Inventions This chapter explains how evolution goes to work within a lineage, specialising arthropod limbs from all being alike to "all of the different implements a humble crayfish carries", with (he writes) more gizmos than a Swiss Army knife. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCR first gets expressed on the surface of T cell precursors that also have two co-receptors on their surface named CD4 and CD8. (openwetware.org)
  • Re-programming by new gene expression is important for the development of the thymocyte precursors of T cells in the thymus and for the response of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs. (openwetware.org)
  • CD3 delta knockout mice have double positive (DP) T cell precursors that express both CD4 and CD8 molecules, whereas knockouts of the other TCR subunits cannot advance to this stage of development. (openwetware.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Andrzej Tarkowski's research laid the groundwork for future advances in cloning, stem cell research, and in vitro fertilization. (the-scientist.com)
  • Significantly increased IL-17 and IFNγ production was observed after stimulation of LN cells from TNFR-Fc-treated mice with collagen or anti-CD3 mAb in vitro, and a trend toward enhanced production of these cytokines was observed even in unstimulated LN cells ( Fig. 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Capen CC. Effects of cyclosporin A on rat osteoblasts (ROS 17/2.8 cells) in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by bovine mammary cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Dexamethasone enhances the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • molecules
  • Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, VCAM-1, various integrins and their receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, these cells can produce a number of pro-inflammatory signalling molecules, especially Il-6 and IL-8, prostanoids and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which may directly affect other cells and also participate in the inflammation enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positioning of the osteoprogenitor cell condensations determines the cell lineage before the signalling molecules can. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • TCR binding to its ligand causes signaling that re-programs the cell by turning on new genes. (openwetware.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the osteoblastic lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55 −/− but not p75 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55 −/− mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. (rupress.org)
  • After onset of arthritis, mice were treated with soluble TNFR-Fc for 10 d and the production of IL-17 and IFNγ by LN cells was determined by ELISA. (rupress.org)
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental production of mice deprived of selected T-cell subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Res 46:6246-6429 (1986) Evolution of B cell lineage lymphomas in mice with a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome MAIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Fibroblast-like synoviocytes that are present in the synovium during rheumatoid artritis display altered phenotype compared to the cells present in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • In lower vertebrates, the formation of ectoderm proceeds via a bipotent intermediate, definitive ectoderm, which differentiates to form the two major ectodermal lineages: surface ectoderm and neurectoderm ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • While SINEs are present in many species of vertebrates and invertebrates, SINEs are often lineage specific, making them useful markers of divergent evolution between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • mammalian
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alexander Friedenstein and his colleagues first identified osteoprogenitor cells in multiple mammalian tissues, before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The inner layer is mainly composed of two cell types, specialized macrophages (macrophage-like synovial cells) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which are important in maintaining the internal joint homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in the endocytosis of cell-surface receptors like the EGF receptor, contributing to its internalization in the absence of EGF stimulus. (uniprot.org)
  • T-cells recognize changes in their environment through a specific T-cell receptor (TCR) protein expressed on their surface. (openwetware.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-ß regulates steady state PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA levels and PTHrP binding in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. (dentisty.org)
  • embryo
  • Osteoprogenitor cells can be identified by their associations with existing bone or cartilage structures, or their placement in the embryo, as the sites for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis are now known. (wikipedia.org)
  • divergence
  • The population divergence of modern humans from the Denisovan/Neanderthal lineage is more recent, between 170,000 and 700,000 years according to a more recent - and much deeper -sequencing of the above Denisovan fossil , so many loci will have persisted at fluctuating frequencies in all three lineages. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Phocids (earless seals) are known to have existed for at least 15 mya, and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae (monk seals) and Phocinae lineages 22 mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Two-dimensional dot plots illustrating the separation of monocytes and granulocytes (and lymphocytes) by their inherent light-scattering properties (forward-angle light scatter versus right-angle light scatter) (left) or the combination of a light-scattering property (right-angle light scatter) and a specific lineage-defining surface antigen (CD14-PE)(right). (asmscience.org)
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Cantor's early studies focused on the development and function of lymphocytes derived from the thymus (T-lymphocytes or T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach depended on the use of antibodies to cell surface glycoproteins or "markers" that might identify specialized subsets of lymphocytes with particular immunologic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • Right) For the same tube, the same populations were visualized on the basis of right-angle light scatter ( y axis) versus the level of cell surface CD33-PE expression ( x axis). (asmscience.org)
  • TNF blockade using TNFR-Fc fusion protein or anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduced arthritis severity but, unexpectedly, expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. (rupress.org)
  • This experimental approach was also used to investigate other lymphocyte populations, including "natural killer" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • This is demonstrated by genetic or virus induced human immunodeficiencies resulting from a lack of T-cells. (openwetware.org)
  • The transposition and recombination of SINEs and other active nuclear elements is thought to be one of the major contributions of genetic diversity between lineages during speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • If the two proteins interact, CFP and YFP come together to generate fluorescence with a unique wavelength, which we measure in live cells. (openwetware.org)
  • We have identified various membrane proteins that interact with CD3delta, but the real trick is to express all of the TCR subunits in yeast cells. (openwetware.org)
  • Unlike fibroblasts, fibroblast-like synoviocytes also secrete unique proteins, that are normally absent in other fibroblast lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • The scope of the data lineage determines the volume of metadata required to represent its data lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, data governance, and data management determines the scope of the data lineage based on their regulations, enterprise data management strategy, data impact, reporting attributes, and critical data elements of the organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rheumatoid
  • Synovial hyperplasia (an increase in cell number) is a typical feature of the autoimmune disease called rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • trace
  • The fact that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited enables genealogical researchers to trace maternal lineage far back in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data lineage provides visibility while greatly simplifying the ability to trace errors back to the root cause in a data analytics process. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • SINE transcription is down-regulated by transcription factors in somatic cells after early development, though stress can cause up-regulation of normally silent SINEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • These cleptoparasitic bees are host generalists and belong to an ancient lineage of parasites that uniquely shares no specificity with any nonparasitic halictine taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma . (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • These 440 base pairs are then compared to the control regions of other individuals (either specific people or subjects in a database) to determine maternal lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the granularity increases it goes up to the data point level where it can provide the details of the data point and its historical behavior, attribute properties, and trends and data quality of the data passed through that specific data point in the data lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Masking feature in the data lineage visualization allows the tools to incorporate all the enrichments that matter for the specific use case. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Even though the final representation of data lineage is provided in one interface but the way the metadata is harvested and exposed to the data lineage graphical user interface could be entirely different. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmablasts secrete more antibodies than B cells, but less than plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological
  • Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like carotenoids and mycosporines represent passive physiological adaptations which enable black fungi to be highly resistant against environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)